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Suggested Citation:"Appendix K - Example Full-Scale Exercise Notes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix K - Example Full-Scale Exercise Notes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Page 122
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix K - Example Full-Scale Exercise Notes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
×
Page 123
Page 124
Suggested Citation:"Appendix K - Example Full-Scale Exercise Notes." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
×
Page 124

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K-1 A P P E N D I X K Example Full-Scale Exercise Notes This appendix presents the full-scale exercise-related notes that were provided to the evaluation team. The provider has requested to remain unnamed. Notes are provided for illustration purposes and in hopes of facilitating learning across the airport community. Participation by People with Disabilities, Others with Access and Functional Needs, and Those with Limited English Proficiency (DAFN) • Did members of the DAFN community participate in this exercise? – Yes – 1 • Was the person in the DAFN community triaged by first responders? – Yes • If so, describe the interaction between the first responder and the victim [person with DAFN]. – The first responder read the wristband but did not speak to the victim. – The victim had a facial laceration only, but, due to deafness, was not able to hear the overhead announcement that all those that were able to walk should make their way toward the fire trucks. • Did you witness any issues between the first responder and victim? – Yes • If so, what were the issues? – He was unable to communicate verbally but figured out the victim was deaf when the victim started to sign. First and second responders gestured to the victim to stand up and walk. The first responder walked with the victim to the triage location. No other questions were asked about the victim’s name or other injuries. – The first responder established eye contact, gestured while enunciating for lip- reading, and made a verbal hand-off to the triage officer explaining that the victim was deaf and needed to have eyes kept on him. – During the changing of hands, no hand-off or written tagging stating that the victim was deaf was provided so that others could communicate with him.

K-2 Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs • Was the member of the DAFN community in need of transportation from the crash site due to the injuries? – No; he was ambulatory. – Yes, he needed guidance since he is deaf and was not able to hear the announcement to walk toward the trucks. He was escorted by a first responder. • How was the victim transported from the crash site to a hospital? – Helicopter to Brooks Rehab • Were there any Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)–related issues when first responders were moving the victim into the transport vehicle? – There was a communication breakdown among exercise controllers here; no first responders transported the patient to a helicopter, but the evaluators did. Therefore, [there was] no hand-off from the first responder to the flight nurse about the victim being deaf or any other information about the victim. – As a result, there was no hand-off from the flight nurse to the ambulance transport for admission to Brooks. Notable Comments “Once the first responder realized that the victim was deaf, it would have been very helpful to have provided any type of pen/paper, cell phone, etc., for him to be able to communicate with other first responders since it is unlikely that one person would be able to stay with him the whole time. This would have assisted in triaging him more quickly and more appropriately so that resources and time could have been spent with those who needed it most. Also, it would have been helpful to identify the victim as someone who was deaf, even if it meant putting a tag on him that said as much so that others who tried to communicate wouldn’t have to go through the process of establishing that he is deaf and finding a new way to communicate with him.” “The deaf victim was also supposed to play the part of someone who had a prior CVA [i.e., stroke] with [the right side of his] body affected. However, communication was avoided. Once people realized that he was deaf, several people just had him sit down and then walked away without attempting to comfort him, ask if he needed anything, or ask if anything else was wrong— to the point that the victim was never able to share with first responders that he had a prior stroke. Due to this, he abandoned this part of the role-play because he sat mostly unattended and unspoken to on the runway. The significance of a prior CVA would have been that, while ambulatory, he may have needed more assistance with walking, and first responders would not want to grab his affected arm and pull on it or help him from the ground with that arm due to the risk of dislocation or tearing of rotator cuff muscles, etc.” – This resulted in the third responder reclassifying him as red rather than yellow and never establishing communication to explain to the victim why he was being moved. They did ask him his name, but, when he could not respond, they stopped trying to establish communication or get any information. – The fourth responder reclassified and relocated him to the yellow triage area— again without communication established or explanation of what was happening to the patient.

Example: Full-Scale Exercise Notes K-3 Participation by Person with Limited English Proficiency (LEP) • Did the members of the LEP community participate in this exercise? – Yes – 1 • Was the person from the LEP community triaged by first responders? – Yes. Initially, it was not clear that she was Spanish-speaking, and she appeared to follow the general flow of traffic and gestures from first responders. • Did you witness any issues between the first responder and the victim? – Yes. When the first responder was collecting demographic information, he asked in English, but she did not understand and spoke back in Spanish. A nearby victim was bilingual and assisted with interpretation. The first responder asked his fellow first responder, “How do you say ‘last name’ in Spanish?” • Was the member of the LEP community in need of transportation from the crash site due to injuries? – No; she was ambulatory.

Next: Appendix L - Sample Mass Notification System Requirements »
Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs Get This Book
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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 201 provides guidance and tools for airports to aid in effective communication with passengers and persons with disabilities, including those with cultural and language differences.

The report includes a primer that discusses issues, techniques, and the unique requirements and challenges of communicating with people with disabilities and others who have access or functional needs.

The report explores uses of technology and other methods that incorporate ADA considerations and communication challenges with airport stakeholders, and training programs for airport personnel, including templates for development of curricula.

There are case study examples of methods of emergency communication at airports and in other industries, and for universal messaging for emergency communications.

The project that produced the report also produced templates in support of airport emergency plans specifically addressing individuals with limited English proficiency, step-by-step tools that include a needs assessment tool that airports can use to determine what steps must to be taken to comply with ADA requirements concerning communications, and templates/worksheets/checklists for planning tabletop exercises that focus on communicating with people with disabilities and access or functional needs during emergency events. These resources are described and linked to below.

  • The Inventory Checklists (from Appendix A) list plans, reports, documents, programs, and services that are helpful in emergency communications for DAFN. The checklists make it easy to review what the airport has in place, what needs to be developed or updated, etc.
  • The Accessibility Walkthrough Worksheet (from Appendix B) is a tool to structure evaluations (ideally conducted by members of a DAFN Advisory Group, as discussed in the report) that identify and assign accessibility ratings to existing communications modes and resources from curbside through baggage claim, and identify modes or resources that can be added or improved.
  • The FAA Airport Accessibility Checklist (from Appendix C) is reproduced online in PDF for convenience; a url is provided that directs users to the FAA source.
  • The Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide (from Appendix D) summarizes key aspects of core, enhanced, and emerging strategies described in the report.
  • The CONOPS Template (from Appendix F) provides generic text for an Emergency Communications Concept of Operations document that airports can edit to meet their needs and those of the communities they serve.
  • The Disability Equity Training document provides training content, including empathy exercises, from Appendix G in a format that can be adapted and customized for use by practitioners.
  • The 1-Minute Read Poster (from Appendix H) provides a reproducible, one-page reference on how to offer and provide assistance respectfully to people with DAFN.
  • The Outreach Brochure (also from Appendix H) is provided in a separate downloadable file for use and distribution by practitioners.
  • The Exercise Toolkit (from Appendix I), with checklists and materials to support a discussion-based exercise and a full-scale, operational exercise, is reproduced in Word to facilitate adaptation and use by practitioners.
  • The Prepared Scenario Vignettes (from Appendix J), which can be used to lay the foundation of a discussion-based or tabletop exercise.
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