National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES

FOR Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline

A Report of the

Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline and Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients

Food and Nutrition Board

Institute of Medicine

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This project was funded by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Contract No. 282–96–0033, T01; the National Institutes of Health Office of Nutrition Supplements, Contract No. N01–OD–4–2139, T024, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity; Health Canada; the Institute of Medicine; and the Dietary Reference Intakes Corporate Donors’ Fund. Contributors to the Fund include Roche Vitamins Inc, Mead Johnson Nutrition Group, Daiichi Fine Chemicals, Inc, Kemin Foods, Inc, M&M Mars, Weider Nutrition Group, and Natural Source Vitamin E Association. The opinions or conclusions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect those of the funders.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline/a report of the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes and its Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline and Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-309-06554-2 (pbk.) —ISBN 0-309-06411-2 (case)

1. Vitamin B in human nutrition. 2. Reference values (Medicine) I. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes. II. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline. III. Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients.

QP772.V52 D53 2000

612.3′99–dc21

00–028380

Additional copies of this report are available from
National Academy Press,
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lock Box 285, Washington, DC 20055. Call (800) 624–6242 or (202) 334–3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area), or visit the NAP’s on-line bookstore at http:/www.nap.edu.

For more information about the Institute of Medicine or the Food and Nutrition Board, visit the IOM home page at http://www.nas.edu/iom.

Copyright 1998 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

The serpent has been a symbol of long life, healing, and knowledge among almost all cultures and religions since the beginning of recorded history. The image adopted as a logotype by the Institute of Medicine is based on a relief carving from ancient Greece, now held by the Staatliche Museen in Berlin.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

“Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Willing is not enough; we must do.”

—Goethe

INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE

Shaping the Future for Health

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES

National Academy of Sciences

National Academy of Engineering

Institute of Medicine

National Research Council

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A.Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I.Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M.Alberts and Dr. William A.Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

PANEL ON FOLATE, OTHER B VITAMINS, AND CHOLINE

ROY M.PITKIN (Chair),

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of California, Los Angeles

(Professor Emeritus)

and Obstetrics & Gynecology

(Editor),

Los Angeles

LINDSAY H.ALLEN,

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis

LYNN B.BAILEY,

Food Science and Human Nutrition Department, University of Florida, Gainesville

MERTON BERNFIELD,

Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston

PHILLIPE De WALS,

Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Sherbrooke, Quebec

RALPH GREEN,

Department of Pathology, University of California at Davis Medical Center, Sacramento

DONALD B.McCORMICK,

Department of Biochemistry, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta

ROBERT M.RUSSELL,

Department of Medicine and Nutrition at the Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston

BARRY SHANE,

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of California, Berkeley

STEVEN H.ZEISEL,

Department of Nutrition, University of North Carolina School of Public Health and School of Medicine, Chapel Hill

IRWIN H.ROSENBERG,

Clinical Nutrition Division, the Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University and New England Medical Center, Boston, Liaison to the Panel from the Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients

Staff

CAROL W.SUITOR, Study Director

ELISABETH A.REESE, Research Associate

ALICE L.KULIK, Research Assistant

MICHELE RAMSEY, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

SUBCOMMITTEE ON UPPER REFERENCE LEVELS OF NUTRIENTS

IAN C.MUNRO (Chair),

CanTox, Inc., Mississauga, Ontario

WALTER MERTZ,

Retired, U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center, Rockville, Maryland

RITA B.MESSING,

Division of Environmental Health, Minnesota Department of Health, St. Paul

SANFORD A.MILLER,

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio

SUZANNE P.MURPHY,

Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of California, Berkeley

JOSEPH V.RODRICKS,

ENVIRON Corporation, Arlington, Virginia

IRWIN H.ROSENBERG,

Clinical Nutrition Division, the Jean Mayer U.S. Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University and New England Medical Center, Boston

STEVE L.TAYLOR,

Department of Food Science and Technology and Food Processing Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

ROBERT H.WASSERMAN,

Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca

Consultants

SHEILA DUBOIS,

Food Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa

HERBERT BLUMENTHAL,

Retired, Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D.C.

Staff

SANDRA SCHLICKER, Study Director

ELISABETH A.REESE, Research Associate

GERALDINE KENNEDO, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

STANDING COMMITTEE ON THE SCIENTIFIC EVALUATION OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES

VERNON R.YOUNG (Chair),

Laboratory of Human Nutrition, School of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

JOHN W.ERDMAN, JR. (Vice-Chair),

Division of Nutritional Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

JANET C.KING (Vice-Chair),

University of California, Berkeley, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Presidio of San Francisco

LINDSAY H.ALLEN,

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis

STEPHANIE A.ATKINSON,

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario

JOHANNA T.DWYER,

Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center and Tufts University, Boston

JOHN D.FERNSTROM,

Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh

SCOTT M.GRUNDY,

Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas

CHARLES H.HENNEKENS,

Department of Medicine, Ambulatory Care and Prevention and Division of Preventive Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston

SANFORD A.MILLER,

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio

U.S. Government Liaison

LINDA MEYERS,

Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, D.C.

Canadian Government Liaison

PETER W.F.FISCHER,

Nutrition Research Division, Health Protection Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa

Staff

ALLISON A.YATES, Study Director

SANDRA SCHLICKER, Senior Program Officer

CAROL W.SUITOR, Senior Program Officer

ELISABETH A.REESE, Research Associate

ALICE L.KULIK, Research Assistant

GAIL E.SPEARS, Administrative Assistant

GERALDINE KENNEDO, Project Assistant

MICHELE RAMSEY, Project Assistant

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

FOOD AND NUTRITION BOARD

CUTBERTO GARZA (Chair),

Division of Nutrition, Cornell University, Ithaca

JOHN W.ERDMAN, JR. (Vice-Chair),

Division of Nutritional Sciences, College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

LINDSAY H.ALLEN,

Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis

BENJAMIN CABALLERO,

Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore

ROBERT J.COUSINS,

Center for Nutritional Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville

FERGUS M.CLYDESDALE,

Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst

MICHAEL P.DOYLE,

Department of Food Science and Technology, Center for Food Safety and Quality Enhancement, University of Georgia, Griffin

JOHANNA T.DWYER,

Frances Stern Nutrition Center, New England Medical Center and Tufts University, Boston

SCOTT M.GRUNDY,

Center for Human Nutrition, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas

CHARLES H.HENNEKENS,

Department of Medicine, Ambulatory Care and Prevention and Division of Preventive Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston

JANET C.KING,

University of California, Berkeley, and U.S. Department of Agriculture Western Human Nutrition Research Center, Presidio of San Francisco

SANFORD A.MILLER,

Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio

ROSS L.PRENTICE,

Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle

A.CATHARINE ROSS,

Department of Nutrition, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park

ROBERT E.SMITH,

R.E. Smith Consulting, Inc., Newport, Vermont

VIRGINIA A.STALLINGS,

Division of Gastroenterology and Nutrition, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia

VERNON R.YOUNG,

Laboratory of Human Nutrition, School of Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

Ex-Officio Member

STEVE L.TAYLOR,

Department of Food Science and Technology and Food Processing Center, University of Nebraska, Lincoln

Staff

ALLISON A.YATES, Director

GAIL E.SPEARS, Administrative Assistant

CARLOS GABRIEL, Financial Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

Preface

This report is the second in a series that presents a comprehensive set of reference values for nutrient intakes for healthy U.S and Canadian populations. It is a product of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) working in cooperation with scientists from Canada.

The report establishes a set of reference values for the B vitamins and choline to replace previously published Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for the United States and Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) for Canada. It considers evidence concerning the prevention of disease and developmental disorders along with more traditional evidence of sufficient nutrient intake; and examines data about choline, a food component that in the past has not been considered essential in the human diet. Although the reference values are based on data, the data were often scanty or drawn from studies that had limitations in addressing the question. Thus, scientific judgment was required in setting the reference values. The reasoning used is described for each nutrient in Chapters 4 through 12. Evidence concerning the use of these nutrients for the amelioration or cure of disease or disability was not considered because that was beyond the project’s scope of work.

The B vitamins appear second in the series largely because recommendations for folate intake have been a subject of controversy for many years. The RDA for folate has shifted up and down. Recently, low folate intake has been linked with vascular disease and other chronic conditions as well as risk of neural tube defects and other

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

congenital malformations in the offspring of women of reproductive age. However, high folate intake has also been implicated in delaying the diagnosis of pernicious anemia until after irreversible neurological damage has occurred. A major task of the Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline; the Subcommittee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients (UL Subcommittee); and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI Committee) was to analyze the evidence on beneficial and adverse effects of different folate intakes—in the context of setting Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) for all the B vitamins and choline.

Many of the questions raised about requirements for and recommended intakes of B vitamins and choline cannot be answered fully because of inadequacies in the present database. Apart from studies of overt deficiency disease, there is a dearth of studies that address specific effects of inadequate B vitamin intakes on health status. For most of the B vitamins, there is no direct information that permits estimating the amounts required by children and adolescents. For five of the B vitamins, data useful for the setting of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) are sparse, precluding reliable estimates of how much can be ingested safely. For some of these nutrients, there are questions about how much is contained in the food North Americans eat. Thus, another major task of the report was to outline a research agenda to provide a basis for public policy decisions related to recommended intakes of the B vitamins and choline and ways to achieve those intakes. The process for establishing DRIs is an iterative process and is thus evolving as the conceptual framework is applied to new nutrients and food components. With more experience, the proposed models for establishing reference intakes for use with nutrients and food components that play a role in health will be refined and, as new information or new methods of analysis are adopted, these reference values will be reassessed. The DRI Committee and its UL Subcommittee are developing plans to explore ways to address the safety of high nutrient intakes in other age groups or situations where data are lacking. For example, although the panel chose to use metabolic body weight (kg0.75) as the basis for adjusting all DRIs, including ULs for children for establishing intakes of the vitamins reviewed in this report, the proposed risk assessment model of the UL Subcommittee uses body weight directly as the default for extrapolation to children because of its more conservative result.

Considerations of bioavailability and nutrient-nutrient interactions played a key role in the decision-making process for several B

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

vitamins. For example, the concept of dietary folate equivalents is introduced to help estimate folate requirements, and limitations on the absorption of vitamin B12 were considered when recommending B12 intake for the elderly.

Because the project is ongoing as indicated above, and many comments were solicited and have been received on the first report in the series (Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride), it has been possible to introduce refinements in introductory material (Chapters 1 through 3) and in the discussion of uses of DRIs (Chapter 13 in this report). For example, it is now clearly stated that a detrimental nutrient-nutrient interaction could be used as the critical adverse effect in setting a UL for a nutrient. Among the comments have been requests for additional guidance in the practical application of DRIs. The newly formed Subcommittee on the Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes will work toward that end.

This report reflects the work of the Food and Nutrition Board’s DRI Committee; the expert Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline; and the UL Subcommittee. The support of the government of Canada and Canadian scientists in this initiative represents a pioneering first step in the standardization of nutrient reference intakes at least within one continent. A brief description of the overall project of the DRI Committee and of the panel’s task are given in Appendix A. It is hoped that the critical, comprehensive analyses of available information and of knowledge gaps in this initial series of reports will greatly assist the private sector, foundations, universities, government laboratories, and other institutions with their research interests and with the development of a productive research agenda for the next decade.

The DRI Committee; the Panel on Folate, Other B Vitamins, and Choline; and the UL Subcommittee wish to extend sincere thanks to the many experts who have assisted with this report by giving presentations, providing written materials, participating in discussions, analyzing data, and other means. Many, but far from all, of these people are named in Appendix B. Special thanks go to Robert A.Jacob and Donald M.Mock, who made major contributions to chapters on niacin and biotin, respectively, and to staff at the National Center for Health Statistics, the Food Surveys Research Group of the Agricultural Research Service, and the Department of Statistics at Iowa State University for extensive analyses of survey data.

The respective chairs and members of the panel and subcommittee have performed their work under great time pressure. Their

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

dedication made the completion of this report possible. All gave of their time willingly and without financial reward; both the science and practice of nutrition are major beneficiaries.

This report has been reviewed by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments to assist the authors and the IOM in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The content of the review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Frederick C.Battaglia, M.D., University of Colorado Health Sciences Center; Enriqueta C.Bond, Ph.D., Burroughs Wellcome Fund; Patricia K.Crumrine, M.D., Children’s Hospital; Krishnamurti Dakshinamurti, Ph.D., University of Manitoba; Gary Flamm, Ph.D., Flamm Associates; Theresa Glanville, Ph.D., Mount Saint Vincent University; John Hathcock, Ph.D., Council for Responsible Nutrition; James Marshall, Ph.D., Arizona Cancer Center; Deborah O’Connor, Ph.D., Ross Laboratories; Claire Regan, M.S., R.D., Grocery Manufacturers of America; Eric Rimm, Sc.D., Harvard School of Public Health; Killian Robinson, M.D., Cleveland Clinic Foundation; Robert Rucker, Ph.D., University of California-Davis; Robert F.Schilling, M.D., University of Wisconsin; John Scott, Ph.D., Sc.D., M.A., University of Dublin, Trinity College.

Although the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the IOM.

The DRI Committee wishes to acknowledge, in particular, the commitment shown by Roy Pitkin, chair of the panel, who steered this difficult project through what at times seemed to some of us like dangerous and uncharted waters. His ability to keep the effort and our various biases moving in a positive direction is very much appreciated.

Special thanks go to the staff of the Food and Nutrition Board and foremost to Carol Suitor, who was the study director for the panel and without whose assistance, both intellectual and managerial, this report would neither have been as polished nor as timely in its initial release. She now moves on to enjoy the peace of her new home in beautiful Vermont and we wish her well. It is, of course

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

those at the Food and Nutrition Board who get the real work completed and so the committee wishes to thank Allison Yates, Director of the Food and Nutrition Board, for constant assistance and it also recognizes, with appreciation, the contributions of Sandra Schlicker, Elisabeth Reese, Kimberly Brewer, Alice Kulik, Sheila Moats, Gail Spears, Diane Johnson, Michele Ramsey, and Geraldine Kennedo. We also thank Judith Grumstrup-Scott and Judith Dickson for editing the manuscript and Mike Edington and Claudia Carl for assistance with publication.

Vernon Young

Chair, Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes

Cutberto Garza

Chair, Food and Nutrition Board

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
This page in the original is blank.
Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
   

Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Vitamin B12,

 

312

   

Methodological Issues,

 

315

   

Diagnosis,

 

316

   

Factors Affecting the Vitamin B12 Requirement,

 

318

   

Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,

 

322

   

Intake of Vitamin B12,

 

342

   

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,

 

346

   

Research Recommendations for Vitamin B12,

 

348

   

References,

 

348

10

 

PANTOTHENIC ACID

 

357

   

Summary,

 

357

   

Background Information,

 

357

   

Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Pantothenic Acid,

 

359

   

Factors Affecting the Pantothenic Acid Requirement,

 

361

   

Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,

 

362

   

Intake of Pantothenic Acid,

 

368

   

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,

 

370

   

Research Recommendations for Pantothenic Acid,

 

371

   

References,

 

371

11

 

BIOTIN

 

374

   

Summary,

 

374

   

Background Information,

 

374

   

Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Biotin,

 

378

   

Factors Affecting the Biotin Requirement,

 

380

   

Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,

 

380

   

Intake of Biotin,

 

384

   

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,

 

384

   

Research Recommendations for Biotin,

 

385

   

References,

 

386

12

 

CHOLINE

 

390

   

Summary,

 

390

   

Background Information,

 

390

   

Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Choline,

 

396

   

Factors Affecting the Choline Requirement,

 

398

   

Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group,

 

400

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
   

Intake of Choline,

 

406

   

Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,

 

408

   

Research Recommendations for Choline,

 

413

   

References,

 

414

13

 

USES OF DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES

 

423

   

Overview,

 

423

   

Using Recommended Dietary Allowances,

 

424

   

Using Adequate Intakes,

 

425

   

Using Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,

 

426

   

Using Estimated Average Requirements,

 

427

   

Other Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes,

 

432

   

Specific Applications,

 

432

   

Summary,

 

435

   

References,

 

436

14

 

A RESEARCH AGENDA

 

437

   

Approach,

 

437

   

Important Features of Studies to Estimate Requirements,

 

438

   

Major Knowledge Gaps,

 

439

   

The Research Agenda,

 

442

 

 

APPENDIXES:

 

 

A

 

Origin and Framework of the Development of Dietary Reference Intakes,

 

443

B

 

Acknowledgments,

 

448

C

 

Système International d’Unités,

 

451

D

 

Search Strategies,

 

453

E

 

Methodological Problems Associated with Laboratory Values and Food Composition Data for B Vitamins,

 

456

F

 

Dietary Intake Data from the Boston Nutritional Status Survey, 1981–1984,

 

460

G

 

Dietary Intake Data from the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), 1994–1995,

 

466

H

 

Dietary Intake Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994,

 

478

I

 

Daily Intakes of B Vitamins by Canadian Men and Women, 1990, 1993,

 

502

J

 

Options for Dealing with Uncertainties in Developing Tolerable Upper Intake Levels,

 

507

K

 

Blood Concentrations of Folate and Vitamin B12 from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988–1994,

 

512

Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Page xxiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×

DRI DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES

FOR Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline

Page xxiv Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Page xvii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Page xviii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Page R21
Page xxii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
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Page R22
Page xxiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page R23
Page xxiv Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." Institute of Medicine. 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/6015.
×
Page R24
Next: Summary »
Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline Get This Book
×

Since 1941, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) has been recognized as the most authoritative source of information on nutrient levels for healthy people. Since publication of the 10th edition in 1989, there has been rising awareness of the impact of nutrition on chronic disease. In light of new research findings and a growing public focus on nutrition and health, the expert panel responsible for formulation RDAs reviewed and expanded its approach--the result: Dietary Reference Intakes.

This new series of references greatly extends the scope and application of previous nutrient guidelines. For each nutrient the book presents what is known about how the nutrient functions in the human body, what the best method is to determine its requirements, which factors (caffeine or exercise, for example) may affect how it works, and how the nutrient may be related to chronic disease.

This volume of the series presents information about thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline.

Based on analysis of nutrient metabolism in humans and data on intakes in the U.S. population, the committee recommends intakes for each age group--from the first days of life through childhood, sexual maturity, midlife, and the later years. Recommendations for pregnancy and lactation also are made, and the book identifies when intake of a nutrient may be too much. Representing a new paradigm for the nutrition community, Dietary Reference Intakes encompasses:

  • Estimated Average Requirements (EARs). These are used to set Recommended Dietary Allowances.
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). Intakes that meet the RDA are likely to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all individuals in a life-stage and gender group.
  • Adequate Intakes (AIs). These are used instead of RDAs when an EAR cannot be calculated. Both the RDA and the AI may be used as goals for individual intake.
  • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs). Intakes below the UL are unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects in healthy people.

This new framework encompasses both essential nutrients and other food components thought to pay a role in health, such as dietary fiber. It incorporates functional endpoints and examines the relationship between dose and response in determining adequacy and the hazards of excess intake for each nutrient.

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