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Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: International Questions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Appendix E

International Questions

Thank you for agreeing to meet with us to discuss your approaches to controlling precursor chemicals. We would like to have a conversation about the following questions.

Regulation:

  • Can you provide the general history, terms, and objectives of the provisions in the 2013 regulation and background on the decision to update Append II?
  • How have the regulatory provisions affected the EU MS and how is the regulation being enforced?
  • How does the EU (or EU MS) assess the effectiveness of the regulation?
  • How are chemicals secured within industry? How are theft and losses regulated, reported, and investigated by the EU or EU MS?
  • How much flexibility do EU MS have in establishing measures, e.g., restricting, banning, or requiring license to purchase for specific chemicals?

Voluntary programs and best practices:

  • While developing the 2013 legislation, did you identify any voluntary programs (e.g., training, information sharing, or other private-sector or public-private programs) or best practices that affected the decision to create certain regulatory requirements or decide against others?
  • Have any new voluntary efforts emerged since 2013?
  • How does the EU (or EU MS) assess the effectiveness of voluntary efforts?
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: International Questions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Policy questions:

  • What has been your experience with balancing stakeholder concerns in policy making and working toward harmonization across the EU MS?
  • How do you engage with stakeholders to obtain feedback on implementation?
  • What is the timeline for bringing EU MS into compliance with the regulation?

On behalf of the Committee on Reducing the Threat of IED Attacks by Restricting Access to Chemical Explosive Precursors, we thank you for your assistance with these questions. In addition, if there are any publicly available data or citable documents, relating to the policy making process, implementation, voluntary efforts, assessment, stakeholder engagement, or supply chains that we would be able to use in our report, we would be grateful if you would send them to Camly Tran.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: International Questions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
×
Page 173
Suggested Citation:"Appendix E: International Questions." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2018. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Page 174
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Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are a type of unconventional explosive weapon that can be deployed in a variety of ways, and can cause loss of life, injury, and property damage in both military and civilian environments. Terrorists, violent extremists, and criminals often choose IEDs because the ingredients, components, and instructions required to make IEDs are highly accessible. In many cases, precursor chemicals enable this criminal use of IEDs because they are used in the manufacture of homemade explosives (HMEs), which are often used as a component of IEDs.

Many precursor chemicals are frequently used in industrial manufacturing and may be available as commercial products for personal use. Guides for making HMEs and instructions for constructing IEDs are widely available and can be easily found on the internet. Other countries restrict access to precursor chemicals in an effort to reduce the opportunity for HMEs to be used in IEDs. Although IED attacks have been less frequent in the United States than in other countries, IEDs remain a persistent domestic threat. Restricting access to precursor chemicals might contribute to reducing the threat of IED attacks and in turn prevent potentially devastating bombings, save lives, and reduce financial impacts.

Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals prioritizes precursor chemicals that can be used to make HMEs and analyzes the movement of those chemicals through United States commercial supply chains and identifies potential vulnerabilities. This report examines current United States and international regulation of the chemicals, and compares the economic, security, and other tradeoffs among potential control strategies.

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