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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Page 118
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Page 119
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Page 120
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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Page 121
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24862.
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References 1. UNMAS (United Nations Mine Action Service). 2016. Improvised Explosive Device Lexicon. New York: United Nations. http://www.mineaction.org/sites/default/files/publications/UNMAS%20IED%20Lexicon.pdf (accessed 06/18/2017). 2. NRC (National Research Council). 2007. Countering the Threat of Improvised Explosive Devices: Basic Research Opportunities. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. 3. USBDC (U.S. Bomb Data Center). 2015. Annual Explosives Incident Report. https://www.atf.gov/rules-and- regulations/docs/report/2015usbdcexplosiveincidentreportpdf/download (accessed 9/21/2017). 4. CNN. 2017. Boston marathon terror attack fast facts. CNN Library: March 29, 2017. http://www.cnn.com/2013/06/03/us/boston-marathon-terror-attack-fast-facts/ (accessed 06/18/2017). 5. White House. 2013. Countering Improvised Explosive Devices. February 26, 2013. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/docs/cied_1.pdf (accessed 06/18/2017). 6. Stevens, G.D. 2012. Whole of Government Approach to Countering IEDs: Leveraging Military Capabilities. Institute for National Security and Counterterrorism, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY. http://insct.syr.edu/wp- content/uploads/2013/02/Stevens_Whole-of-Government-Approach.pdf (accessed 06/18/2017). 7. Hallett, H.C. 2011. Coroner's Inquests into the London Bombings of 7 July 2005. H.M. Coroner's Office, London. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20120216072447/http://7julyinquests.independent.gov.uk/docs/orders/rul e43-report.pdf (accessed 06/18/2017). 8. BBC. 2015. Paris attacks: What happened on the night. News: December 9, 2015. http://www.bbc.com/news/world- europe-34818994 (accessed 06/08/2017). 9. BBC. 2016. Brussels explosions: What we know about airport and metro attacks. News: April 9, 3016. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-35869985 (accessed 06/08/2017). 10. BBC. 2017. Manchester arena blast: 19 dead and more than 50 hurt. News: May 23, 2017. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-manchester-40007886 (accessed 06/08/2017). 11. Wulf, D. 2016. Statement of Tasks and Intent of Sponsor. Presentation at the First Meeting on Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Chemical Explosive Precursors, October 26, 2016, Washington, DC. 12. Wilson, C. 2007. Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) in Iraq and Afghanistan: Effects and Countermeasures. Congressional Research Service Report RS22330. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/weapons/RS22330.pdf (accessed 9/22//2017). 13. Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-132, 110 Stat. 1214. 14. NRC. 1998. Containing the Threat from Illegal Bombings: An Integrated National Strategy for Marking, Tagging, Rendering Inert, and Licensing Exposives and Their Precursors. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 15. EC (European Commission). 2010. Summary of the Impact Assessment: Accompanying Document to the Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Marketing and Use of Explosives Precursors. European Commission, Brussels, Belgium. http://ec.europa.eu/smart-regulation/impact/ia_carried_out/docs/ia_2010/sec_2010_1041_en.pdf (accessed 9/22//2017). 16. GAO (U.S. Government Accountability Office). 2012. Combating Terrorism: State Should Enhance Its Performance Measures for Assessing Efforts in Pakistan to Counter Improvised Explosive Devices. GAO-12-614. http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/590869.pdf (accessed 9/22//2017). 17. Gares, K.L., K.T. Hufziger, S.V. Bykov, and S.A. Asher. 2016. Review of explosive detection methodologies and the emergence of standoff deep UV resonance Raman. J. Raman Spectrosc. 47(1):124-141. 18. 6 CFR (Code of Federal Regulation)§ 27. Chemical Facility Anti-Terrorism Standards (2017). 19. DHS (U.S. Department of Homeland Security). 2011. Ammonium nitrate security program; Proposed rule. Fed. Reg. 76(149):46908-46957. 20. Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2007, Pub. L. No. 110-161, 121 Stat. 1844. 21. 6 U.S.C. (U.S. Code) § 488. Definitions (2016). PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS 111

112 Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals 22. Bates, T. 1992. Rads:The 1970 Bombing of the Army Math Research Center at the University of Wisconsin and Its Aftermath. New York: HarperCollinsPublishers. 23. FBI (Federal Bureau of Investigation). 2017. Oklahoma City Bombing. https://www.fbi.gov/history/famous- cases/oklahoma-city-bombing (accessed 06/08/2017). 24. CBS. 2013. A look back at the Norway massacre. News: February 18, 2013. http://www.cbsnews.com/news/a-look- back-at-the-norway-massacre/ (accessed 06/08/2017). 25. U.K. House of Lord Debate: June 12, 1972, vol 331, cols 629-631. 26. Reuters. 2016. Turkey bans sale of some fertilisers after bomb attacks. News: June 9, 2016. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-turkey-security-fertilisers-idUSKCN0YV1MD (accessed 06/15/2017). 27. DHS. 2011. Ammonium nitrate security program. Fed. Reg. 76(195):62311-62312. 28. EU (European Union). 2013. Regulation (EU) No. 98/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of January 15, 2013, on the marketing and use of explosives precursors. O.J. (L 39):1-11. 29. Kunreuther, H. 2017. Conceptual Frameworks for Dealing with Risk. Presentation at the Third Meeting on Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Chemical Explosive Precursors, February 7, 2017, Washington, DC. 30. Kahneman, D. 2011. Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. 31. Sunstein, C.R., and R. Zeckhauser. 2011. Overraction to fearsom risks. Environ. Resour. Econ. 48(3):435-449. 32. DA (U.S. Department of the Army). 2014. Risk Management. Pamphlet 385-30. U.S. Department of the Army, Washington, DC. 33. DA. 2014. Risk Management. ATP 5-19. http://www.benning.army.mil/RangeOps/content/blank_forms/ATP_5- 19RiskManagement_Apr14.pdf (accessed 09/25/2017). 34. Kirk Yeager, FBI, Washington, DC, personal communication, April 19, 2017. 35. Corderoy, J. 2014. Material Harm. London: Action on Armed Violence. https://aoav.org.uk/wp- content/uploads/2015/03/ied_material_lr.pdf (accessed 09/25/2017). 36. Rostberg, J.I. 2005. Common Chemicals as Precursors of Improvised Explosive Devices: The Challenges of Defeating Domestic Terrorism. M.A. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. 37. 27 CFR § 555.26. Prohibited Shipment, Transportation, Receipt, Possession, and Distribution of Explosive Materials (2017). 38. 27 CFR § 555.41. General (2017). 39. Spaaij, R. 2010. The enigma of lone wolf terrorism: An assessment. Stud. Confl. Terror. 33(9):854-870. 40. Hayes, B.C., and I. McAllister. 2005. Public support for political violence and paramilitarism in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. Terror. Polit. Violence 17(4):599-617. 41. Beveridge, A., ed. 2011. Forensic Investigation of Explosions, 2nd Ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 42. Foulger, B., and P. Hubbard. 1996. A review of techniques examined by UK authorities to prevent or inhibit the illegal use of fertiliser in terrorist devices. Pp. 129-133 in Compendium of Papers of the International Explosives Symposium, September 18-22, 1995, Fairfax, VA. Washington, DC: Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms 43. The President. 2011. Executive Order 13563. Improving Regulation and Regulatory Review, January 18, 2011. Fed. Reg.76(14):3821-3823. 44. Vogen, G. 2016. CAN - Supply Chain Overview for NAS Committee. Presentation at the Second Meeting on Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Chemical Explosive Precursors, December 13, 2016, Washington, DC. 45. Johnson, C.M. 2012. U.S. Agencies Face Challenges Countering the Use of Improvised Explosive Devices in the Afghanistan/Pakistan Region. GAO-12-907T.Washington, DC: U.S. Government Accountability Office. http://www.gao.gov/assets/600/592309.pdf (accessed 09/25/2017). 46. Liu, T. 2014. Modeling Continuous IED Supply Chains. M.S. Thesis, Air Force Institute of Technology, Wright- Patterson Air Force Base, OH. 47. Liu, T., and K. Pond. 2016. Modeling and estimating continuous improvised explosive device supply chain behavior. J. Def. Model. Simul. Appl. Methodol. Technol. 13(1):67-75. 48. Conflict Armament Research. 2016. Tracing the Supply of Components Used in Islamic State IEDs: Evidence from a 20-Month Investigation in Iraq and Syria. http://www.conflictarm.com/wp- content/uploads/2016/02/Tracing_The_Supply_of_Components_Used_in_Islamic_State_IEDs.pdf (accessed 09/25/2017). 49. Conflict Armament Research. 2016. Standardisation and Quality Control in Islamic State's Military Production: Weapon Manufacturing in the East Mosul Sector. London: Conflict Armament Research. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

References 113 50. Bevan, J. 2016. Tracing the Supply of Components Used in Islamic State IEDs, Presentation at the Second Meeting on Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Chemical Explosive Precursors, December 13, 2016, Washington, DC. 51. Quihuis, N.R. 2012. Stemming the Flow of Improvised Explosive Device Making Materials through Global Export Control Regimes. M.A. Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA. 52. Vitasek, K. 2013. Supply Chain Management Terms and Glossary. Lombard, IL: Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals. 53. Sheffi, Y. 2005. The Resilient Enterprise: Overcoming Vulnerability for Competative Advantage. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press. 54. Frazelle, E. 2002. Supply Chain Strategy: The Logistics of Supply Chain Mannagement. New York: McGraw-Hill. 55. Anderson, R. 2016. Hydrogen Peroxide and Sodium Chlorate. Presentation at the Second Meeting on Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Chemical Explosive Precursors, December 13, 2016, Washington, DC. 56. Sattlethight, H. 2016. Presentation by the Aluminum Association on Aluminum Powder, Paste, and Flake. The Second Meeting on Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Chemical Explosive Precursors, December 13, 2016, Washington, DC. 57. Hsu, N. 2016. Ammonium Nitrate - Its Manufacture and Supply Chain. Presentation at the Second Meeting on Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Chemical Explosive Precursors, December 13, 2016, Washington, DC. 58. Liske, K. 2017. Agricultural Retailers and Chemical Explosive Precursors. Presentation at the Third Meeting on Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Chemical Explosive Precursors, February 7, 2017, Washington, DC. 59. Lewis, M. 2017. Proactively Managing Supply Chain Safety and Security. Webinar on Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Chemical Explosive Precursors, January 26, 2017. 60. Smith, P.E. 2010. Teaching Chemistry with Pyrotechnic Flair: Laboratory Notebook. Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. 61. Paoli, G.P., J. Aldridge, N. Ryan, and R. Warnes. 2017. Behind the Curtain: The Illicit Trade of Firearms, Explosives and Ammunition on the Dark Web. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. 62. Sigma-Aldrich. 2017. Opening a Sigma-Aldrich Account. http://www.sigmaaldrich.com/site- level/corporate/ordering-support/new-account.html (accessed 06/08/2017). 63. Amazon. 2017. Dangerous Goods Identification Guide. https://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.html/ref=hp_rel_topic?ie=UTF8&nodeId=200339720 (accessed 06/08/2017). 64. eBay. 2017. Hazardous, Restricted, or Regulated Materials. https://pages.ebay.com/help/policies/hazardous- materials.html (accessed 06/08/2017). 65. eBay. 2017. Law Enforcement Center. https://pages.ebay.com/securitycenter/LawEnforcementCenter.html (accessed 06/08/2017). 66. Kennedy, R. 2016. Newcastle man who triggered police raid over explosives at his home was making home-made bangers. Chronicle Live News: October 3, 2016. http://www.chroniclelive.co.uk/news/north-east-news/newcastle- man-who-triggered-police-11969700. (accessed 06/08/2017). 67. Explosives Act of 1917, Pub. L. No. 65-68, 40 Stat. 385. 68. Federal Explosives Act of 1941, Pub. L. No. 77-381, 55 Stat. 863. 69. OIG (Office of the Inspector General). 2009. Explosives Investigation Coordination between the Federal Bureau of Invesigation and the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives. Audit Report 10-01. U.S. Department of Justice, Office of the Inspector General, Audit Division, Washington, DC. https://oig.justice.gov/reports/plus/a1001.pdf (accessed 06/08/2017). 70. 27 CFR § 555.23. List of Explosive Materials (2017). 71. ATF (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives). 2016. Commerce in explosive: Annual list of explosive materials. Fed. Reg. 81(221):80684-80686. 72. Moore Memorial Public Library. 2017. Texas City Disaster 1947. http://www.texascity-library.org/disaster/first.php (accessed 06/08/2017). 73. NRC. 1953. A Compendium on the Hazards of Water Transportation and the Manufacture, Handling, Storage, and Stowage of Ammonium Nitrate and Ammonium Nitrate Fertilizers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 74. Nature. 1921. The Oppau explosion. Nature 108(2713):278-279. PREPUBLICATION COPY: UNCORRECTED PROOFS

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Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) are a type of unconventional explosive weapon that can be deployed in a variety of ways, and can cause loss of life, injury, and property damage in both military and civilian environments. Terrorists, violent extremists, and criminals often choose IEDs because the ingredients, components, and instructions required to make IEDs are highly accessible. In many cases, precursor chemicals enable this criminal use of IEDs because they are used in the manufacture of homemade explosives (HMEs), which are often used as a component of IEDs.

Many precursor chemicals are frequently used in industrial manufacturing and may be available as commercial products for personal use. Guides for making HMEs and instructions for constructing IEDs are widely available and can be easily found on the internet. Other countries restrict access to precursor chemicals in an effort to reduce the opportunity for HMEs to be used in IEDs. Although IED attacks have been less frequent in the United States than in other countries, IEDs remain a persistent domestic threat. Restricting access to precursor chemicals might contribute to reducing the threat of IED attacks and in turn prevent potentially devastating bombings, save lives, and reduce financial impacts.

Reducing the Threat of Improvised Explosive Device Attacks by Restricting Access to Explosive Precursor Chemicals prioritizes precursor chemicals that can be used to make HMEs and analyzes the movement of those chemicals through United States commercial supply chains and identifies potential vulnerabilities. This report examines current United States and international regulation of the chemicals, and compares the economic, security, and other tradeoffs among potential control strategies.

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