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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Exercise Toolkit." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Exercise Toolkit." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Exercise Toolkit." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Exercise Toolkit." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Exercise Toolkit." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Exercise Toolkit." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Exercise Toolkit." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Exercise Toolkit." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/25507.
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I-1 A P P E N D I X I Exercise Toolkit Exercises are the primary way of measuring the understanding, effectiveness, and quality of the airport’s training and planning regimen. Exercises should test the following items, which are identified in FAA Advisory Circular 150/5200-31C (Change 2): Checklist for Adherence to FAA Advisory Circular 150/5200-31C (Change 2) Criteria Reference to AC 150/5200-31C Tested in Exercise? In AEP planning, individuals with disabilities and others with access and functional needs must be identified. p. 13, 3-4.d. Yes / No There must be a fully functional alert and warning system for individuals with disabilities and others with access and functional needs. p. 54, 6-3-2.b.(1) Yes / No Emergency warnings must be able to reach individuals with disabilities and others with access and functional needs, as well as those with limited English proficiency. p. 55, 6-3-2.c.(5) Yes / No Public information systems must be able to reach individuals with disabilities and others with access and functional needs and limited English proficiency in an emergency. p. 59, 6-4-2.b.(1).(c) Yes / No For evacuation, accommodation procedures must be included for individuals with disabilities and others with access and functional needs. p. 69, 6-4-2.c.(3)(b) Yes / No The American Red Cross may play a role in helping individuals with disabilities and others with access and functional needs. p. 86, 6-4-2.d.(8)(g) Yes / No Social services agencies may play a role in helping individuals with disabilities and others with access and functional needs, those with restricted mobility, or seniors and children. p. 86, 6-4-2.d.(9) Yes / No

I-2 Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs Airport exercise designers should familiarize themselves with these documents and programs to develop effective exercises. Key Considerations Possible scenarios that will test DAFN communications: • Facility evacuation – Weather – Criminal event • Shelter in place – Weather – Criminal event • Aircraft accident • Airport closure Core capabilities: • Operational coordination • Public information and warning • Operational communications • Intelligence and communication sharing Exercise participants: • Person who has mobility limitations • Person who is blind • Person who is hard of hearing • Person who has a cognitive impairment • Person who is a non-native English speaker • Representation of response stakeholders • Airport emergency response team In addition to regulatory requirements and guidance, it is suggested that airports develop an exercise strategy. It is beyond the scope of this guidebook to provide full details for developing exercises effectively. Planners are encouraged to refer to the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (available at https://preptoolkit.fema.gov/web/hseep-resources) and to other ACRP materials, including ACRP Project 04-19, “Airport Emergency Planning Template: NIMS – Incident Command System Compliance,” which addresses recommendations for integrating the disability, access and functional needs, and limited English proficiency (DAFN) communities into exercise planning.

Exercise Toolkit I-3 there are certain elements that can be integrated into any exercise. An airport can use any or all of these aspects and integrate them into the exercise documentation. Questions, Objectives, and Evaluations: The tables in this appendix document are not inclusive of every potential question an airport may consider. As confidence in the process grows, consider adding complexity by removing the primary means of communications and determining if the airport can adapt to build secondary and tertiary communication strategies. Reference Tools What follows is a sample of information that can be added to integrate communications that include members of the DAFN community into discussion-based and operational-based exercises. A checklist is included to outline the necessary planning steps. It is suggested that an airport follow a building-block approach that includes evaluating communications practices, technologies, and assumptions using the other tools of this guidebook. Ideally, operational exercises should be considered once plans and processes have been developed and staff have been trained; however,

Discussion-Based Exercise Question Objective Evaluation Criteria Is the airport’s communications technology suitable for effective and timely dissemination to all people? 1. The airport will have multiple methods of disseminating timely information to all people. 2. Airport users understand the different methods of communication. 1. The methods used by the airport are diverse and inclusive of all people. 2. Exercise participants can describe the different methods of notification. 3. Exercise participants can describe the methods by which messaging will be activated. 4. Exercise participants demonstrated “dignity for all people” throughout the exercise. Can the airport effectively adapt to the changing nature of an emergency and communicate to people affected by the emergency? 1. The airport has established practices for adapting to the changing nature of an emergency. 2. The airport can effectively communicate changing conditions to all individuals. 1. The airport demonstrated how it will adapt to ensure adequate communication throughout the exercise. 2. Exercise participants can describe how the airport is organized to adapt to the changing nature of emergencies. 3. Exercise participants can describe how the technology and methods used for communication are customizable and adaptable across all methods. 4. Exercise participants demonstrated “dignity for all people” throughout the exercise. Do airport emergency plans adequately account for communicating to all individuals? 1. Airport plan(s) adequately describes communication methods for the variety of individuals accessing the airport, including people with disabilities, others with access and functional needs, and those with limited English proficiency (DAFN). 1. The airport used representatives from the DAFN community in the development of the plan(s). 2. The airport plan addresses how it will communicate to all individuals. 3. Exercise participants can describe the differing people that the plan accommodates. 4. Exercise participants can describe the methods the plan lists. 5. Exercise participants demonstrated “dignity for all people” throughout the exercise. Are airport personnel and stakeholders adequately prepared and/or trained to perform the functions necessary to communicate to people with disabilities? 1. Airport personnel can effectively implement the communication elements of the emergency plan. 1. Exercise participants can describe their roles in implementing the communication plan. 2. Exercise participants can describe how they fit into the overall emergency management efforts. 3. Exercise participants demonstrated “dignity for all people” throughout the exercise.

Full-Scale Exercise Question Objective Evaluation Criteria Is the airport’s communication technology suitable for an effective and a timely dissemination to all people? 1. The airport will have multiple methods for disseminating timely information to all people. 2. Airport users understand the different methods of communication. 1. Emergency messages were disseminated across all methods within _____ minutes of initial notification. 2. Emergency messages were accurate. 3. Exercise participants understood and took appropriate action. 4. Exercise participants demonstrated “dignity for all people” throughout the exercise. Can the airport effectively adapt to the changing nature of an emergency and communicate to people affected by the emergency? 1. The airport has established practices for adapting to the changing nature of an emergency. 2. The airport can effectively communicate changing conditions to all people. 1. Incident command was effective in adapting to the scenario, and objectives/span of control were adjusted accordingly. 2. Exercise participants used all available methods to ensure effective communication as the scenario dictated. 3. Exercise participants demonstrated “dignity for all people” throughout the exercise. Do airport emergency plans adequately account for communicating to all people? 1. Airport plan(s) adequately describes communication methods for the variety of individuals accessing the airport, including individuals with disabilities, people with access and functional needs, and people with limited English proficiency. 1. Exercise participants effectively used available plans to communicate to all impacted parties. 2. All exercise participants received exercise messaging in the manner they expected. 3. Exercise participants demonstrated “dignity for all people” throughout the exercise. Are the airport personnel and stakeholders adequately prepared/trained to perform the functions necessary to communicate to people with disabilities? 1. Airport personnel can effectively implement the communication elements of the emergency plan. 1. Exercise participants performed their roles in accordance with the plan. 2. Exercise participants demonstrated “dignity for all people” throughout the exercise.

I-6 Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs Additional Considerations Consider having three types of evaluators: • Subject matter experts (SMEs) who are familiar with the policies and procedures of the elements being evaluated • Individuals within the DAFN community who can speak to expectations • Outside eyes who can provide an overview of how things look to an outsider Evaluations guides should contain the following elements at a minimum: • Ranking criteria using a Likert type scale (i.e., from 1 [not accomplished] to 5 [mastered]) • The ability for the evaluator to add notes, comments, and/or explanations • A location to note the time observed and the location within the exercise • Contact information for follow-up questions Take into account the level of care that is provided to people with DAFN and their service animals on a regular basis, not just during the exercise or in an emergency. Include the following: • Medicines • Transportation • Restrooms and relief areas for service/support animals • Dietary restrictions/food allergies • Real-life emergency contact • Personal protective equipment For actors/role players, communicate expected actions. If at all possible, manage expectations for no surprises. • Lights/sirens • Moulage • Gunshots • Will it be a full-lift exercise or simulated? • What stretchers and/or safety restraints may be used? For responding role players, encourage any pre-training to be accomplished and brief them to expect a mixture of all types of people. The purpose is to evaluate processes and procedures.

Exercise Toolkit I-7 Exercise Planning Checklist This checklist presents an estimate timeline and key tasks that must be accomplished for a successful exercise. Each key task can be broken into further steps. For the timeline, the smaller number represents discussion-based exercises, and the larger number represents a full-scale exercise. This timing will vary depending on the complexity and nature of each airport. Flexibility is required. Activity to Be Accomplished Time in Relation to Exercise Date What is the exercise trying to accomplish, and what type of exercise will be most appropriate for these objectives? • Review and/or develop quality control plans (discussion-based exercise) • Evaluate the performance and/or effectiveness of plans (operational- based exercise) 60–360 days prior Determine initial planning team: • Emergency management community • Stakeholders • Community representatives for people with disabilities, others with access and functional needs, and those with limited English proficiency (DAFN) Consider assigning roles for different aspects: • Site manager • Logistics • Finance • Safety 60–360 days prior Determine initial exercise objectives and scope (see section above on possible objectives for different communication challenges for people with DAFN) 60–360 days prior With the planning team, develop and/or refine a scenario that will evaluate against the established objectives (Caution: A scenario that is too elaborate may result in an inaccurate evaluation of stated objectives.) 30–270 days prior Issue a save-the-date notice and/or an invitation for the exercise early enough to ensure adequate participation, as participation will depend on the availability of stakeholders • Develop a registration process • Provide minimum participation requests to stakeholders 15–180 days prior (continued on next page)

I-8 Airport Emergency Communications for People with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs Activity to Be Accomplished Time in Relation to Exercise Date Develop exercise documents: (for more information, see ACRP/FEMA): • Evaluation guides (How do you know if the objectives were met?) • Timeline of expected exercise activities, sometimes called aMaster Scenario Events List (MSEL) • Briefing materials For more information, see resources at: • ACRP: http://www.trb.org/Publications/PubsACRPSynthesis Reports.aspx • FEMA: https://www.fema.gov/media-library/assets/documents/ 100098 15–60 days prior Train exercise staff and players: • What are the rules? • What are the objectives? • Safety requirements • Artificialities 1 week prior Conduct exercise: • Capture immediate evaluation feedback through a post-exercise discussion and evaluation of stakeholder(s) performance • Collect evaluations Day of exercise Complete summary: • Provide highlights of exercise demographics • Include pictures • Include initial observations 1 week post-exercise Prepare an after-action report: • If requested, schedule an after-action conference 30–90 days post- exercise

Next: Appendix J - Emergency Preparedness Scenario Vignettes »
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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Research Report 201 provides guidance and tools for airports to aid in effective communication with passengers and persons with disabilities, including those with cultural and language differences.

The report includes a primer that discusses issues, techniques, and the unique requirements and challenges of communicating with people with disabilities and others who have access or functional needs.

The report explores uses of technology and other methods that incorporate ADA considerations and communication challenges with airport stakeholders, and training programs for airport personnel, including templates for development of curricula.

There are case study examples of methods of emergency communication at airports and in other industries, and for universal messaging for emergency communications.

The project that produced the report also produced templates in support of airport emergency plans specifically addressing individuals with limited English proficiency, step-by-step tools that include a needs assessment tool that airports can use to determine what steps must to be taken to comply with ADA requirements concerning communications, and templates/worksheets/checklists for planning tabletop exercises that focus on communicating with people with disabilities and access or functional needs during emergency events. These resources are described and linked to below.

  • The Inventory Checklists (from Appendix A) list plans, reports, documents, programs, and services that are helpful in emergency communications for DAFN. The checklists make it easy to review what the airport has in place, what needs to be developed or updated, etc.
  • The Accessibility Walkthrough Worksheet (from Appendix B) is a tool to structure evaluations (ideally conducted by members of a DAFN Advisory Group, as discussed in the report) that identify and assign accessibility ratings to existing communications modes and resources from curbside through baggage claim, and identify modes or resources that can be added or improved.
  • The FAA Airport Accessibility Checklist (from Appendix C) is reproduced online in PDF for convenience; a url is provided that directs users to the FAA source.
  • The Accessibility Strategy Quick Reference Guide (from Appendix D) summarizes key aspects of core, enhanced, and emerging strategies described in the report.
  • The CONOPS Template (from Appendix F) provides generic text for an Emergency Communications Concept of Operations document that airports can edit to meet their needs and those of the communities they serve.
  • The Disability Equity Training document provides training content, including empathy exercises, from Appendix G in a format that can be adapted and customized for use by practitioners.
  • The 1-Minute Read Poster (from Appendix H) provides a reproducible, one-page reference on how to offer and provide assistance respectfully to people with DAFN.
  • The Outreach Brochure (also from Appendix H) is provided in a separate downloadable file for use and distribution by practitioners.
  • The Exercise Toolkit (from Appendix I), with checklists and materials to support a discussion-based exercise and a full-scale, operational exercise, is reproduced in Word to facilitate adaptation and use by practitioners.
  • The Prepared Scenario Vignettes (from Appendix J), which can be used to lay the foundation of a discussion-based or tabletop exercise.
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