National Academies Press: OpenBook

Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes (1959)

Chapter: Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization

« Previous: Scientific Documentation in France
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization

MAREK CIGÁNIK

The term “scientific, technical, and economic information” (STEI) has become very familiar in our country. No exact definition of this term has been hitherto given, even though many authors have attempted to interpret its meaning. I wish to point out that this composite conception represents the result of two development trends, i.e., on the one hand the effort to improve and to increase the cooperation between special librarians and documentalists and to settle controversies between them, and on the other hand to meet the continuously increasing need for satisfactory information of scientific and engineering workers in their special fields as well as in fields more or less related to their special ones. The latter point appears to be of greater importance than the former. In our country, the essential importance of the latter point was evident in particular in research institutes. Even though some research-type working places have many years of experience, still research institutes and academies of science are, in general, relatively new institutions and thus are more interested in STEI.

The problem of information is not, however, a linear and direct one. It is first of all concerned with ascertaining existing technological procedures and knowledge in a given field, and the possibility of applying knowledge, taken from other fields related more or less to the main field, in the interest of adopting the latest technical progress and eliminating duplicity of work in research. But it is also important to ascertain currently used technics and technology of research started in our plants for comparison with the latest information. Making the results of our own research available for customers, getting an insight into their requirements, and, finally, exchanging information and data by means of publications, lectures, conference, etc., are also topics of importance. Such a view on information differs from those of the librarian and the documentalist, for this activity is beyond the province of a librarian’s or a documentalist’s work.

MAREK CICÁNIK Cables and Insulating Materials Research Institute, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia.

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

The division of labour generally practised in today’s society made it inevitable for special workers—information engineers—to do the work in the field of information, and to establish individual organisation units designed as scientific, technical, and economic information divisions. This does not mean, however, that the division of labour is in all cases and everywhere strictly maintained, for it is determined by economic rules which must be respected also in the information field. There will be, therefore, cases for which it will be necessary to direct the activity of this division in a different way, since the establishment of separate STEI units is not economical. If we want to solve the information problem with reference to the economical point of view, it is necessary to analyse all related activities and to seek the maximal and minimal limits for the given conditions.

Dividing the STEI’s activities

The STEI divisions comprise a whole scale of simple and intricate activities. Besides information proper, library work, documentation, publishing, bibliography, photoreproduction, etc., are covered. After a detailed analysis in the light of the modern view on information, the conclusion was drawn that there are three types of basic activities comprising all the other activities, namely literature search, literature research, and economic analyses.

Literature search defines an activity steadily aimed at ascertaining sources of information from a determined scientific or manufacturing branch.

Literature research indicates an activity of ascertaining and utilizing scientific and technical experiences discovered in information sources in the course of a literature search, and in addition to literature sources (e.g., samples and products).

Economic studies are thought to illustrate research and technical work effectiveness. The main scope of these analyses is to make it possible to direct technical development towards the greatest possible efficiency.

Literature research is directly connected with research proper by the intermediate of the so-called indirect research which deals chiefly with the experimental verification of data taken from literature. Results of literature search, worked out in this way, represent a verified literature research, in contradistinction to the non-verified one, and are a necessary basis for proper or direct theoretical and exploratory investigations. The results of the verified literature research offer a direct basis, too, for the adoption of up-to-date technics and technology for plants.

The division working in the STEI field activity in our country is called “study division.”

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Literature search

In the literature search activity, we distinguish three stages of work: search proper, treatment of the results of searches, and supply of information (making accessible). Each of these stages comprises several logically connected sub-activities. An overall review of activities concerned with literature search is given in Fig. 1.

It must be emphasised that the most important part of each stage in search proper is to determine the extent of the other activities. In this way, a certain dynamic standpoint has come to the front, for each source is sought and tested from a certain point of view. There is always a main scientific field, to which several borderline subjects have been attached. Sources dealing with the main field will be interesting as a whole regardless of their special application. Sources concerned with borderline subjects will be interesting in their applicability to the main subject and, from a general point of view, by offering a general survey of borderline subjects for research workers.

Thus, for our Institute, technology of cables and insulating materials represents the main topic. We are interested in everything related to this subject. Branches of secondary importance closely related to the main topic are: the whole field of electrical engineering as regards the application of electrical conductors, cables and insulating materials; further the whole field of macro-molecular, chiefly rubber and plastics, chemistry; of varnish chemistry and the related chemical technologies. Measuring techniques and testing practice, mathematics, physics, chemistry, analytical and physical chemistry, machinery and painting technics are considered distantly related to the main topic, principally with reference to the application aspect, i.e., to the cable and insulating material technique.

The general aspect prevails particularly in cases where definite and generally valid methods are concerned, e.g., in analytical chemistry, varnish chemistry, or definite procedures such as drawing and annealing of wires, moulding of plastics, extruding of materials in the plastic state. Thus, when critically examining certain scientific branches in the whole search, three outstanding characteristics are apparent: concreteness, applicability, and generality. The same points of view are applicable also to the main topic, that is, referring to the specialization of the individual research workers, and they are reflected, but in a different way, chiefly when working up the results and making them accessible.

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

FIGURE 1. Literature search activities.

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
SUBDIVIDING SEARCH PROPER

Search proper is not restricted to selection of literature on a special topic. That is only a part of the whole search, i.e., search represents, in this sense, a term with new meaning. Search is subdivided into general and special type.

General search comprises a systematic search in existing literature sources covering a given field as well as fields more or less related to the main field from the three points of view mentioned. Sources ascertained need not be put in practice immediately. As a rule, while performing this part of search, the existing condition or situation is the prevailing factor, but the retrospective standpoint must be considered as well. An essential feature of this part is the continuance of systematic search.

Special search includes ascertaining available data covering a specifically confined subject, such as conductors for X-ray apparatus.

From concepts treated up to this point, it may be concluded that literature search proper may be performed in a high-grade and economic way by a worker having a thorough specialised knowledge not only of the main field but also of those of relative secondary importance. If several scientific fields are covered in the main topic, a further specialization is desirable. A further difficulty lies in the fact that, in addition to a specialization in the related branches, an acquaintance with at least the principal languages is obligatory.

Subdivision of general search

Experience in our country has shown that it is well to subdivide general search according to the types of literature examined. Such a subdivision is instructive, from a theoretical point of view, because, it is necessary, in this case, to ascertain and work out a complete plan of the literature followed and, moreover, it makes possible a further division of labour as well as an effective control of the relative completeness of search performed by a single worker. From Fig. 1 the organization of search is evident, but a brief further illustration seems to be needed.

Bibliographical search. This activity involves searching and ascertaining sources in all types of bibliographies and has a few scopes. First, it has to afford a concrete basis for acquisitions, i.e., it consists of a systematic following of bibliographies, in particular of books and periodicals. In this case a bibliographic search for acquisition is concerned. It is impossible to treat either acquisition or selection of general type bibliographies in this paper, for this topic represents a problem common to almost all those who are concerned with technical and often also with all natural science work.

A particular importance is attached to bibliographical search when estab-

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

lishing the plan for ordering periodicals for abstracting and periodical search. In addition to current methods of qualifying and classifying periodicals, or, in other words searches in bibliographies, libraries, and frequency of references gathered from a certain periodical in abstracting journals, we introduced a systematic recording of the frequency of references in a certain periodical on a special card established for each journal. Further details will be mentioned in the section dealing with periodical search.

Within the limits of bibliographic search work, the concept of the so-called supplementary bibliographic search or cooperative search is coming to the front. There are two kinds of this search: (a) ascertaining the occurrence and availability of a certain publication, e.g., in bibliographies, catalogues of government scientific and related libraries, and in particular of industrial-branch information departments; (b) search in specialized bibliographies. Further investigation in these to ascertain sources of specialized searches and completion of sources not found by current methods, from these bibliographies, are practised. [Important bibliographies of this type in our branch are: Underground Systems Reference Book (1931, National Electric Light Association, New York), Underground Systems Reference Book (1957, New York: Edison Electric Institute), Classified Bibliography on Insulated Conductors beginning with 1930 (1954, New York: American Institute of Electrical Engineers), Naučnaja literature po dielektrikam (1952, Moskva: Akademija nauk SSSR), Digest of Literature on Dielectrics (from 1936 to date, National Research Council, Washington), Handbuch der Physik, Band XVII Dielektrika (1956, Berlin: Springer-Verlag), Landolt-Börnstein: Zahlenwerte und Funktionen aus Physik, Chemie, Astronomie, Geophysik und Technik, IV. Band-Technik 3. Teil Elektrotechnik (1957, Berlin: Springer-Verlag), Bibliography on Wire (1936–1951, The Iron and Steel Institute).]

Further objectives are search of subject bibliographies and bibliographies as well as search in these bibliographies, and, finally, supplementary search in literature mentioned in high-grade specialized books and papers. Such a search usually gives valuable results.

The last stage of a bibliographical search is the abstracting bibliographical search. In our country, this activity is incorrectly called “passive documentation.” Abstracting search has the characteristics of a supplementary search, mainly as an additional periodical search. It consists of following the special abstracting periodicals and separate cards services, and of working up sources not involved when performing other types of search.

Periodical search. This activity consists of searching and establishing sources in periodicals, i.e., of searching in scientific and technical journals. This is of

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

utmost importance for the needs of theoretical and fundamental researches. This search results in concrete papers found in a given periodical. Equally valuable are, of course, further data, in particular references to literature, book reviews, advertisements, data concerned with firms, new products, and manufacturers’ literature. Thus, the periodical search includes periodical, bibliographical, and trade literature.

A periodical search is a relatively wearisome procedure for the specialized worker and, therefore, a correct choice of periodicals which have to be followed is essential. It is impossible to state the maximum and minimum numbers of periodicals. After a few years’ experience, we assembled a list of periodicals actually abstracted (Appendix I). Systematic abstracting of periodicals was started in 1922, when the so-called literary department was established within the library of the Cable Works Co., Ltd., at Bratislava. About 60 foreign periodicals and 5 abstracting journals were abstracted by scientific and technical workers of the concern. Later (in 1947) this number was raised to 130, then to 200, and, in 1955, to 350 periodicals abstracted by workers in the department of documentation. For each periodical, a record card (using the horizontal type Karto system) was kept on which, in three-month intervals, was noted the number of references taken from it, together with a subdivision into concrete, applicable, and general papers. In addition to other well-known criteria, these results are very useful in making a critical examination of a given periodical for our purposes, as well as in preliminary planning of periodicals to be abstracted. Three years’ experience with such a type of investigation showed the lack of economy in raising the number of original periodicals followed. For reaching actual sources, a certain optimal number of periodicals is sufficient, i.e., our special requirements are met by following 200 periodicals and 30 abstract journals, which is considerably less than the 350 originally abstracted, the topics being followed very broadly. After this practical evaluation we reduced by one-third not only the number of periodicals followed but also the time needed for search, and raised the number of abstracting journals, thereby broadening the so-called supplementary search. By these measures, we raised the number of sources, while saving one-third the time. The ratio between references taken from original sources and from abstracting journals and cards services is actually 1:1, and the total is 12,000 abstracts a year.

With all searches, but particularly in periodical ones, the ascertaining of sources is related both to the general thematic search plan (main and borderline fields, in general, regardless of whether the source in question is, at this point, interesting) and to the operative research planning (concrete planned tasks and

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

the continuous completion of bibliographies worked out by special search works in the preceding years). This part of search is usually called continual search, and this is emphasised especially.

Patent and trade literature search. By this term is meant a search consisting of seeking and establishing sources in patent and trade literature. This represents the most important type of search for industrial and applied research. At this point, it will be analyzed only within the scope of general and continual research. It was apparent that combining the patent and trade literature search was essential. Patent literature, in particular patent applications, precedes all other types of literature, but it is not always realistic. A large dose of phantasy, chiefly in covering, blocking, and securing patents, is incorporated, whereas trade literature is realistic and often gives information on invention realizations.

From the practical and proven economic standpoint, we concluded that following the patent literature of Germany, the United States, Great Britain, and France, and, after careful selection, the manufacturing volumes of the other countries, naturally in addition to Czechoslovak patent literature, seems to be sufficient.

Search is, at our Institute, aimed at official journals and patent abstracting periodicals as well as at patent specifications of selected classes, performed in close cooperation with the National Invention and Standardization Office in Prague. For abstracting patent literature, a special method, described in the section dealing with results of search, was developed.

The objects of trade literature search are specialized journals and house organs mentioned in the section on periodical search, and, in particular, advertisements appearing in these periodical; further, industrial shows, trade literature obtained regularly from firms or centers of trade literature, as well as lectures of individual firm representatives. A prerequisite for the realization of an effective search in trade literature is the availability of a firm directory with a survey on their manufacturing program.

Standards search. This activity is characterized by the ascertaining of existing standards and tentative specifications. Similar conclusions are valid here as in searches in patent literature, but standards literature is delayed as compared with the other types of literature.

Special material search. In this case, a search of bibliographies and bibliographies on research and development reports is made. We follow U.S. Government Research Reports, Nuclear Science Abstracts, ERA Reports, Otčoty NIIKP (Naučno- institut promyšlennosti, Moscow,) and VEI (Vsesojuznyj elektrotechničeskij institut, Moscow), lists of solved and resolved projects of the individual Czechoslovak institutions and others. This literature is less easily available, but it is important.

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Another object of this activity is the following of dissertations, symposia, lectures on conferences, as well as of scientific, technical, and instructive films. There is no definite specialization for cable and insulating material technics, but important in this respect are the conferences of CIGRÉ and IEC, World Power Conference, Conference on Electrical Insulating Materials, further meetings of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, American Society for Testing Materials, Institute of Electrical Engineers, Verein Deutsche Elektrotechniker, and others.

Performance of general search in practice. Between 1922 and 1927, search in the cable concern was accomplished by regular circulation of periodicals among scientific, technical, and commercial workers. The same workers also made the selection of periodicals for search. From 1927 this activity was the responsibility of the director together with top scientific workers of the physical laboratory, which at that time was the research center of the concern. Search was effected on the basis of a plan for systematically abstracting periodicals and patent government publications. Each member of the committee had to follow about 20 periodicals. After the foundation of the Research Institute, the search was effected by the director again, together with a few highly qualified top workers. After the number of periodicals increased, search was transferred to the study department head, and, later, to the specialized group leaders. Until these specialized group leaders acquired sufficient qualifications, search was performed practically by all research workers who received the periodicals in the course of circulation.

The present state of affairs is, in our opinion, the best one. The study department head effects a preliminary search aimed at the up-to-date research tasks, designs papers concerned with these topics, and those which are to be published in the Bulletin. Search is effected immediately after the arrival of the periodicals by mail. In addition, the head of the study department makes the search of the part in patents which cannot be subdivided into individual classes with a definite specialization. The further search, namely a scanning of assigned periodicals is done by the specialized group leader within the study department (engineers), whereas bibliographical acquisitive and cooperative search is done by the librarian-in-chief, and, finally, abstracting and part of supplementary search is done by the individual documentalists with reference to their specialization. A control search, in addition, is effected officially for a definite special field by scientific workers from research, with particular reference to application. This is done in such a way that the study department head, together with the specialized group leaders, indicates significant, interesting papers which must be abstracted within a week. The periodical is afterwards available for readers in the reading room for one month, or, in special

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

cases, it is sent to selected research workers on a “limited” circulation. During availability in the reading room as well as on limited circulation, the periodical should be inspected, in addition to the destined research worker, by all workers interested in the related topic. Every worker who has reviewed the journal, classifies every source in question by “K” (concrete), “a” (application), or “v” (general) according to the principal point of view covered. Further classifications are “obj.” (order!), if a certain source has to be ordered, and, finally, the classification manual and datum are written on the circulation slip put into the periodical. After the journal has been on display in the reading room for an appropriate time, it is returned to the documentalist who, according to his specialty, completes the literature search and performs abstracting work. Uninspected periodicals are also abstracted, but, in those circumstances, on the advice of the study department head.

Pointing out search, in contradistinction to the other activities, in particular the evaluation of results which is closely related to search, is not only of theoretical, but, also of considerable practical importance. Search requires thorough specialized knowledge as well as knowledge of the perspective development trend in a special field. Only when these requirements are met can an effective and economic search be effected without danger of working in the “l’art pour l’art” way. Finally, a well-done general search makes possible an effective division of labour. In Czechoslovakia, where the STEI institutions are relatively recent, it must be realized that a worker, even with university level qualifications, is unable to work out a well-assembled search, and, in this case, the task has to be done by the laboratory and highly qualified workers of the Institute, since neglecting the work concerned with abstracting literature may lead to serious consequences. On the other hand, a highly skilled study department head and specialized group leaders considerably increase the efficiency level of research activity.

SPECIAL SEARCHES-LITERATURE REVIEWING

General type search is characterized by its prevailing practice feature, whereas special search is predominantly retrospective. A finished special search has to answer, in an indicative or complete way, the question of what is known about a specific problem. Special search, therefore, usually was a necessary first stage procedure before the solution of any research, development, or industrial type task. Performance of a special search is, with reference to economy, a first-grade requirement in research and exploring activities. Its methods, however, change depending on the type of basic or applied research covered. According to the solution of a given task that special search has to offer, we distinguish selective and comprehensive special searches.

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Selective special search

This represents a type of search which gives an indicative picture of a certain subject. As a rule, it is restricted to the study department’s own findings because information has to be gained within a short time. This kind of search is frequently used in our country at the time the research program is established, when the problem of incorporating the customer’s requirement into the plan is decided upon. Selective search has to define the requirement to such an extent that a definite decision can be made. The results of this search are summarized in a so-called signalizing (preliminary) literature review. It is often desirable to emphasize, in performing selective search, a certain type of literature such as research reports, patents, and standards. It is usual to designate this type of activity as selective type searching (search by types of material). Within a designated type of literature, a complete search, which represents, however, always a selective-type search, may be made. Another point of view appears when classifying a selective search according to the quality of sources; in this case we may speak of a selective recommended search (recommendatory search).

Comprehensive search

This search gives a complete picture of the situation in a certain field. Its aim is to ascertain all sources which are related to the topic in question. An absolute degree of completeness of sources, as a rule, can never be attained. Such a requirement is, on the one hand, of no practical value, and on the other hand, it is unrealistic. This lack of practical value is based on the fact that it is unnecessary to quote all sources, which frequently repeat each other. It is necessary, however, to find all sources of importance as well as every source which, compared with other sources, contains, at least in part, novelties. Collected sources are also valuable, of course, even though they do not contain any substantial new contributions, but because they sum up data gathered from widely scattered sources. Such sources may be, after all, compilations of special search results. A requirement of an absolute degree of completeness is unrealistic, for it cannot be attained in practice because of inaccessibility of sources, keeping them in secret, etc.

There are two kinds of comprehensive search depending on the subject covered. When a special detail of a known topic is involved and if it may be resolved definitely by search, we call it a search for specific factual information. Thus, for instance, electric properties of polyethylene produced by current industrial procedures have to be ascertained. In this case the search is limited to disclosing concrete data and is neither repeated nor continued; it is, therefore, performed but once. Under these circumstances, it is profitable to quote

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

data from at least two sources, to increase the reliability of data found.

If, on the other hand, a special topic is involved, and the worldwide state of development at a definite time or in a determined interval of time has to be ascertained, an analytical search must be performed, because all kinds of literature and all sources available have to be analyzed. Analytical search may be considered of greatest importance because, as a rule, it inevitably recurs in this type of search in which new research tasks, perspective tasks, and important actual research problems, which cannot be provided for within the operative research program, are covered. Analytical search is a basic item of the study department program. A specification that lists accurately not only the requirements of the customer but also data on sources known to the customer is, of necessity, required in such cases.

Practical performance of special search

A specific feature of specialized search is that each kind requires a separate search. The only kind of specialized search which usually is not asked for explicitly, but recommended, is selective recommendatory search.

Special search is generally based on the requirement list in addition to search for specific factual information. According to the requirement list, the search program is assembled. Although search for specific factual information is not planned, a certain amount of time is alloted to it in accordance with the experience of the previous year. Special search planning is directly related to the research program of the research institute as well as to the technical development program of the enterprise. The research usually represents also a specialized directory center for the whole branch, and participates in the preparations of the technical development plan for the branch in question. A special search program of the documentation development gives, however, no true picture of the research and technical development programs, which can be easily understood. The special search program depends chiefly on the research work and study department organizations, mainly on literary search and research distribution or subdivision. Literature search is usually performed exclusively by the study department, whereas this is only partly true of the literature research which is performed within the study department as well as within the research laboratories. It is further dependent on the kinds of research tasks as well as on the time provided for the solution of these tasks. It is also evident that it ought to be related to general search, especially closely to current search.

The chief problem in special search is its performance in limited time. Work on most tasks starts at the beginning of the year, and it is almost impossible, in the majority of cases, to perform a comprehensive search for several tasks

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

combined with the treatment of results. Accordingly, finishing a concrete search is a matter requiring a lot of time, and the worker charged with the solution of a given task very often wishes to get the results of the search within a short time, so that it is only natural that a controversy arises regarding search velocity and completeness as well as quality requirements. The controversy may be settled easily if a systematic general search of the field in question existed and exists, for the possibility of finishing a special search within a short time and of gaining valuable results increases with the amount of literature found in the files and with the length of the time interval. This requirement is, however, not met in all cases, because the study department’s activity is only of recent date. Even within our department, where systematic general search has existed since 1922, the situation looks unfavourable because of the incompleteness of findings and of the lack of literature from 1938 to 1947. For these reasons, it seems necessary to effect a specialized search for a longer time and to plan it in definite stages.

Special search is performed, in general, only by documentalists, including group leaders. Only search for specific factual information can be and also often is effected by the scientific worker himself. It must be mentioned, in addition, that in the study department’s activity, for medium- and low-qualification staffs of the institute and for enterprises, selected recommended search is stressed, whereas for research workers, signalling, standards, patents, and analytical searches prevail. An attempt was made to illustrate searches and their relation to research work stages in Table I representing a partly idealized schedule. It must be realized that the schedule mentioned is only for a concrete working place with a defined research task.

During the first research stage, all kinds of general search are dealt with. Special search is closely related in particular to current search which, after results have been worked up, is concluded both by completing the bibliographies and by annual literature reviews related to a concrete narrow topic. An ideal solution in international relations would be for scientific institutes active in the same field to cooperate in publishing such reviews, and thereby a further increase of effectiveness in the field of scientific, technical, and economic information could be attained.

Further stages will be illustrated by means of a concrete example. An airplane manufacturer asks that he be furnished with an aircraft ignition cable stable in a temperature range of −60 to +200°C. Such a cable is not included in the regular manufacturing program and, therefore, the order is transferred to the research institute. This institute entrusts the problem to a specialist, or invites the purchaser to discuss the matter, or, alternatively, requires an accurate definition of the problem, usually in form of answers to prepared ques-

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

TABLE I Survey on the topics of literature search and research subdivided according to steps of work in research

Step of research work

Topic of literature search or research based on actual problems

Stage in STEI Dept.

Kind of search and research

Users of material

Initiation of research program: perspective planning and definition of goals

Current awareness in main and more related borderline fields of specialization

General searching

Annual reviews of literature

General management, research management, chief scientists, scientists, engineers

General survey on less related subjects

 

General informative and applied search

Survey of consumers demand trends and perspective demand programs

 

General searches

 

Review on basic national economy trends, export, import, and market development

 

General searches

 

 

Survey on general questions of management, planning, organisation, and research economy

 

General searches

 

Planning of operation research and development program, exploratory investigations

Selecting projects for research.

General survey on the situation in the specific problem field for the applicant and the consumer

Preliminary or signalling searching

Definition of requirements

Research management

Patent situation in general

 

Patent selective search

Planning department

 

“Classic” and current awareness of trends

 

Preliminary search

Planning department

 

Availability of materials, equipment, etc.

 

Selective search

Research management

 

Review of proposed ideas, market research information, executive investigation

 

Preliminary economic studies

Leaders of research teams

Accomplishment of research program

Literature and theoretical research

Information relating to suggested lines of research, existing and similar type solutions

Analytical searching (Literature studies)

Comprehensive search

Leaders of projects

Background information for evaluating exploratory research, for theoretical investigations and problems

 

Comprehensive special material search

Senior scientists and engineers

 

Summarizing search results, verification of theoretic data, economic studies, reports of studies

 

Literature research

Research management

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Experimental work and applied research

Information for further applicable procedures and new trends, information for evaluating experimental results and for continuing planning of experimental work

Continual and factual information searching

Continual search Standards search

Leaders of research teams

 

Detailed information needed in day-to-day experimental work

 

Factual information search

Scientists and engineers

Development of research results, semi-plant, pilot plant

Suitability and availability of materials, equipment processes, possibility of application of new methods and technique

Completion searching, patent studies, economic studies

Continual search

Complementary search

Leader of research team, development engineers

 

Engineering information

 

Factual information search

Scientists and engineers

 

Evaluation of competition and eventual product specifications, tentative specifications, and standards

 

Special material search

Development engineers

 

Ascertaining of economically most suitable solutions and methods

 

Special economic studies

Research management

 

Investigation of the patentability aspects of solutions, internal and external evaluation of reports

 

Patent search

Literature research

Research management

General management

Application research full-scale production

Information for gaining data for full-scale production

Elaboration of own research results, continual search, market research

Continuous search

Leaders of research teams and liaison officers

 

Information on possible applications and markets

 

Utilization studies

General and research management

 

Background information as to technical practicality, on reasons for customer complaints, plant difficulties, etc.

 

General search

Market research

General and research management

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

tions. This is the first phase of the second stage involving information on the state of affairs in the problem field and at the purchaser’s plant. It is my own opinion that scientific workers from laboratories should not be disturbed repeatedly in an uneconomic way. Search aimed at accurately defining requirements is concluded with the drafting of a report.

After this relatively quick phase the second phase of activity is the comprehensive investigation of the patent field as well as the gaining of basic knowledge on the state of affairs of a topic as given in publications. This in many cases is accomplished in the form of a signalling review. A typical example of a signalling review is given by photographing some known sources, chronologically arranging photocopies and compiling them in box files. A signalling review is studied by the specialist charged with the solution of the task in question or by the leader of the department concerned, and, after a comparison with the actual state of affairs at the purchaser’s, a suggested requirement list or, alternatively, a refusal of the requirement is recommended. In a further stage, an accurate definition of the requirements listed is accomplished. In this phase, are gained information and data determined for a preliminary economic evaluation, further data on possibilities of solution in space and time, as well as on the suitability of materials. In this phase, there are often requirements for specific factual information. This stage is concluded by giving a rough suggestion of the method of solution, determining the research team, and signing of the requirement report. The planning department or the acceptance committee recommends proceeding further, in accordance with the facts, and decides whether it is necessary to distinguish research stages or only a development stage, and what is given by the nature of the task. The decision has a considerable influence on the extent of the specialized literature search. It is supposed that, under these circumstances, a new problem such as ignition cables with Teflon insulation is involved, where it will be necessary to examine and to verify the properties of Teflon, to resolve extrusion techniques, to suggest a suitable testing method, and so on. A study stage is therefore suggested; the study department works out a comprehensive literature review on a comprehensive literature search; a designated team, of which the literature research worker is a member, effects a literature research; and the study stage is concluded with a study report. When new problems are involved, a study stage is inevitable. There is still another question concerning the division of labour between the study department and research proper. Our experience shows that, if a task with a well-defined scope which can be planned in concrete terms even for a long time in advance is covered, the job of the study department is limited to performing a comprehensive or literature study review. When all the complexities of the problem have to be elucidated in the course of the

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

study stage, the study department work is required to make a literature research also, and this stage is concluded with a study report. In the former case, the documentalist takes part in the research team only in an advisory capacity, whereas in the latter case he is the leading worker, and research workers act as his assistants, in particular when a laboratory verification of study results is desirable. Such a practice has involved applied research tasks. When theoretical and materials research is covered, the situation is different, and the study department concludes its work with a comprehensive search. When a comprehensive search is made only in the third stage, it is not repeated in the course of the following stages. In Table I, comprehensive search is mentioned also in the following stages, but only in case some stage has been left out. Generally, after any comprehensive search, a systematic continual search is started, and a special factual information search is always useful during the solution of a task.

In the fifth stage of research activity, a more detailed economic analysis of the solution has to be effected; in particular the economically most advantageous solution and its dependence on the quality of the solution must be indicated. This work can be performed best by the worker charged with the solution of the task, in cooperation with an economist, the specific worker furnishing the data on the basis of his research and the economist selecting these from the comprehensive literature review or, alternatively, completing them by means of a further special factual information search.

A patent search is made to ascertain the patent aspects of solutions related to a finished comprehensive search. This is concluded with the elaboration of a patent application, or, respectively, with the critical examination of the patentability aspects by a committee within the institute. The prevailing factor in these works is, of course, not search, but the investigation of sources, and, for this reason, patent search concerning novelty belongs to literature research, and thus the accurate quotation of the results of economic analyses has its own place in economic analyses.

In the last stage of research activity, the study department returns to the methods of general search, in particular to its special part, namely to continual search. This phase of the work leads to the publication in the Institute’s bulletin of experiences not mentioned in the research report. Thus information from diaries is made available to workers interested further in the subject.

Methods of work used in special search (1).

Some authors, Janicki (2) and Frank (3), distinguish two methods of special search, direct and inverse (direkte und indirekte Methode bei Literaturrecherchen) when describing literature and patent reviews. For the kind of literature

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

review, Frank distinguishes simple literature reviews (einfache Literaturrecherchen) and complete reviews (vollständige Literaturrecherchen). Such a subdivision is by no means complete and makes no difference between search and its results. To this subdivision is roughly correlated special selective and special comprehensive searches. For the selective search, in particular for signalling and type search, the inverse method of search is used. Thus, the concept of the signalling review is equivalent to the concept of the simple review, but it differs from the concept of patent, standard, and other literature surveys. From the standpoint of source completeness, a selective search is always made by the inverse method even though, from the standpoint of type, the search may be complete.

For the comprehensive search, the direct method of search is used, and the concept of a comprehensive review corresponds to the concept of a complete review (vollständige Literaturrecherche), but it is more accurate, for, as has already been pointed out, absolute completeness of search is neither realistic nor practical.

Experience has shown, however, that it is often useful for recommendatory and special factual information searches to use both methods in a certain combination, and for patent literature, it is even necessary. It will be useful, therefore, to introduce a third combined method of search by which a certain division of labour for searching activity is made possible. At our Institute, such a division of labour is profitable, because it is possible to shorten the time of search and the treatment of its results. Thus, at the time when the research plan is accurately defined, the group leader uses the inverse method for the signalling search. In a further stage, when the signalling literature review is extended to a comprehensive one, the working program is established in such a way that other members of the study department specializing in standard, patent, and trade literature are called upon. Search is then effected by the team, the leading worker using the direct method and the others the inverse one. It is also possible to realize a division of labour by the participation of outside co-workers active in a related field as well as of further study departments of the branches. This is practised chiefly for patent search concerned with the validity search for patents and also for other kinds of patent searches.

A similar situation exists in the field of special factual information search. This is the most common type of search related to information service in a library and, in our department, this activity is in charge of the chief librarian using the direct method. When, however, he has to solve more complex and intricate problems, he does so with the assistance of a documentation specialist who takes part in the search using the inverse method. Thus search is both accelerated and the reliability of results is increased.

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Treatment of search results and its relation to literature research and economic studies

For literature search, there are two types of treatment, i.e., library and documentation. With library treatment, the individual sources or source sets are transferred, through the processes of accession, cataloguing, and classification in a signalling way, to the catalogues, and, physically, to the stores. In this part of the procedure a general type classification usually closely related to marking is sufficient. With documentation treatment, at first the point of detailed information and its transformation into bibliographic, indicative, informative, and synthetic type abstracts from all sources including those in a form used for signalling, such as parts of chapters of books and monographs, prevails. A fundamental need for this stage is a thoroughly prepared classifying system such as a special UDC abridged table with a more precise subdivision of the subjects. Abstracts are cumulated in files perpetually absorbing “information energies.” When treating lists of references or literature reviews the collective point is again employed. The type of treatment is reflected also in the titles of reference lists. The title of a review of references is determined preferably by the kind of search involved: signalling, current or recommendatory, comprehensive or analytical, patent or standard reviews are distinguished. By extending the title by indicating the kind of review treatment, we may speak of a signalling indicative review, an analytical informative review, a bibliographic list, and so on.

When a study department is not going to take part in the literature research, its work is concluded by finishing an analytical informative review. Such a review represents the result of an analytical search and contains a report on search, the systematic classification of the materials, informative abstracts on each source of importance, bibliographic abstracts on supplementary sources, and, finally, an author index.

The analytical review is sometimes prepared to give a so-called study review. Abstracts are omitted. Instead of them, a continuous, comprehensive review with an attached bibliographic list of sources is given. This type of review is advantageous for three reasons: (1) when it represents a survey of the previous year’s literature, (2) when it is profitable and appropriate to publish search results, and (3) when the study department is going to take part in the literature research.

I am not going to treat literature research here, even though some types of search, mainly in patents and also economic studies, where market search represents the first stage, are covered. As a practical example of the treatment

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

of general and special search results, a new method of work, developed last year, for the treatment of patent and trade literatures is described. It is based on the author’s own suggestion which was verified in practice and tested at VÚKI.

TREATMENT OF PATENT AND TRADE LITERATURES

In this section under the term “patent literature” are covered patent applications, patent specifications, and all types of secondary publications with information on inventions such as the abstracting journals Official Gazette (OG), Abridgements of Patent Specifications (Abridgements), Auszüge aus den Patentanmeldungen (Auszüge), Villa Kartei and others, as well as official patent journals.

With general search, these publications are sources for current and retrospective patent search. Retrospective character is the prevailing factor if, from the very beginning, treatment of patent literature is started.

Trade literature in this section, on the other hand, involves not only manufacturer’s literature, like advertisements, prospectuses, and catalogues, but also research reports, lectures of firm representatives, reports on exhibitions, dissertations, etc. This field of literature is the object of a special material search within general search.

It has been emphasized elsewhere that both types of literature mentioned are related to each other in a certain way which has to be considered also when treating search results.

The system of treatment of this type of literature was suggested by the author in 1957 as an innovation proposal at VÚKI, whence it is gradually being introduced into other central working places. The method of work is important where the practically verified, most rational system is given. The various steps are controlled by means of time studies related to the treatment of literature on cable and insulating materials. Four different procedures were examined.

System selected for the treatment of patent literature

Two systems, a less perfect and a more nearly perfect one, are provided for. In the former three types of files, namely two systematic and one accession type file, are used. The basic systematic file, which, in part, represents a catalogue, is built according to UDC. It is presumed, of course, that an appropriately compiled abbreviated UDC table for the relative field was prepared. For our use, it was necessary to work out a new schedule for the UDC related to the cable and insulating materials industry suggested as a PE-note to the F.I.D. For this file, a special type of card, namely an A6-size pocket card, open on the upper

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

edge, was suggested. For the practical use of these pocket cards, the reverse side of the pocket should be somewhat shorter, compared with the front side, since it then can be more easily opened. The use of the pocket card eliminates the need for a patent abstract, since, instead, a photocopy of the original abstract with the figure published in the abstracting journal is used. It is no disadvantage if such an abstract is stored in the original language, since it is a more faithful reproduction of the patent itself. In addition, the figure representing an international means of understanding is much more valuable than a translation of a few sentences of the original abstract or a specially prepared abstract. If patents of a country not issuing abstracts are treated, universal abstracting journals such as Chemical Abstracts, Rubber Abstracts, and Technisches Zentralblatt may be sometimes used or, alternatively, such an abstract has to be prepared by a photographic technique, i.e., by photographing the main claim and the basic figure. It is always better and cheaper than preparing one’s own abstract which requires, if it is good, at least one hour’s work of a skilled patent engineer or a documentalist.

In addition to the abstract, a microfilm of the patent specification is put into the pocket card. If a certain invention was patented in several countries, all relative microfilms get into one pocket. Storing a microfilm in a pocket is possible in practice. In our field of interest, one specification contains on an average six to eight pages. A six-page microfilm (35-mm size) falls to the bottom of the pocket and so does an eight-page one. Eight- to nine-page microfilms may be advantageously stored crosswise in the pocket to avoid an accumulation of microfilms at the bottom. Microfilms containing more than nine pages are cut and assembled to form a broader tape. It is advantageous to use broad microfilm in sheet form.

Pocket cards are assembled strictly according to the internal UDC tables. To each classification number in the tables corresponds a guide card in the file where, in addition to the UDC number the definition of the classification number, its extent, and cross references are given. The pocket cards contain only the following data:

UDC classification number and first application date

Patent class of the relative country

Patent number

U.S. Pat. 2,191,581

621.315.336.96 “1939.06.14”

Cl. 174–125

 

Pocket cards between two guide cards are assembled in chronological sequence in such a way that the most recent specifications are always put ahead.

This systematic file serves for a lot of applications. First, it is highly economical, because it combines several operations. Thus it combines a patent or patent application abstract with the original source, accumulates different sources, chiefly equivalent patents of different countries, application, and patent

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

editing, etc. It takes the place of several files and saves space. It also makes possible a quick preparation of complete lists of patent references determined for a certain specialized as well as for a rather general type problem. Filing of relative specifications within the list is decided by the documentalist who uses, as a rule, abstract photocopies and, in doubtful cases, the original, which may be inspected immediately. The great advantage of abstract photocopies is that the original specification does not need to be inspected often, and, in many cases, the abstract in the original language is also useful because it reproduces the patent claim with a higher degree of accuracy.

After search concerned with the treatment of the material for the reference list has been finished, any further work in connection with copying may be omitted, for the list of references is prepared by a photographic procedure. When following this procedure, two aspects may be considered. The abstracts selected may be arranged according to one specification and microfilms according to the second principle. By photographing materials thus assembled, we may get very quickly a list of references with complete original materials on photocopies. Thus, the time interval between the termination of the reference list (reviews) and the acquisition of original sources is reduced to a minimum, which is of considerable importance mainly in research. Reference list microfilms, in addition, make it possible to prepare further copies of the list of references in question for further interested persons at any time, and this results in additional advantages related to economy of space and the possibility of reference list exchanges with other research centers. Preparation of reference list photocopies in itself is profitable, because the user of the list may write his own observations and notes on the blank side of the photostat.

A noteworthy advantage of this file is that after treatment of patents for a certain interval, current lists of references with patent photocopies may be quickly assembled for a particular scientific worker or a particular department, and a complete survey of the situation in the relative specialized patent field may be secured for the workers in question. If a good classification system is established and used, this file is superior to various mechanical procedure systems.

The second systematic file is the so-called evidence card file arranged according to the detailed patent classification scheme of the relative country. Evidence cards are characterized by a collective sheet written for several patents, and, in this case, a cumulative file is meant. Specifications belonging to a certain final subclass are so filed, for instance, German patents of the subclass 21 c 7/01, etc. From the standardization point of view it is advantageous to use A6 for folded A5 size cards. Practically, it is also possible to use but one A6 card containing the

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

same data on the pocket card in the UDC file for each patent, or a pocket card with cumulative photocopies of bibliographic abstracts.

The scope of this systematic file is again a comprehensive one. It makes possible the following of specifications of various countries within the subclasses, and it is used when the novelty of an application has to be ascertained. Its principal use is in procedures concerning patent applications proper. When a foreign patent office objects to certain specifications, it is well to investigate as well other specifications covered in the given subclass. At least, a control of the completeness of reference lists prepared by using the UDC file is made possible, and the file serves as a reclassifying index for the patent classification of various countries and the UDC.

The third type of evidence is the accession file or accession list. It is built according to the patent numbers for each country. For some countries such as the United States and the German Federal Republic, it is appropriate to use a cumulative file for the accession list, because, in the abstracting journals, the accession arrangement of abstracts is maintained, whereas for other countries such as Great Britain it is useful to build a file with cards of A6 size, since the “Abridgements” are arranged according to “Groups” and it is, in the majority of cases, necessary to follow more than one group. This file or list is used as an accession file or list, and makes possible the identification of a specification if the patent number is known. It is advantageous to designate the date of expiration (validity) of the patent, and it may then be used in patent validity searches.

RELATION OF THE SYSTEM TO TRADE LITERATURE

It is not necessary to emphasize which type of relation exists between patents and specified commercial products. However, it is highly effective, for the UDC file of patents, to comprise also abstracts of trade literature. In our system of evidence, there are thematic groups for trade literature, according to which literature is arranged in file boxes. In the central documentation file, there are abstract cards assembled according to the rough abbreviated tables of the related thematic group, but each catalogue is extended to comprise various products classes, the bibliographic abstracts of which are, together with an accurate UDC number, put into the patent UDC file apart from the central documentation file comprising papers and other sources of literature.

IMPROVED SYSTEM

The three types of files mentioned up to this point are, as a rule, enough to secure good patent documentation work. It is possible to improve the system

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

by replacing original sources (or microfilms) for the accession file. The whole system then becomes more expensive, disregarding the fact that the original specifications or their microfilms are not, in all cases, necessary, mainly when a broader following of less related subjects is concerned. The preceding system may be, in addition, fundamentally improved by introducing two further files: an alphabetic file of firms (assignees) and an author file of inventors. Costs of establishing such files are relatively low, whereas their effect is considerable.

METHODICAL WORK PROCEDURE

The substantial features of this problem become evident when the most useful working method is used. The last procedure mentioned which was verified in order to establish an improved system makes it possible for four workers—one patent engineer, one photographer, and two typists—to treat 40,000 specifications a year, when a retrospective treatment of specifications is concerned. Such a procedure is, however, not necessarily universally applicable and it has to be modified for the specifications of individual countries. The general principle, however, may be held.

A like procedure may be selected, for instance, for the treatment of U.S. specifications as well as for German patent applications and specifications, whereas a slightly different method of work is appropriate for the specifications of Great Britain and France.

Retrospective treatment of U.S. specifications

(a) The chief preliminary condition for treatment is a general search performed by a specialist reading over each abstract in the Official Gazette. The selection may be accelerated by leaving out these classes, where it is quite evident and experienced that no specification involving the relative field of interest will be found. According to the extent of the given field, it is possible to establish with a high degree of accuracy the time necessary for reading over a year’s OG materials. Thus, for the cable and insulating materials field in one annual volume 1500 specifications are found, on an average, and the selection requires 40–50 hours. The concrete ascertaining of 1000 specifications requires, on an average, 30 hours. Search is concluded by marking the original abstract in the OG with pencil, and, in addition, by making a note as to acquiring or not microfilm of the original specification, and a bookmark is inserted in the proper place.

(b) OG thus treated are transferred to the typist who writes down the number of the patent and the patent subclass on an A6 size pocket card, e.g., USA 2,187,401 C1.174–121. Pocket cards are numbered in the order of accession so that the advantage of using an abstract journal with abstracts ar-

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

ranged according to accession numbers may be utilized. Pocket cards are put one upon the other in such a way that numbers written on each cover remain visible. After having treated twenty cards, a cumulative A6 size accession card is written for them. In practice, by copying only the preceding data from the pocket cards a cumulative accession file is built up very quickly. For abstracts marked with a note meaning that a microfilm of the original specification has to be acquired, the pocket card is provided with the stamped letter “M” which is done also in the relative line of the accession card. This arrangement is used as evidence of a quick ordering of original specification microfilms or for loan. It may be done either according to the accession file or to pocket cards arranged later according to patent classes. The whole operation requires twenty hours for 1000 specifications.

(c) After this operation, photographic work is started. It is most useful to microfilm pages of the OG with marked abstracts, but in such a way that the columns with no abstracts in the OG are brought into prominence (by covering). In this case, photocopies of only the desired columns, employing the A5 half-size, may be made from the microfilm. The advantages of this procedure are that less photographic material is required and the cutting operation for photocopies is accelerated. As a rule, however, there is usually more than one abstract in one OG column for the relative subclass. In our field the number is 2 to 3, so that for 1000 abstracts treated only 300–500 microfilms and 300–500 A5 half-size photocopies representing 15 hours’ work are made.

(d) A further stage is cutting the individual abstracts, putting the abstracts into pocket cards, and filing the pocket cards according to patent subclasses. At the end of the second stage, pocket cards are arranged in the sequence of accession and, in the same order, abstract photocopies are furnished by the photographer so that cutting and putting into pocket cards is performed sequentially. If it is possible to obtain the original specifications by way of loan (in our country, it is possible for this year, because the Government Office for Inventions and Standardization furnishes all specifications retrospectively until 1945 for appropriate classifications), it is useful in this stage to microfilm and put them into pocket cards together with abstract photographs. In this case, specifications are lent in the order of accession. Otherwise, microfilms of the original specifications have to be ordered according to patent classes to make putting into pocket cards a more continuous process. Since the Government Office for Inventions and Standardization has previous specifications arranged according to the patent classes of the various countries, the latter procedure is also advantageous for securing loans. It is also well for the microfilms of the original specifications to have the patent number visible on the margin. This can be accomplished easily with a Zeiss photographic apparatus used frequently

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

in our country; for other systems, the patent number may be photographed on a special picture.

Cutting the abstracts, putting them into pocket cards, and filing for 1000 specifications requires 35 hours of work. For microfilming 500 original specifications averaging 6 pages each, 30 hours are required, and for putting them into pocket cards 10 hours are required. It is assumed, here, that for 1000 abstracts 500 original specifications have to be furnished.

(e) The fifth stage consists of classifying abstracts according to a selected system. In our case, a detailed UDC is involved. It is much more advantageous than to use, for example, the German patent classification, because the UDC system is by far superior in degree of thoroughness, systematic work, and accuracy. Thus, the German patent class 21 c 3/01 covers the design of electric conductors and cables and, in this way, patent literature on all conductors and cables is, in practice, to be found in this class. Consequently, it is necessary to select a further subclassification, whereby the uniformity of the system is impaired. The group 21 c 7/01 comprising electric conductors and cables insulation according to the type of the insulating material shows the same characteristics. Within the UDC, there are rough groups for these concepts which may be subdivided to any degree of accuracy, while for the patent classification, such a subdivision is no longer possible.

By arranging the pocket cards according to the patent subclasses of the relative countries, classification proceeds quickly, because several equal or similar type patents are classified at the same time. For each subclass or group, a documentalist skilled in the relative field is appointed, so that correct classification is secured, and 1000 specifications are thus classified within twenty hours. The UDC number is written with a pen both on the pocket card and on the abstract photocopy by the documentalist.

(f) After the classification has been made, additional bibliographical abstracts to be used for the author’s file as well as for the systematic file according to the patent classification of various countries should be copied. Copying one bibliographical abstract requires at least 5 minutes, and its filing 1 minute. Such a procedure is possible, but it requires a lot of copying.

It is better by far to eliminate copying and use photography. In concrete terms, the typist is, in the course of work, working with a complete file of patent subclasses. According to the subclasses, she takes out the abstracts from the pocket cards and arranges them in this order by putting the abstracts one upon the other into a special A4 size stencil with transparent tapes placed for fastening. In addition, abstracts are placed one upon the other in such a way that only the heading of the abstract carrying data on the patent number, title, inventors, and firm, application and claims, and, finally, on patent classifica-

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

tion are visible. There is place for 40 abstracts on an A4 size cardboard. The whole operation, namely assembling the photographs, which was described briefly, and returning them to the pocket cards after photographing requires 20 hours for 1000 abstracts. From abstracts thus prepared the photographer takes microfilms and an appropriate number of photocopies. This requires 3 hours of his time.

There are three kinds of advantages connected with this work. (1) All data concerning patents treated according to the patent subclasses of the relative countries are made available on the microfilms. (2) Additional interested persons may be informed. (3) If a greater number of interested persons has to be kept informed, photo-offsetting with eventual publication of an information bulletin is possible.

It is further possible to simplify the general treatment, depending on the cooperation of other similar type centers, by exchange of treated patents either according to countries or to fields. Finally, the primary scope of this procedure is attained by gaining cards for additional files as a result of cutting the photocopy. The first photocopy is cut as a whole according to the requirements, and the whole subclass is put into the pocket card. In this way a cumulative systematic file according to the patent subclasses of the individual countries is built. The original pocket cards are transferred to the systematic file built according to the UDC. Additional photocopies are cut for the author’s files while, for each firm and each author, one pocket card is put in, and abstracts are gathered for a certain time. After an appropriate number of abstracts has been stored, the abstracts are attached to A6 size file cards. There is place for 10 abstracts on such a card. Cards are selected according to the UDC numbers, and thus is obtained a cumulative file classified according to firms and, in addition, according to fields for each firm. With this method a view of the manufacturing program of the relative firm may be gained and, since this file includes cards on trade literature also, it is possible to recognize the license and patent trends of the firm. In a similar way, measures are taken in the author’s file, where, however, arranging cards according to the UDC numbers is omitted.

Cutting 1000 abstracts and filing them requires 35 hours.

Survey on work required for 1000 specifications (net times)

Documentalist

50 hours

Photographer

50 “

Typist

85 “

Cataloger

35 “

It is possible to use a quite similar method for treating German patent ap-

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

plications from the journal Auszüge aus den Patentanmeldungen which may be combined, in a further stage, with a study of the official patent journal, or, what is more advantageous, with the card’s bibliography, Villa Kartei, the card of the Villa Kartei confirming that the patent has been granted. Thus, it may be established from the UDC file, for which applications patents were granted, and this is also marked on the cards of the file arranged according to patent classes, the other files not being completed.

For British specifications, the method outlined may be used with the exception that it is impossible to write a cumulative accession card in the second stage, because the individual groups in the “Abridgements” are arranged in the sequence of accession, but it is usually necessary to treat several groups, and this requires a continuous completion of the accession file. The method remains unchanged, however, when the functions of the accession and the patent subclass files are interchanged. Equally well, an additional photocopy may be made during the photostat assembly stage, and an accession file may be built by cutting the photocopies, and it is possible again to accumulate abstracts for a certain number series.

A similar procedure may be used also for French and other patents, but, if no abstracting journals exist, an abstract has to be prepared by photograph assembly. In the case given, it is useful to request a search in the relative country in the form of a numerical list of references. We proceeded to do so for French patents, and abstracts covering the field of plastics and insulating materials were taken from Chemical Abstracts, Rubber Abstracts, and Chemische Zentralblatt.

Current treatment of patents

Retrospective treatment of patent literature was the main topic involved when describing the methods of work used. For us, this point is of utmost importance, because following of patents was neglected and now it is urgent to fill quickly the gap that resulted. The system described is most advantageous because, for a high-level documentation center, essentially complete information can be accomplished within two years. It is possible, thus, to treat 80,000 specifications by employing four workers, three of whom are only clerical assistants. The total costs amount to a fraction of that required by any other existing system.

The system indicated has, however, to meet the requirement of a quick and economical treatment of current information on patents. The file system meets these demands very well, but it is necessary to modify the working procedure. That will be shown again with examples:

U.S. patents. When treating U.S. patents of the current year, there is no

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

change in the international relation. Only the proportions are different, because the OG is treated regularly, immediately after receipt, so that a great number of patents accumulates and this results in a slight increase in the amount spent for the treatment of a whole year’s patents as compared with retrospective treatment. This limitation may be eliminated by performing a proper search and selection immediately after receipt of the individual OG numbers; original specification microfilms are ordered without delay, and the four stages of retrospective treatment are carried out in practice. The fifth and sixth stages are performed once a month, i.e., involving four to five numbers.

German patent applications and patents. The treatment of the patent abstracting journal Auszüge follows the schedule mentioned above. Since this journal is printed only on one side, it may be used for cutting. Consequently, photographic work mentioned for retrospective treatment in the third stage may fall off. One number of the periodical may be utilized by several centers, especially those concerned with a different set of problems, so that each center may cut out the abstracts of use to it. The journal can even be used by centers charged with partially overlapping tasks, for it is possible for them to arrange an exchange of subclass photocopies prepared during the sixth stage of retrospective treatment.

Treating the applications of the German Federal Republic does not put an end to work, for the granting of patents has also to be followed for the individual countries. This can be done by following the patent journal or, again, by following the card bibliography Villa Kartei at the documentation center of the Government Office for Inventions and Standardization (SÚVN), and, finally, directly by following the relative subclass original specifications at the SÚVN. When doing this, the cumulative file, arranged according to the patent subclasses, which may be always taken along, becomes important, and the granting of the patent may be indicated on the relative cards. For the sake of completeness the original specification microfilms or cards from the Villa Kartei may be ordered, and these may be, without additional treatment, put into the pocket cards together with application microfilms in the UDC file.

The patents of the German Democratic Republic from the journal Erfindungs- und Vorschlagswesen may be treated in a similar way.

Patents of Great Britain and other countries. A similar method of work may also be used for the British “Abridgements” and, as soon as the announced French patent abstracting journal is issued, for French patents. A certain limitation concerned with following these abstracting journals lies in the fact that they are, except the German Auszüge, issued with considerable delay. For instance, the British “Abridgements” are being issued two months after

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

the Official Journal. In this case, search proper may be performed in the Official Journal, and original specification microfilms may be ordered according to it. Pocket cards preferably may be written in advance, and the following search in the “Abridgements” is thereby accelerated.

In our country, there are further possibilities owing to the mutual cooperation of the patent documentation centers and the SÚVN. This cooperation is based on the SÚVN’s activity concerned with sending to the individual centers, immediately after arrival at the SÚVN library, the original patent specifications. In this way information on patents is received as much as two months sooner than some abstracting journals. The individual centers usually work out short indicative abstracts for these specifications, and provide them with the relative Czechoslovak patent class numbers which practically correspond to the German patent classification numbers. Concurrently with the original specifications, microfilms or photocopies may be prepared. After treatment, specifications, together with the abstracts, are returned to the SÚVN, which issues abstracting information bulletins for complete fields of knowledge. This cooperation is, at present, in its initial stage, and an economic evaluation has not yet been made. It is evident that, in the form it is practised today, the system is not appropriate because it is economical for the individual centers only when their work is compensated for by the advantage of preparing the microfilm in their own photolaboratories or, alternatively, when using the abstracts from the information bulletin. However, the use of abstracts from the information bulletin involves cutting an appropriate quantity of numbers, attaching them to A6 size cards, and incorporating them into the file. This is a cumbersome operation and by the time these cards are ready for use, foreign abstracting journals are available. Consequently, it is more useful and economical to use the method described in this paper. The cooperation of the agencies is, of course, effective when patents of countries not covered in special patent abstracting journals are treated.

Proposal concerning a more effective utilization of the cooperation with the SÚVN

Even though the method of work suggested in this paper is by far more economical for the treatment of recent patent literature, it shows certain limitations. For the patent center, a complete and high-level patent information service is built. This is very important, for the work in patent policies for a certain field will be ruled from this center. This office will be able to give more comprehensive and accurate information than the SÚVN. It is, however, necessary to make information available appropriately and quickly for workers in research as well as for engineers in manufacturing. SÚVN information bulletins are not meeting these requirements in a satisfactory way, be-

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

cause an indicative abstract usually cannot give the reader sufficient information whether to order and study the relative specification. A fundamental improvement could be attained by the following system. SÚVN would continue to deliver to the patent centers patents included in certain classes. These centers would provide the specifications with German (i.e., in practice, also with Czechoslovak) classification numbers. For themselves, they would prepare specification microfilms which would be put into pocket cards designed for the DC file. For each specification, a very short abstract in one or two sentences is made to give the object of the patent. These abstracts, more properly called short annotations, would be written in columns of the same width as in patent abstracting journals. To differentiate the abstracts, the patent number, in addition to the annotation, would be written on the margin. Abstracts are arranged according to the order of German subclasses. To make the procedure continuous, the typist would arrange the specifications in the order of origin, and afterwards the list of annotations would be written as follows:

Ukončenie obdĺžníkového vlnovodu so špeciálnou úpravou na smerové vyžarovanie pre parabolické antény.

21 c 5/03

Austr. 209.245

Fr. 1,148.363

Spojenie dvoch vlnovodov pomocou okienka z polytetrafluóretylénu alebo polyetylénu.

Austr. 209.032

Sonda na odvádzanie prenášanej elektromagnetickej energie z vlnovodu alebo súosového kábla.

Brit. 787,341

výhybka vlnovodu umožňujúca prenos mikrovĺn rôznymi vlnovodmi v na- pomere. and so on.

Brit. 787,070

When the list of annotations is finished, specifications provided with the German class numbers are returned to the SÚVN, and a short abstract is written on the specification with a pencil. SÚVN makes the relative specifications available to centers in due time, but only to a selected number, because it is not possible to make an adequate selection for the whole problem of a center, especially when it is scattered over various patent classes. At this point, the center can prepare photocopies, from its microfilms, chiefly of important patents, and send them to the research workers and engineers in plants, accord-

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

ing to the thematic plan. Additional work is thereby made economically effective. In a further stage, relative search and treatment of abstracting journals using the indicated method of work are effected. The pocket cards containing data and specification microfilms prepared in cooperation with the SÚVN are already available, and are normally in the operating cycle. When the activity for a determined time interval, such as one month, has to be summarized, the center performs it in the following way. The abstract photocopies are removed from the pocket cards, arranged again on an A4 size cardboard, but in such a way that, in addition to the heading of the abstract, the figure remains and under the figure an annotation is written in the Slovak or the Czech languages that was worked out during the stage of original specification treatment. This is prepared by cutting the annotation list. Abstracts arranged in this way are transferred photographically onto metal plates (for off-setting) which serve in the distribution of the special information bulletin. This bulletin may be issued either by the patent center or by the SÚVN, the task of the patent center being to prepare only the film for transfer onto the metal plates. Such a bulletin is useful to a certain industrial branch in its concrete specialization, abstracts being much better as a basis for retrospective search and for securing an additional point of view. In the given case, German patent classification, which is at the same time valid for Czechoslovakia, was emphasized. It is also possible to use the International Patent Classification, so that such a bulletin may be of a more universal type. In this case, a sixth point of view is coming in as an addition to the system consisting of five files. Such a system is considerably better and more economical than the system actually used by the SÚVN.

Supplementary data

The whole system is based on microfilms of the original specifications. In practice, in addition to the microfilm, the original specification is available. This is particularly advantageous for U.S. patents obtained in the form of the original specifications. These types have to be clearly distinguished in the file. For this reason, we use a signalling designation with stamped letters. When there is no note whatsoever on the card, only an abstract of the patent or the patent application is available. The mark “M” indicates the availability of an abstract plus the microfilm of the original specification or application. The mark “PAT” indicates the availability of both the abstract and the original literature. In addition, originals are arranged according to the individual countries in the order of accession and in the order of the patent numbers for each country. These are put into special binders. If both the microfilm and the original specification are available, the marks “M,” “PAT” are used.

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

In addition, gazettes may be lent from the Government libraries, and for U.S. patents, the microfilm edition of the Official Gazette supplied by the Micro Photo Inc., 1700 Shaw Avenue, Cleveland 12, Ohio, may be used. This edition has been ordered by our Center from 1940 on.

REFERENCES

1. See the author’s report in “Sborník referátů přednesených na konferenci pracovníků závodních technických knihoven a studijných oddělení Ministerstev strojírenství v Brne 30.–31.ledna 1956—lépe využívat poznatků vědy a techniky, 1956, Praha ÚTEIN.

2. JANICKI, W. Über die Kunst des Recherchierens. Schweiz. Tech. Z. 47, (1950), čís. 24, str. 383–391.

3. FRANK, O. Literaturnachweis und Literaturrecherchen, Stuttgart, Dorotheen-Verlag, 1953.

APPENDIX I List of periodicals and abstracting journals

Abridgements of Patent Specifications Group II, III, IV, V, VIII, XXXVI

A.C.E.C. Revue

Amatérske rádio

American Documentation

Analytical Abstracts

Analytical Chemistry

Angewandte Chemie

Annalen der Physik

Aplikace matematiky

Application and Industry

Archiv der elektrischen Uebertragung

Archiv für Elektrotechnik

Archiwum Elektrotechniki

Aslib Proceedings

ASTM Bulletin

ATM

Auszüge aus den Patentanmeldungen

Beama Journal

Bell Laboratories Record

Bell. Syst. Techn. Journal

Bezpečnost a hygiena práce

Bibliografia elettrotecnica

Bibliotekar

Biuletyn kablowy

Byulleteń NIIKP

British Plastics

British Plastics Federation Abstracts

Bulletin AIM

Bulletin de la Société Francaise des Électriciens

Bulletin des SEV

Bulletin VÚKI

Cábles et Transmissions

CEIG Berichte

Chemical Abstracts

Chemical and Engineering News

Chemické listy

Chemické zvesti

Chemický průmysl

Chemische Technik

Chemisches Zentralblatt

Chemistry and Industry

CIGRÉ

Communication and Electronics

Corrosion

Corrosion prevention and control

Čsl.časopis pro fysiku

Der Bibliothekar

Deutsche Elektrotechnik

Deutsche Farbenzeitschrift

Digest on Dielectrics

Direct Current

Dokumentation

Doklady AN SSSR

Draht

Ékspress-informaciya élektrotekhnika

Electric Light and Power

Electrical Communication

Electrical Engineering

Electrical Engineering Abstracts

Electrical Manufacturing

Electrical Power Engineer

Electricité

Élektrichestvo

Élektricheskie stantsii

Elektrizitätswirtschaft

Élektrosvyaź

Elektrotechnik

Elektrotechnický obzor

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Elektrotechnika

Elektrotechnik und Maschinenbau

Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift Ausg.A

Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift Ausg.B

Energetik

Energetika (ČSR)

Erdöl und Kohle

Engineering Index (card service)

Erfindungs- und Vorschlagswesen

Farbe und Lack

Felten Guilleaume Rundschau

Frequenz

General Electric Review

Hospodářské noviny

Industrial and Engineering Chemistry

Industrie de Vernice

Informatsionnyǐ byulleteń novoǐ inostrannoi nauchno-tekhnicheskoǐ literatury i tekhnicheskikh katalogov zarubezhnykh firm

Informatsionnyi ukazatel standardov

Informatsionno-tekhnicheskii sbornik

Industrie des Plastiques Modernes

Insulation

Izvestiya AN SSSR, otd.khim.nauk

Journal für praktische Chemie

Journal IEE

Journal of American Chemical Society

Journal of Applied Chemistry

Journal of Applied Physics

Journal of Documentation

Journal of Chemical Physics

Journal of Metals

Journal of Polymer Science

Journal of Research of the National Bureau Standards

Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research

Journal of Scientific Instruments

Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society

Journal of the Inst. of Petroleum

Journal Oil and Colour Chemists Association (London)

Kabelnaya tekhnika

Kauchuk i rezina

Kautschuk und Gummi

Khimicheskaya nauka i

Khimicheskaya

Khimiya i khimicheskaya tekhnologiya

Knihovnik

Knižnica

Kolloidnyǐ zhurnal

Kunststoffe

Lístková bibliografia KVŠT

Magyar Hiradástechnika

Magyar Kémiai Folyóirat

Magyar Kémikusok Lapja

Makromolekulare Chemie

Matematicko-fysikální časopis

Matematicko-příodovědecké rozhledy

Materials and Methods

Materie Plastiche

Mesures & Contrôle Industriel

Microchimica Acta

Mining elect, and mech. Engineer

Modern Plastics

Nachrichtentechnik

Nachrichten für Dokumentation

Nachrichtentechnische Zeitschrift

Nová technika

Nuclear Science Abstracts

Nucleonics

Official Digest of the Federation of Paint and Varnish Production Clubs

Official Gazette

Paint and Varnish Production

Paint Manufacture

Peintures, Pigments, Vernis

Physics Abstracts

Plaste und Kautschuk

Post Office Electrical Engineering Journal

Power

Power Apparatus and Systems

Prilozheniye k zhur.ES “Energetika za rubezhom”

Proceeding IEE, Pt.A

Proceeding IEE, Pt.B

Proceeding IEE, Pt.C

Production

Promyshlennaya énergetika

Przeglad Elektrotechniczny

Przeglad Telekommunikacyjny

Przemysl Chemiczny

Railway Signaling and Communications

Referativnyǐ zhurnal-élektrotekhnika

Referativnyǐ zhurnal-fizika

Referativnyǐ zhurnal-khimiya

Referativnaya informaciya

Reports Brit.Elect.Res.Assoc.

Resins, Rubbers, Plastics

Revue de la Documentation

Revue générale de l Électricité

Revue Générale du Caoutchouc

Review of current literature relating to the paint., colour, varnish and allied industry

Rubber Abstracts

Rubber Age

Rubber Age and Synthetics

Rubber Chemistry and Technology

Rubber World

Sciencia Electrica

Schweizer Archiv für angewandte Wissenschaft und Technik

Sdělovací technika

Slaboproudý obzor

Siemens-Zeitschrift

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Special Libraries

SPE-Journal

Strojárenská výroba

Strojírenství

Strojnoelektrotechnický časopis

Technik der Lackisolation

Technická práca

Technické noviny (slov.)

Technické noviny (czec.)

Technische Mitteilungen PTT

Technisches Zentralblatt Abt. Elektrotechnik

Technisches Zentralblatt Abt. Maschinenwesen

Transactions IPI

Transactions IRI

Transactions of the South African Institute of Electr. Engineers

Transactions of the Faraday Society

Uspekhi khimii

U.S. Government Research Reports

Vynálezy a normalisace

VDE Fachberichte

Vestnik svyazi

Vestnik elektropromyshlennosti

Villamosság

Westinghouse Engineer

Wire and Wire Products

Wiadomości Elektrotechniczne

Zavodskaya laboratorya

Zeitschrift für physikalische Chemie

Zentralblatt der Ungarischen Technik

Zhurnal analiticheskoǐ kchimii

Zhurnal i teoreticheskoǐ fiziki

Zhurnal fizicheskoǐ khimii

Zhurnal obshcheǐ khimii

Zhurnal technicheskoǐ fiziki

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 613
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 614
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 615
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 616
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 617
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 618
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 619
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 620
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 621
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 622
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 623
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 624
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 625
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 626
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 627
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 628
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 629
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 630
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 631
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 632
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 633
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 634
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 635
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 636
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 637
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 638
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 639
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 640
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 641
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 642
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 643
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 644
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 645
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 646
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 647
Suggested Citation:"Scientific, Technical, and Economic Information in a Research Organization." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 648
Next: Summary of Discussion »
Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes Get This Book
×
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

The launch of Sputnik caused a flurry of governmental activity in science information. The 1958 International Conference on Scientific Information (ICSI) was held in Washington from Nov.16-21 1958 and sponsored by NSF, NAS, and American Documentation Institute, the predecessor to the American Society for Information Science. In 1959, 20,000 copies of the two volume proceedings were published by NAS and included 75 papers (1600 pages) by dozens of pioneers from seven areas such as:

  • Literature and reference needs of scientists
  • Function and effectiveness of A & I services
  • Effectiveness of Monographs, Compendia, and Specialized Centers
  • Organization of information for storage and search: comparative characteristics of existing systems
  • Organization of information for storage and retrospective search: intellectual problems and equipment considerations
  • Organization of information for storage and retrospective search: possibility for a general theory
  • Responsibilities of Government, Societies, Universities, and industry for improved information services and research.

It is now an out of print classic in the field of science information studies.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report as it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  9. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!