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Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs (2019)

Chapter: Appendix D - Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide

« Previous: Appendix C - FAA Airport Accessibility Checklist
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D - Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

D-1 A P P E N D I X D Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide The table on the following pages gives a summary of the key aspects of the core, enhanced, and emerging strategies described in Chapter 4 of this report. These strategies have been identified as promising practices through the research, surveys, and interviews conducted for the development of this guide. Airports confirmed to be using the identified strategies are included in the table, but other airports may be using the technology that are not listed. This table can be used as a quick reference guide to identify strategies to help fill gaps identified through the needs assessment process. Details on how the research team collected the information have been provided at the end of the table. The table is constructed to provide key information in six columns, as follows: • Strategy: The technology, method, or resource available. • Enhanced Airport Capabilities: The benefits of serving people with DAFN when the strategy is implemented. • Description: How the user engages with the resource. • Commitment of Airport Resources: An estimate of time and resources required for implementation, evaluated on the following scale: – Low = Implementation of the strategy can occur using existing airport resources (i.e., personnel and equipment) or with minimal additional costs; implementation causes little to no impact on airport operations. – Medium = Implementation of the strategy requires a time commitment from existing personnel and purchases of equipment or other resources; implementation causes some impact to airport operations. – High = Implementation of the strategy requires long-term planning, additional personnel or contract support, and substantial funding; implementation causes significant impact to airport operations. • Barriers to Implementation and/or Use: Self-identified challenges to implementation of a particular technology by providers or use by the target population. • Airports: Airports that have been identified as users of this strategy. Please note that the airports listed in this table represent only those airports that have been confirmed through research, interviews, and surveys conducted as part of this research project. There are likely additional airports implementing these strategies that are not included in this list.

Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide Strategy Enhanced Airport Capabilities Description Commitment of Airport Resources * Barriers to Implementation and/or Use Airports DAFN Advisory Group The airport gathers more accurate information about the airport’s design and service accessibility needs, improvements, and challenges. Airport administrators, emergency management staff, and others coordinate with representatives of DAFN groups to provide input on design attributes and services to accommodate people with DAFN. Low • Group members may have limited time for participation. • Group may have difficulty getting approval to implement recommendations. GRR JAX LAX MSP * Low = Implementation of the strategy can occur using existing airport resources (i.e., personnel and equipment) or with minimal additional costs; Medium = Implementation of the strategy requires a time commitment from existing personnel and purchases of equipment or other resources; High = Implementation of the strategy requires long-term planning, additional personnel or contract support, and substantial funding. (Page 1 of 8)

Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide (Continued) Strategy Enhanced Airport Capabilities Description Commitment of Airport Resources * Barriers to Implementation and/or Use Airports Visual Paging The airport transcribes important audio information so it is visually displayed. Airport occupants receive audio notifications and are also able to read the messages on monitors in the facility. Medium • Requires airport occupants to know to look for transcriptions. • Limited use to individuals with limited English proficiency (LEP) because messages are rarely translated. AUS ATL BUR CLT DEN DFW EFD FLL HOU IAH JAX LAX MKE ORD PDX RFD RSW SEA STL YEG YVR YWG * Low = Implementation of the strategy can occur using existing airport resources (i.e., personnel and equipment) or with minimal additional costs; Medium = Implementation of the strategy requires a time commitment from existing personnel and purchases of equipment or other resources; High = Implementation of the strategy requires long-term planning, additional personnel or contract support, and substantial funding. (Page 2 of 8)

Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide (Continued) Strategy Enhanced Airport Capabilities Description Commitment of Airport Resources* Barriers to Implementation and/or Use Airports Employee Accessibility Training Program Airport employees are skilled in assisting occupants with DAFN during emergency and non-emergencies. Airports develop a training curriculum and deliver training courses to employees either in person or via pre-recorded training videos. Medium • Requires employee time and ongoing training maintenance. • Limited use for tenants and concessionaires. JAX LAX YWG Inclusive Emergency Preparedness The airport can identify areas for improving accessibility during emergency operations. Airport employees coordinate with representatives of DAFN groups to conduct emergency planning, training, and exercises. Low • Requires implementation of regular emergency planning, training, and exercise activities. • Implementation must be in coordination with airport administration. JAX LAX MSP YYZ Mobile Translation Applications The airport can provide important information to individuals with LEP. Airport occupants with limited English proficiency can communicate with customer service staff by using translation applications on web- enabled devices (e.g., tablets, phones) at the information desks. Low • Requires travelers to find a customer service representative or information booth. • Requires availability of mobile devices and chargers. BLD DIK GRR MSP Go-Kits for Information Desks Customer service staff have additional tools to enhance communications during emergencies and during day-to-day operations. A duffel bag or box with the following items can be placed at information desks: signage with universal symbols; materials in braille, large print, or multiple languages; megaphone; pen and paper and/or whiteboard and markers. Low • Requires travelers to find a customer service representative or information booth. • Requires training to staff to use the items. No airports were identified as part of this research. * Low = Implementation of the strategy can occur using existing airport resources (i.e., personnel and equipment) or with minimal additional costs; Medium = Implementation of the strategy requires a time commitment from existing personnel and purchases of equipment or other resources; High = Implementation of the strategy requires long-term planning, additional personnel or contract support, and substantial funding. (Page 3 of 8)

Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide (Continued) Strategy Enhanced Airport Capabilities Description Commitment of Airport Resources* Barriers to Implementation and/or Use Airports Accessible Wayfinding The airport is able to help a variety of passengers, including passengers with LEP, better navigate by incorporating universal design elements. The airport incorporates accessibility wayfinding options in the design and fit-out of the airport facility (e.g., bilingual and/or braille signage, tactile flooring, audible and tactile maps, and so forth). Medium • Requires consistency throughout the entire facility. • Variety of options, and some are more cost- efficient than others. • Must be updated when elements are changed or remodeled. HKG NRT YEG YHZ YOW YVR YWG YYC Airline Mobile Applications The airport can provide updated emergency information to travelers who may not have access to in- airport audio or visual notifications. The airport provides emergency notifications to airlines to include in their mobile applications, and airlines disseminate the messages to their users. High • The airport must execute an agreement with the airline(s) to share its emergency notifications through an application- programming interface (API). • Requires travelers to have the airline application installed and set to receive notifications. • The airport does not have control over distribution of messaging. DFW DTW ORD PHX SEA STL * Low = Implementation of the strategy can occur using existing airport resources (i.e., personnel and equipment) or with minimal additional costs; Medium = Implementation of the strategy requires a time commitment from existing personnel and purchases of equipment or other resources; High = Implementation of the strategy requires long-term planning, additional personnel or contract support, and substantial funding. (Page 4 of 8)

Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide (Continued) Strategy Enhanced Airport Capabilities Description Commitment of Airport Resources * Barriers to Implementation and/or Use Airports Direct-Line Courtesy Phones The airport is able to provide information on request. Mounted phones are connected directly to an information/operations desk where staff can identify the location by the phone unit and provide requested information or dispatch a staff member to that location. Low • Requires users to locate and access phones. YOW YYZ Volunteer Customer Assistance Program The airport is able to provide additional assistance and information to travelers. Volunteers trained in assisting people with disabilities are located throughout the airport to facilitate wayfinding, information, and mobility. Medium • Requires management of volunteer program by airport staff (e.g., provide training, develop scheduling, and so forth). LAX MSP YEG YOW YVR YWG Real-time American Sign Language Interpretation The airport is able to provide real-time, custom information to individuals who are hard of hearing. Airports hire trained American Sign Language (ASL) interpreters to provide services on an as-needed basis or during peak times. Low • Users must request service and/or know the service is available. AUS JAX LAX MSP PHX Foreign Language Translation Services The airport is able to provide information to individuals with LEP. Airport customer service employees who are fluent and/or native speakers staff information desks, or the airport contracts a call-in service for real-time translation via information desk phones. Low • Users must request service and/or know the service is available. DTW PIT TUL YVR * Low = Implementation of the strategy can occur using existing airport resources (i.e., personnel and equipment) or with minimal additional costs; Medium = Implementation of the strategy requires a time commitment from existing personnel and purchases of equipment or other resources; High = Implementation of the strategy requires long-term planning, additional personnel or contract support, and substantial funding. (Page 5 of 8)

Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide (Continued) Strategy Enhanced Airport Capabilities Description Commitment of Airport Resources * Barriers to Implementation and/or Use Airports Pre- Recorded Audio Video Translation The airport provides general emergency information in pre- recorded format for individuals with LEP. The airport pre-records audio translations or develops video content in languages that accommodate non- English speakers. Low • Requires audio and video production equipment. • Pre-recorded content is not adaptable to a highly fluid emergency situation. BLD ORD STL STX Reducing Barriers to Access The airport is able to disseminate messages to all travelers efficiently to accommodate the needs of people with DAFN. The airport reduces impediments to viewing, hearing, or comprehending emergency messages. Examples include providing low-mounted phones, monitors, and counters, and visual as well as audio alarms. Incorporating Service Animal Relief Areas (SARAs) also can be part of this strategy. Medium • Retrofitting existing space can be costly. • Effective use of SARAs requires that an adequate number be provided, that they be located properly, and that staff be trained to manage them. ABQ GRR HKG YEG YOW YVR YYZ Website Accessibility Information The airport is able to prepare travelers with DAFN to use the accessibility services at the airport. Airport web administrators include written information about accessibility services related to how to arrange for transportation through the airport, how to contact a volunteer, services available at information booths, and so forth. Low • Content must be developed and maintained for accuracy. AUS DEN LAX MSP NRT YEG YQT YUL * Low = Implementation of the strategy can occur using existing airport resources (i.e., personnel and equipment) or with minimal additional costs; Medium = Implementation of the strategy requires a time commitment from existing personnel and purchases of equipment or other resources; High = Implementation of the strategy requires long-term planning, additional personnel or contract support, and substantial funding. (Page 6 of 8)

Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide (Continued) Strategy Enhanced Airport Capabilities Description Commitment of Airport Resources * Barriers to Implementation and/or Use Airports Self- Identification Program Airport staff are able to provide enhanced customer service to travelers who identify as needing additional help. Travelers have the option to self- identify as someone who needs help (e.g., wheelchairs) by wearing a lanyard, sticker, or brightly colored bracelets. Low • Users must request service and/or know the service is available. LAX Pre-Flight Preparation Program The airport provides wayfinding and emergency information to people with DAFN ahead of travel. The airport develops or participates in programs that provide a guided tour to people with DAFN. Medium • Users must request the service and/or know that the service is available. • Requires employee time and ongoing maintenance training. YUL Induction Loop When installed, an induction loop creates an electromagnetic field that picks up audio and sends that audio directly to the individual’s hearing aid with a t-coil or to a cochlear implant. The induction loop is one of the few passive, universal systems to enhance communication with individuals with hearing loss. The airport installs specialized equipment in various areas of the facility depending on the application. Medium to High • Target users must have hearing aids with a specific setting, cochlear implants, or a specialized receiver. • Requires retrofitting that may be cost prohibitive. AUS ATL AZO DTW GRR MSP PHX ROC SBN * Low = Implementation of the strategy can occur using existing airport resources (i.e., personnel and equipment) or with minimal additional costs; Medium = Implementation of the strategy requires a time commitment from existing personnel and purchases of equipment or other resources; High = Implementation of the strategy requires long-term planning, additional personnel or contract support, and substantial funding. (Page 7 of 8)

Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide (Continued) Strategy Enhanced Airport Capabilities Description Commitment of Airport Resources * Barriers to Implementation and/or Use Airports Video Remote Interpreting (VRI) The airport is able to provide real-time ASL interpretation. Information desk and customer service representatives are equipped with web cameras or videophones to connect with ASL interpreters. Medium • Requires trained and/or certified interpreters to be available on call. • Requires availability of mobile devices and adequate Internet service. BUR ORD STL Mobile Assistive Technology The airport can provide supplemental services to support visual and audio communications. The airport can provide equipment and/or software to enhance real-time visual, verbal, and virtual communications. Highly dependent on specific solution • Dependent on specific technology; generally, must have a smart phone or other equipment. Highly dependent on end- user Geofenced Mobile and SMS Alerts The airport can provide tailored emergency messaging via SMS texts in real time. The airport contracts with a software- as-a-service (SaaS) vendor who provides a platform from which alerts can be issued. Medium to High • Users must have a mobile phone. • Users must know the system exists and register for it. • Administrators of the system must be trained and authorized to send messages. BUR DFW DTW FLL NUQ PHX SMF STL TUL * Low = Implementation of the strategy can occur using existing airport resources (i.e., personnel and equipment) or with minimal additional costs; Medium = Implementation of the strategy requires a time commitment from existing personnel and purchases of equipment or other resources; High = Implementation of the strategy requires long-term planning, additional personnel or contract support, and substantial funding. (Page 8 of 8)

D-10 Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs Research The research team conducted a literature review that focused on analysis of how airports and other relevant industries use communications systems and processes in their day-to-day operations to interact with people with DAFN. A primary focus of the literature review was researching emergency communication systems, messaging, best practices that make provisions for complying with the ADA, and other policy issues. At the state and local level, the review team studied state and regional standards relevant to people with DAFN, and subject matter experts (SMEs) evaluated the literature to generate a basis of knowledge and identify areas that require further research. Literature reviews included the following sources of information: • Regulations and guidance, including FAA AC 150/5200-31C and 14 CFR Part 139 • State and local requirements and regulations • Current and past ACRP research and publications about information technologies at airports (i.e., ACRP Project 01-12) and public notifications (ACRP Project 10-25) • Germane journals • Congressional legislation, regulations, executive orders, and guidance issued by the FAA, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), the U.S. DOT, and other relevant agencies • Government Accountability Office (GAO) and Congressional Research Service reports • Airport websites, especially web pages that address disability information and/or access Interviews In-person interviews were used to identify current methods and tools used for communicating emergency information to members of the DAFN community. Interviewers used standardized scripts and checklists, and in-person interviews were conducted during site visits, via telephone, and via video conference. Interviewees included representatives from the following airports: • Minneapolis–Saint Paul International Airport (MSP), Minneapolis, MN • Los Angeles World Airports (LAWA), Los Angeles, CA • Jacksonville International Airport (JAX), Jacksonville, FL • Gerald R. Ford International Airport (GRR), Grand Rapids, MI • Raleigh–Durham International Airport (RDU), Raleigh, NC Round-table discussions were conducted with representatives from the following eight organizations that advocate for people with DAFN: • Reduced Mobility Rights Ltd. • American Red Cross (disability integration specialist) • Colorado State Independent Living Council

Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide D-11 • National Federation of the Blind • Colorado Association of the Deaf • Parent Cerebral Palsy Advocacy • Stapleton Parents of Children with Disabilities Cohort • Hearing Loss Association of America Survey The research team developed a survey to gather additional data about the types of emergency communication methods currently being utilized in airports. The intent of the survey was to reach a broader sample of airports beyond the five interviewed. The survey was sent to attendees of the AAAE Airport Emergency Management Conference held on June 25–27, 2018. The survey included five survey questions: 1. What airport are you providing information about? 2. Which of the following technologies are you using for emergency communication within your airport? 3. What was the approximate cost of the emergency communications technologies you are using? 4. How effective are the emergency communications technologies you are using at communicating with people with disabilities, access and functional needs, and/or limited English proficiency? 5. Is there any additional information you would like to share regarding how your airport communicates with people with disabilities and others with access and functional needs, and/or limited English proficiency? Given the conference attendees’ strong knowledge about their airport emergency management programs, this group proved to be an excellent resource to gain more information about the technologies currently used in airports. Although Survey Question 3 asked respondents to provide cost data for the methods they use, respondents either did not provide information about specific costs, or indicated that the cost was specific to their airport and that general pricing would be difficult. Survey respondents representing airports confirmed to be using the specific methods have been listed in the far right column of the table. Other airports also may be using the methods, but they have not been listed because they were not included in the survey sample. Survey respondents included: • Austin-Bergstrom International Airport (AUS) • Asheville Regional Airport (AVL) • Boulder City Municipal Airport (BLD) • Charlotte Douglas International Airport (CLT) • Chicago Rockford International Airport (RFD) • Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW)

D-12 Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs • Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport (DTW) • Dickinson Theodore Roosevelt Regional Airport (DIK) • Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport (FLL) • Mitchell International Airport (MKE) • Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) • Hartsfield–Jackson Atlanta International Airport (ATL) • Henry E. Rohlsen Airport (STX) • Hollywood Burbank (Bob Hope) Airport (BUR) • Houston Airport System, covering William P. Hobby Airport (HOU), George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH), and Ellington Airport (EFD) • The Eastern Iowa Airport (CID) • McCarran International Airport (LAS) • Moffett Federal Airport (Moffett Field) (NUQ) • O’Hare International Airport (ORD) • Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport (PHX) • Pittsburg International Airport (PIT) • Portland International Airport (PDX) • Saint Louis Lambert International Airport (STL) • Sacramento International Airport (SMF) • Seattle-Tacoma International Airport (SEA) • Southwest Florida International Airport (RSW) • Tulsa International Airport (TUL)

Next: Appendix E - Potential Solutions »
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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 201 provides guidance and tools for airports to aid in effective communication with passengers and persons with disabilities, including those with cultural and language differences.

The report includes a primer that discusses issues, techniques, and the unique requirements and challenges of communicating with people with disabilities and others who have access or functional needs.

The report explores uses of technology and other methods that incorporate ADA considerations and communication challenges with airport stakeholders, and training programs for airport personnel, including templates for development of curricula.

There are case study examples of methods of emergency communication at airports and in other industries, and for universal messaging for emergency communications.

The project that produced the report also produced templates in support of airport emergency plans specifically addressing individuals with limited English proficiency, step-by-step tools that include a needs assessment tool that airports can use to determine what steps must to be taken to comply with ADA requirements concerning communications, and templates/worksheets/checklists for planning tabletop exercises that focus on communicating with people with disabilities and access or functional needs during emergency events. These resources are described and linked to below.

  • The Inventory Checklists (from Appendix A) list plans, reports, documents, programs, and services that are helpful in emergency communications for DAFN. The checklists make it easy to review what the airport has in place, what needs to be developed or updated, etc.
  • The Accessibility Walkthrough Worksheet (from Appendix B) is a tool to structure evaluations (ideally conducted by members of a DAFN Advisory Group, as discussed in the report) that identify and assign accessibility ratings to existing communications modes and resources from curbside through baggage claim, and identify modes or resources that can be added or improved.
  • The FAA Airport Accessibility Checklist (from Appendix C) is reproduced online in PDF for convenience; a url is provided that directs users to the FAA source.
  • The Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide (from Appendix D) summarizes key aspects of core, enhanced, and emerging strategies described in the report.
  • The CONOPS Template (from Appendix F) provides generic text for an Emergency Communications Concept of Operations document that airports can edit to meet their needs and those of the communities they serve.
  • The Disability Equity Training document provides training content, including empathy exercises, from Appendix G in a format that can be adapted and customized for use by practitioners.
  • The 1-Minute Read Poster (from Appendix H) provides a reproducible, one-page reference on how to offer and provide assistance respectfully to people with DAFN.
  • The Outreach Brochure (also from Appendix H) is provided in a separate downloadable file for use and distribution by practitioners.
  • The Exercise Toolkit (from Appendix I), with checklists and materials to support a discussion-based exercise and a full-scale, operational exercise, is reproduced in Word to facilitate adaptation and use by practitioners.
  • The Prepared Scenario Vignettes (from Appendix J), which can be used to lay the foundation of a discussion-based or tabletop exercise.
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