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Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes (1959)

Chapter: Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval

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Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval

R.C.WRIGHT and C.W.J.WILSON

ABSTRACT. A new classification and peek-a-boo cards were used for the analytical indexing of documents on aerodynamics and 100 test questions were put to the system. Degree of success in retrieval is assessed, input and search times are measured, and causes of failure are examined. The combination appears to offer a promising retrieval system for complex but well-defined subjects.

Towards the end of 1956, it was proposed to prepare and (as far as possible within security limits) to distribute to industry a subject index to the reports and technical notes issued by the Aerodynamics Department of the Royal Aircraft Establishment. This index, which might later be extended to include other series of reports on aerodynamic subjects, would be based on a suitable classification system permitting conjunctive specification, and would use a clerical device of the peek-a-boo type (1). The system would employ a minimum of expensive equipment and, if successful, might be applicable to other fields requiring detailed analytical indexing of a comparatively small collection. First, however, it would be necessary to select a suitable classification of aerodynamics, do some trial indexing, and carry out tests on the system. The purpose of this paper is to describe the selected classification, the posting and searching operations, and the tests carried out.

Purpose of the experiment

Main reasons for undertaking the project were:

  1. A reliable analytical index to the 6000 reports in the series was necessary to the Establishment and would no doubt be welcomed by the aircraft industry.

  2. Mr. J.Seymour, a former Librarian of the Aerodynamics Department, had recently developed a classification for aerodynamics which appeared to

R.C.WRIGHT and C.W.J.WILSON Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, England.

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

have many advantages for use in a retrieval system. Experience in its practical application was desired.

  1. Tests had already been carried out with a Uniterm system for cataloguing aircraft structural data (2), and on the N.L.L. card catalogue of aerodynamic measurements (3, 4). Similar evaluation of a peek-a-boo device based on a suitable subject classification was considered desirable.

  2. It was hoped to ascertain whether an analytical indexing and retrieval project in the complex subject of aerodynamics could be designed and operated by professional librarians without specialist subject knowledge, to the satisfaction of the aerodynamicists requiring the information.

PHYSICAL FORM OF THE INDEX

In its final form, the index would be made up of (1) a register, i.e., a list of all documents indexed by the system, in register serial number order; (2) a manual, consisting of (a) an introduction to the system, (b) a list of subject headings in classified order, (c) an alphabetical index to the subject headings; (3) index sheets—one for each subject heading and for each designated aircraft and aerofoil; register serial numbers of documents to be indicated by the positions of punched holes.

For testing purposes, however, it was decided to use only the classification schedule itself and standard 80-column Hollerith cards. Special cards or plates having a higher capacity might later be desirable, but their design, and that of suitable punching and viewing devices, could be left until the retrieval capabilities of the system had been investigated.

Choice of classification

After consideration of the known enumerative classifications of aerodynamics, including U.D.C., N.A.C.A., and the N.L.L. (all of which are used to some extent in the Establishment), it was decided to adopt the classification system devised by Mr. Seymour with this project in mind. After comments had been sought from subject experts, the classification was adopted with slight modifications; it appears as Table 2, together with the number of times each code was used in indexing the first 700 documents. It was expected that further modifications would follow an initial trial period of indexing.

Indexing

THE INDEXERS

The six indexers were professional librarians employed in the Main and Departmental libraries of the Establishment. One of them (A) was librarian

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

of the Aerodynamics Department: the remainder (B-F) had experience in aeronautical libraries but no special knowledge of aerodynamics. About half of the indexing and searching was to be done by A, so that the effect of familiarity with the subject and with the schedules might be assessed.

Before starting to index, the indexers met to discuss the schedules and to resolve as far as possible differences of opinion as to the meanings or the use of particular headings. Each person then indexed a number of test pieces, and variations were discussed. It was intended to introduce further test pieces at later stages in order to see whether improved correlation came with experience of the system.

PROCEDURE

For test indexing the selection of documents was not limited to R.A.E. documents, some Institute of Aeronautical Sciences preprints and National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Research Memoranda being included in order to achieve wider subject coverage, particularly of recent material.

The intention was to code all those features of a document which might conceivably be used later as part of an information request. A detailed study of each document was therefore necessary, particular attention being given to the summary, conclusions and illustrations. Postings were made on a 5 by 3-inch card ruled in ten columns as follows:

Thus, to indicate that a document dealt with a fighter aircraft, the code 157 taken from the schedules would be entered as 15 in column 7. All relevant codes were entered, so that the issue date 1953 would be coded as 103, 104, 105, 106, and Mach number 1.3 would be 121, 122, 123, 124. Whenever a sub-heading was used, the main heading above it was also coded. For peek-a-

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

boo use, these codes were subsequently transferred to lists in code number order and punched on Hollerith cards.

The only materials and equipment used were common stationery items and a Hollerith hand punch. The processes involved were:

  1. Examination of the document and noting appropriate codes on the 5″×3″ card illustrated above.

  2. Listing the serial numbers appropriate to each code number.

  3. Hand punching the Hollerith cards, which already have typed on them the code numbers, by which they are arranged.

Times taken for these operations are discussed later. The most time consuming, and that needing the highest-paid staff, was (a). Most documents were assigned about 30 codes. At first, indexers were taking as long as 30 minutes for each document: practice, familiarity with the schedules and increasing knowledge of the subject soon reduced this to 15–20 minutes per document. It is doubtful whether an average of about 15 minutes can be much reduced, in view of the careful study of each document which is necessary to any system using highly analytical indexing. The average salary of the indexers employed worked out at 10/– ($1.40) an hour.

Description of tests

The test programme is in two parts:

(a) When about 750 documents have been indexed. To ascertain the effectiveness of the classification, to make any necessary modifications to the schedule, and to remove causes of discrepancy between indexers. Also to assess the cost of indexing and posting and the speed of searching operations.

(b) When about 3000 documents have been indexed. To ascertain the number and relevance of documents retrieved in response to a given question. Also, on the basis of search times, to ascertain the scope and form of the final index (a) for internal use and (b) for possible issue to other aeronautical libraries. Only part (a) of the programme is discussed in this paper.

When 700 reports had been indexed (500 R.A.E. documents and 200 of U.S.A. origin), ten R.A.E. aerodynamicists were asked to collaborate by selecting 10 documents each from the collection and framing one question on each document. The questioners had not seen the classification schedules, and were asked to frame in their own words the sort of question that might occur in their daily work. The questions appear in Table 1. Searching was divided about equally between indexers A and B. Success was defined as the retrieval of the document on which the question had been based. Obviously this had

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

to be limited in some way, since a search which retrieved the subject document together with about 50% of the collection could hardly be regarded as an unqualified success. Such a case could be due to faults in retrieval; it could also be due to the question having been so general that it was bound to produce a large number of answers.

After discussion, an arbitrary limit of 5% of the collection (35 documents) was set as the maximum for a search to be regarded as successful. Searches producing more than this number have been classed as “partially successful” provided that the subject document is included.

When a search was unsuccessful, a second search was usually made, either by the same searcher or by the other. Sometimes this consisted simply of widening the original search by discarding one or more of the factors forming the specification. In other cases completely new headings were selected to form a new search plan.

Usually not more than two searches were made, but there were a few cases in which a third search was considered advisable.

Analysis and discussion of results

PERCENTAGE SUCCESS

Of the 100 questions put, 54 were answered at the first search, a further 20 by a second search, and a further 4 by a third. In 7 cases the search was “partly” successful (subject document retrieved, but with more than 5% of the collection), and in 15 cases the search failed completely. An overall success percentage of 78 (plus a further 7% of cases in which the field was appreciably narrowed) is not unsatisfactory having regard to the circumstances in which the test was made. Many of the questions would, in normal information work, have been referred back for amplification.

CAUSES OF FAILURE

(a) Causes of complete failure

 

Question numbers

 

1

7

12

32

34

36

39

40

51

53

57

66

81

88

93

Misleading question

 

 

 

 

X

 

 

 

X

 

Question misinterpreted

X

X

 

Indexing omission

X

 

X

 

X

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

X

X

X

Schedule inadequacy

X

 

 

X

 

X

 

(b) Causes of partial success

 

Question numbers

 

17

23

24

26

28

61

70

Question insufficiently specific

 

 

X

 

X

 

 

Indexing omission

X

 

 

X

X

X

X

Schedule inadequacy

 

X

 

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

(c) Causes of earlier failure when third search successful

 

Question numbers

 

37

41

48

67

Question misinterpreted

 

 

 

X

Indexing omission

X

X

X

 

(d) Causes of earlier failure when second search successful

 

Question numbers

 

4

5

11

22

25

31

33

35

49

55

Misleading question

 

X

 

Indexing omission

X

 

X

 

 

X

 

X

X

X

Faulty search

 

 

X

X

 

Search too specific

 

X

 

X

 

Schedule inadequacy

 

X

 

X

 

 

Question numbers

 

56

60

65

72

76

84

86

87

96

97

Indexing omission

X

X

X

 

X

X

X

X

 

X

Search too specific

X

 

X

 

Clerical error in posting

 

X

 

(e) Summary. A total of all the above single or contributory causes of complete or partial failure may be helpful in pinpointing the chief weaknesses of the system.

Semantics

Misleading question

3

 

Question insufficiently specific

2

 

Question misinterpreted

3

8

Input stage

Indexing omission

34

 

Schedule inadequacy

6

 

Clerical error

1

41

Output stage

Faulty search

2

 

Search too specific

4

6

Total

 

55

It will be noted that the largest single factor was indexing omission, and this in turn is believed to be attributable mainly to lack of subject knowledge. Next largest is the “semantics” group, failure in communication between the questioner and the searcher.

The six cases of schedule inadequacy, together with other omissions noted in indexing the first 700 documents, will lead to minor revision of the classification. At this time, reconsideration will be given to the necessity for retaining some headings which have hardly been used at all, and others which have

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

been used so often as to render them almost useless for retrieval purposes.

The six cases of failure at the output stage are not considered significant: none persisted beyond a first search, and with peek-a-boo it is possible to make several searches in a few minutes.

NUMBER OF CODES USED IN INDEXING

Average number of codes used in indexing 700 documents

28.96

Average number of codes used in indexing the 54 documents successfully retrieved at the first search

30.59

Average number of codes used in indexing the 15 documents which could not be retrieved

30.07

 

Indexer A used an average of 30.50 codes for each report.

Indexer B used an average of 32.94 codes for each report.

Indexers C−F used an average of 29.12 codes for each report.

All these averages, except the first figure of 28.96, are based only on the 100 documents on which questions were asked.

ANALYSIS BY INDEXER
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

All indexers used about the same average number of codes per document, but the success achieved varied with the indexer’s subject knowledge. Indexer A was in charge of a specialised library for aerodynamicists; B, in charge of a more general aeronautical library, had considerable experience in aviation and in library services; C to F had served in aeronautical libraries for periods varying from 5 years to only a few months.

RELEVANCE OF DOCUMENTS RETRIEVED

In the N.L.L. tests (3, 4) searchers were able to make a rough assessment of the relevance of each document retrieved by an examination of the detailed information printed on the N.L.L. punched cards. In the present case it would have been necessary to refer each document, or an abstract of it, to the questioner. This being a time-consuming operation, it was decided to do so only on a sample of 20 successfully answered questions. These were further restricted to cases in which 3 to 12 documents had been thrown up in the retrieval process. In 20 cases, therefore, questioners were presented with abstract cards or documents and they decided whether the documents retrieved, in addition to the ones on which their questions were based, were truly relevant in terms of their questions as set.

Total documents retrieved for the 20 questions came to 146 (the number of aspect cards correlated varied from 1 to 5, but was usually between 2 and 4). It was found that 70 documents were relevant, 18 were of marginal relevance, and 58 were irrelevant. This makes a broad ratio of 3.5:1:3, which appears to be satisfactory, although it is clearly desirable to reduce the marginally relevant figure. This can probably be achieved by improved indexing.

Time studies

INPUT

Accurate time studies were made of three main aspects of the input stage of this project. These were: times taken to index each document, times taken to post code numbers to a ledger, and times taken to transfer this information to punched Hollerith cards.

  1. Time to index documents. Indexer A, who was responsible for half of all indexing, timed himself on 17 occasions. This was done only after considerable experience of indexing difficulties and detailed knowledge of the schedules had been gained. 153 documents were indexed in 31 hours 5 minutes, which gives 13.5 minutes per document.

  2. Time to post index numbers. All papers indexed had their codes recorded on the card described in “Procedure” under “Indexing.” These codes were

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

then transferred to a plain ledger to facilitate eventual punching. In 18 operations, codes for 474 documents were posted by 2 persons in 19 hours 16 minutes, which gives 2.4 minutes per document.

  1. Time to punch Hollerith cards. Codes for 500 documents were transferred from the ledger and punched on Hollerith cards in 19 hours 30 minutes. This was done in 12 operations by 2 persons, at an average of 2.34 minutes per document.

Total times for each document subject-indexed by the system described therefore consist of 13.5 minutes for indexing, 2.4×2 minutes for posting, and 2.34×2 minutes for punching, or 22.98 minutes. These are the three time-expensive parts of the programme, but, if an allowance of 5 minutes for extracting or filing papers or associated clerical processes is made, it is reasonable to assess inclusive time for subject indexing and all allied clerical effort as an average of 28 minutes per document. Half of this is relatively expensive indexing. No great reduction in any of these times can be expected.

OUTPUT

The output stage of this system consists firstly in relating a question to the classification schedules, in carefully assessing the best aspect cards to be used,1 in correlating these cards and reading the holes punched all through. With practice, these were found to be rapid processes which, depending on the complexity of the question, could be performed within 2–10 minutes. The second phase consists of removing the relevant serially numbered abstract cards from the file, and offering them to the questioner, who may then wish to see some of the actual documents represented by the cards. The total output stage should not normally exceed 15–20 minutes.

Conclusions

The combination of subject classification and peek-a-boo appears to have many advantages as a means for the analytical indexing of documents in a well-defined subject such as aerodynamics. There would appear to be a market for the commercial development of “miniaturised” cards or plates having a capacity of 20,000 or more positions and of appropriate punching and viewing equipment.

1  

Bernier (5) has found, theoretically, that “discovery of unexpected documents by use of a manipulative, correlative index is usually highly improbable if the number of terms taken at a time in searching is four or more….” It was found, as described in the paragraph on relevance of documents retrieved, that the number of peek-a-boo cards correlated usually fell within the range 2–5.

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Best results have been obtained by indexers with subject knowledge, and “production” indexing should be undertaken only by such indexers.

The classification used was basically sound, but requires expansion in some areas and contraction in rather more, so as to achieve less variation in the number of times code-numbers are used. In many cases scope notes are required.

A survey (6) of the report literature actually in use by a typical group of aerodynamicists shows that 98% of the reports were less than 10 years old and 83% less than 5 years old. This finding is likely to influence schedule revision and may necessitate re-appraisal of the scope of the present project. It also tends to minimise one criticism of peek-a-boo, i.e., that it is necessary at intervals, depending on card capacity and accession rate, to start a completely new index.

REFERENCES

1. WILDHACK, W.A., STERN, J., SMITH, J., Documentation in instrumentation. American Documentation 5, 223–237 (1954).

2. CLEVERDON, C.W., THORNE, R.G., A brief experiment with the Uniterm system of co-ordinate indexing for the cataloguing of structural data (unpublished).

3. VESSEY, H.F., Test of N.L.L. card catalogue of aerodynamic measurements (unpublished).

4. VESSEY, H.F., SEYMOUR, J.R., Test of N.L.L. card catalogue of aerodynamic measurements. II (unpublished).

5. BERNIER, C.L., Correlative indexes and the blank sort. American Documentation 9, 32–41 (1958).

6. WILSON, C.W.J., Report literature used by aerodynamicists (unpublished).

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

TABLE 1 The 100 questions and the searches based on them

Question No.

Question

Search plan

Documents retrieved

Indexer

Codes used

Searcher

Success or failure

Remarks

1

Effect of incidence on pressures recorded on a Hunter aircraft.

(a) 365

362

(Hunter)

(a) 14

B

21

B

F

Peek-a-boo cards for aircraft names are not yet available, but would normally be used. In this case neither “Hunter” nor “365-Incidence” was indexed.

 

 

(b) 365

417

362

(b) 1

 

 

A

F

Searcher B misunderstood the question as relating to aerodynamic pressures: document related to pitot-static tube pressures. “Pitot static tubes” had been noted by indexer as a desirable new heading.

2

Aerodynamics of struts

349

264

10

C

36

A

S

 

3

Spinning tunnel instrumentation

397

417

1

B

22

A

S

 

4

Early methods of measuring rates of climb (relative merits of barograph and cinematograph)

(a) 417

369 378

(a) 0

A

26

B

F

“417-Instruments” not indexed.

 

 

(b) 369

378

(b) 14

 

 

B

S

 

5

Applications of the Ludwig-Tillman skin friction formula

(a) 128,137

136,154

349,352

(a) 4

A

28

A

F

Indexers had noted skin friction as a necessary new indexing term.

 

 

(b) 113,128

137,352

(b) 12

 

 

A

S

 

6

Effect of rate of approach to a stall on the stall CL

365

350

26

B

47

B

S

378, if used, would reduce the number of documents to 3.

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Question No.

Question

Search plan

Documents retrieved

Indexer

Codes used

Searcher

Success or failure

Remarks

7

Transient analysis techniques of frequency response measurement using pulse type inputs (assessment of use)

(a) 373

(a) 48

A

23

A

F

Subject document discussed dynamics of helicopter rotor control systems.

 

(b) 417

391

416

(b) 2

 

 

B

F

 

8

Correlation of theory and experiment pressure distributions around swept wings at high subsonic Mach numbers

362

206

125

123

20

C

26

B

S

 

9

Effects of wing dihedral on lateral stability

195

232

355

357

3

A

35

A

S

 

10

Creep of turbine blades

327

386

4

A

18

B

S

 

11

How can the exhaust fumes from an aero-engine be dispersed when doing full-scale tests in a closed circuit wind tunnel?

(a) 326

339

392

391

3

A

29

B

F

“377-Ventilation” might well have formed part of the search plan.

 

 

(b) 339

392,391

13

 

 

B

S

“326-Engine” not indexed.

12

What is the effect of endplates (tip fins) on lift slope and pitching moment of a straight wing at high subsonic Mach numbers?

(a) 112,123

195,196

205,302

320,235

132

0

D

30

A

F

Indexing omissions. Not indexed under end-plates, wing, monoplane, or interest-at-wing-tip.

 

 

(b) 320,358

123,125

6

 

 

A

F

 

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

13

What is the effect of movement of C.G. position on spinning characteristics of aircraft of conventional layout and unswept wings?

193

195

205

251

6

F

24

A

S

 

14

What will be the effect of the tip vortices from the main wings on the tail surfaces of a cruciform-winged missile with indexed cruciform controls?

143

198

164

5

A

37

B

S

 

15

At sonic or supersonic speeds, what is the load distribution on a cropped delta wing with a specified twist distribution across the span?

122

195

203

363

14

C

26

A

S

 

16

What is the effect of surface roughness on the drag of an aircraft?

341

352

339

193

2

F

28

B

S

 

17

What information exists on methods of reducing the landing run of high speed aircraft?

(a) 193

367

377

(a) 15

B

34

A

F

 

 

 

(b) 193

367

(b) 38

 

 

A

P

“377-Operation/Design” not coded, but its division “378-Performance” was coded. Indexing omission.

18

How can aerodynamic derivatives due to yawing motion be measured in a wind tunnel?

359

392

417

4

A

35

B

S

 

19

Does the nature of the surface terrain significantly affect the pattern of gusts encountered by an aircraft?

153

377

4

A

24

A

S

 

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Question No.

Question

Search plan

Documents retrieved

Indexer

Codes used

Searcher

Success or failure

Remarks

20

What is the best speed to fly a sailplane in soaring conditions for various lift/drag ratios and thermal strengths?

178

419

1

A

13

B

S

 

21

Theoretical analysis of cranked wings.

113

195

204

3

A

27

B

S

 

22

Hot wire amplifiers.

(a) 388

411

417

3

A

19

A

F

 

 

 

(b) 388

417

8

 

 

A

S

 

23

Wind tunnel facilities at Arnold Engineering Development Centre, Tullahoma.

391

392

74

C

35

A

P

Use of “112-Experiment” reduces to 66 documents, but this type of question is better answered by use of conventional index. The code “115-USA” was to be used only for documents originating in the U.S. but might have been appropriate in this case.

24

Pressure distribution on fuselage at supersonic speeds.

362

240

122

42

B

28

B

P

Insufficiently specific question to narrow the search further. 6% of the lection may well be relevant to the question.

25

Calculation of biplane lift at subsonic speeds.

(a) 113

197

350

125

0

A

28

B

F

 

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

 

 

(b) 113

197

2

 

 

B

S

The subject document actually discusses possibilities of a biplane for supersonic flight.

26

Separated flow: theoretical treatment.

(a) 113

142

(a) 12

C

17

B

F

“113-Theory” not coded.

 

 

(b) 113

142

128

(b) 12

 

 

A

F

“142-Separation” alone is successful, but produces 36 documents.

 

 

(c) 142

(c) 36

 

 

B

P

 

27

Wind tunnel tests on X-1E aircraft.

(a) Aircraft names

 

A

32

A

S

(a) Aircraft names index has not yet been transferred to peek-a-boo, but would obviously be successful.

 

 

(b) 112

115

390

392

(b) 5

 

 

A

F

(b) Failure due to clerical error. 392 was indexed but not punched.

 

 

(c) 112

115

390

(c) 12

 

 

A

S

 

28

Shock wave interaction.

(a) 148

364

(a) 8

A

18

B

F

 

 

 

(b) 148

76

 

 

B

P

“364-Interference/relative position” not indexed.

29

Downwash behind delta wing. Subsonic speeds.

125

144

203

11

A

42

A

S

 

30

Mechanical design of flexible walls for wind tunnels.

408

391

387

392

1

C

35

B

S

 

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Question No.

Question

Search plan

Documents retrieved

Indexer

Codes used

Searcher

Success or failure

Remarks

31

What data are available on gust loads and their alleviation?

(a) 153

363

419

2

A

12

B

F

 

 

 

(b) 153

419

4

 

 

B

S

“363-Loads” not indexed.

32

Data required on the drag of struts, effect of section shape, fineness ratio, etc.

(a) 264

352

4

A

37

A

F

“264-Strut mounted” not indexed, and the schedules do not provide for struts themselves.

 

 

(b) 227

247 or 248

352

0

 

 

B

F

 

33

What information is available on the drag penalty of various radiator schemes?

(a) 352

155

6

A

28

B

F

Radiator cannot be expressed in the existing schedules.

 

 

(b) 352

326

15

 

 

B

S

 

34

Are there any flight data on the measurement of control panel deflections?

(a) 405

302

363

0

F

23

B

F

The subject document describes only wind tunnel experiments.

 

 

(b) 406

302

363

1

 

 

B

F

“302-control device” not indexed.

35

What flight experience is available on the effect of drop tanks (strut or tip) on performance?

(a) 112, 259

261, 274

339, 405

378

(a) 0.

A

47

A

F

 

 

 

(b) 112

259, 261

(b) 5

 

 

A

S

 

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

36

How does wing tip shape affect the wave drag (tunnel data required).

(a) 392

235

352

222

7

E

41

B

F

“235-tip” not indexed.

 

 

(b) 112, 195

235, 352

12

 

 

A

F

 

37

Has any flight work been done with an aircraft fitted with a castoring undercarriage?

(a) 280

9

F

32

A

F

“280-Undercarriage” not indexed.

 

(b) 112,

139, 367

2

 

 

A

F

 

 

 

(c) 112,

405, 367

14

 

 

A

S

 

38

General information on seaplane tank techniques.

402

12

B

24

B

S

No co-relation necessary. Conventional index would serve just as well.

39

What is the effect of body cross-section shape on the isolated body moments in pitch and yaw?

(a) 240, 257

354, 358

359

1

A

40

A

F

The combination 240, 354 would have been successful, but with 39 other documents retrieved.

 

 

(b) 358,

359, 354

240

10

 

 

B

F

“359-directional” and “257-section” not indexed.

40

What information is there on the use of spoilers for providing roll control at transonic and supersonic speeds?

(a) 319

356

357

122

3

A

25

B

F

“319-spoilers” and “356-control” not indexed.

41

The variation in hinge moment at low speeds due to flap angle, for a simple split flap near the half semi span position and close to the trailing edge. Wind tunnel results.

(a) 112

126, 317

354, 360

1

F

31

A

F

 

 

(b) 392, 317

354, 360

1

 

 

B

F

 

 

(c) 317, 392

12

 

 

B

S

Hinge moments (354, 360) not indexed.

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Question No.

Question

Search plan

Documents retrieved

Indexer

Codes used

Searcher

Success or failure

Remarks

42

Number of fatal accidents caused by fire in an aircraft during flight on American domestic airlines.

159

382

6

A

11

A

S

 

43

Method for deducing suitable cross-sectional area distributions for a narrow delta wing (unswept trailing edge) for low zero-lift wave drag.

203

148

6

E

24

B

S

“229-thickness” would further reduce to 3 documents.

44

The jettison characteristics at low speed of a Blue Jay mounted on pylons under the wing of an aircraft.

371

164

2

A

36

B

S

Peek-a-boo cards representing proper names of aircraft, missiles, etc., have not yet been prepared, but would be used in practice in this case.

45

Longitudinal dynamic stability derivatives of a simple infra-red homing missile configuration, between M=0.7 to 1.4.

123, 124

164, 355

358

5

A

45

A

S

 

46

Theoretical estimation of wave drag at supersonic speeds of a slender body of elliptic cross-section with discontinuities in profile slope.

352

122

240

254

6

A

29

B

S

 

47

The calculation of spanwise loading for an unswept uncambered oscillating wing by a “lifting line” technique.

(a) 195

205, 363

25

A

24

A

S

 

48

A method for estimating the

(a) 363, 386

10

A

12

A

F

 

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

 

buckling load of flat sandwich panels, with the loading edges rigidly clamped.

(b) 109, 386

3

 

 

A

F

“363-Loading” not indexed.

 

(c) 113, 386

17

 

 

A

S

 

49

An assessment of the jet flap aerofoil as a practical means of control for an aircraft.

(a) 145

302, 318

3

C

38

A

F

 

 

(b) 325

10

 

 

A

S

“145-Jets” and “318-Other flap” not indexed.

50

A method of reducing heat transfer to blunt bodies by air injection.

154

240

243

347

1

A

31

B

S

 

51

How can the thrust and torque of a windmill be calculated?

327

353

3

A

17

A

F

Paper is on autogyros. “327-Windmill” not indexed.

52

Experimental data on variation of heat transfer coefficient round the front of a hemisphere at high Mach numbers.

112, 120

154, 240

243, 255

2

A

28

A

S

 

53

What methods are available for estimating the effect of incidence on the yawing moment due to sideslip at high supersonic speeds?

(a) 120

354

359

366

4

A

37

B

F

“354-moments” and 366-sideslip” not indexed.

 

 

(b) 122

354, 359

365, 366

0

 

 

A

F

 

54

Is there any information on the conditions leading to “intake buzz?”

285

136

148

11

F

27

B

S

 

55

Methods for calculating the total pressure loss behind an aerofoil at low speeds.

(a) 109

126, 195

14

A

22

A

F

“109-Method for calculation” not indexed.

 

(b) 126

195, 144

25

 

 

A

S

 

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Question No.

Question

Search plan

Documents retrieved

Indexer

Codes used

Searcher

Success or failure

Remarks

56

Comparisons between flight and wind tunnel tests of the lift increment due to flaps with blowing.

(a) 112, 305

306, 315

2

F

45

A

F

 

 

(b) 112

146, 315

2

 

 

A

S

 

57

What methods are available for calculating the loading due to aileron deflection on a swept wing?

(a) 109

206

363

5

F

20

A

F

“206-swept” not indexed. Subject document did not relate specifically to swept wings.

 

(b) 206, 363

35

 

 

B

F

“363-loading” not indexed.

58

What machine aids were used in World War II for stability and control calculations?

355

356

389

5

C

20

B

S

 

59

List available design studies of supersonic aircraft.

122

193, 377

12

B

45

A

S

 

60

What information is available on the normal force/incidence curve of bodies of revolution at incidences above 20° and speeds near Mach 2?

(a) 253

121, 124

365

0

B

40

B

F

“365-High incidence” not indexed.

 

(b) 253

121, 124

392

14

 

 

B

S

61

The effectiveness of different types of roughness in thickening turbulent boundary layers at various free-stream Mach numbers.

(a) 137

140, 341

5

A

24

A

F

 

 

(b) 137, 140

38

 

 

A

P

“341-Surface condition” not indexed.

62

The effects of the temperature and quantity of bleed flow on base pressure at supersonic speed.

122, 240

256

362

11

A

46

A

S

 

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

63

The effects of side-support struts on the base pressure of a model at supersonic speeds.

392

122

362, 240

256

6

A

32

B

S

 

64

Is external stream speed important in estimating the performance of ejector jet nozzles?

286

297

145

3

A

37

B

S

 

65

The best position at which to put distributed roughness on a model in order to stimulate boundary layer transition to turbulent flow.

(a) 122, 128

137, 141

340, 341

4

A

27

A

F

 

 

(b) 112, 137

141, 341

6

 

 

A

S

 

66

Afterbody pressures on bodies of revolution, with and without wings or fins, in supersonic flight.

(a) 122, 240

253, 256

362

10

A

41

A

F

“Afterbody” cannot neatly be expressed in the schedule.

 

 

(b) 122

256, 253

11

 

 

B

F

“256-interest near the tail” not indexed.

67

The extension of aerofoil theory to wings whose lift is not solely dependent on incidence.

(a) 113, 195

112

A

49

A

P

In (a) and (b) searcher failed to recognise jet flap.

 

(b) 113, 195

349, 350

40

 

 

A

P

 

 

(c) 113, 195

349, 350

145

2

 

 

A

S

 

68

Criteria determining the length of a finite region of a separated laminar boundary layer in two-dimensional flow.

142

139

137

10

B

32

B

S

 

69

The response time of a pressure measuring system embodying long tubes.

417

362

284

6

E

25

B

S

 

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Question No.

Question

Search plan

Documents retrieved

Indexer

Codes used

Searcher

Success or failure

Remarks

70

The ram efficiency of air intakes let into the sides of a wing or body.

(a) 281

282, 285

13

B

42

A

F

“282-Located on aerofoils” not indexed.

 

(b) 281, 285

40

 

 

A

P

 

71

Is the temperature recovery factor of a laminar boundary layer altered by separation of the boundary layer?

137

139

142

10

A

27

A

S

 

72

Data required from tests employing the NACA Technique for obtaining free-flight stability data from models fitted with an all-moving tailplane which moves automatically between stops under the influence of the aerodynamic forces on it.

(a) 112, 115

117, 338

406

0

A

46

A

F

 

 

(b) 115, 117

406

8

 

 

A

S

 

73

For assisted take-off, what are the advantages of a liquid fuel rocket over a solid fuel rocket?

171

271

377

3

B

32

B

S

 

74

What are the handling qualities of the Javelin aircraft at high lift coefficients?

350

378

17

B

38

B

S

The 17 documents will be reduced substantially when the name Javelin (used in indexing) has been represented by a peek-a-boo card.

75

What reports from the Royal Aircraft Factory appeared during the 1914–18 war on aircraft stability theory.

100, 113

114, 117

349, 355

1

A

15

A

S

 

76

To what extent may disturbances present in a wind tunnel invali

(a) 125, 137

141, 195

12

B

30

A

F

 

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

 

date tests made in the tunnel to locate the position of boundary layer transition on a wing at subsonic speeds?

(b) 112, 137

141, 195

392

11

 

 

A

S

Indexer omitted to index Mach numbers.

77

What changes in piloting technique are necessary for the safe landing of an aircraft without an undercarriage on an aircraft carrier adapted to receive it?

331

367

4

F

21

A

S

 

78

Can Falkner’s 9-point method (for calculating the aerodynamic loading on a wing) be simplified for application to a swept wing of low aspect ratio?

113

368

195

206

212

5

E

33

B

S

 

79

A method is required for calculating the spanwise distribution of lift on a wing of low aspect ratio at high subsonic speeds, including allowance for the non-linear variation of lift with incidence.

350

362

212

125

123

113

2

A

35

B

S

 

80

Wanted: a good theoretical treatment of the downwash field behind a low aspect ratio wing including the behaviour of the tip vortices at supersonic speeds.

113

144

122

143

6

A

24

B

S

 

81

Information is required on numerical methods employed in the theoretical determination of the drag of a slender body of arbitrary cross-section.

113

240

352

14

A

16

A

F

“240-body” not indexed.

Paper was on area rule, which was indexed.

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Question No.

Question

Search plan

Documents retrieved

Indexer

Codes used

Searcher

Success or failure

Remarks

82

What methods have been tried in flight to improve the damping of lateral oscillation of high-speed aircraft?

112, 193

339, 355

357, 373

405

2

A

33

A

S

 

83

Have we any experimental measurements of the influence of aero-elastic distortion on the effectiveness of trailing edge flaps on rectangular wings?

112

374

315

308

3

A

38

B

S

 

84

What reports give design charts for the determination of the downwash angle at the tailplane for tapered wing planforms with plain flaps at low speeds.

(a) 144, 126

315, 202

2

A

50

B

F

“202-tapered” not indexed

 

(b) 144, 126

315

11

 

 

B

S

 

85

Approximate methods to suggest the requirements of an auto-control system for the control of the “long period” or “phugoid” motion of an aircraft.

278

373

9

A

16

A

S

 

86

Experimental measurements at supersonic speeds of the flow field in the vicinity of a body of revolution at high angle of incidence.

(a) 112, 122

253, 365

0

A

39

B

F

“365-high incidence” not indexed.

 

(b) 112, 122

253, 128

34

 

 

B

S

 

87

Calculations to indicate the effect of introducing inertia

(a) 109, 302

356, 358

4

C

25

A

F

 

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

 

weights and springs into a power-operated control system for the longitudinal control of an aircraft.

(b) 278, 302

355, 358

7

 

 

A

S

 

88

Experimental data on the effects of slipstream on tailplane effectiveness at high subsonic

(a) 112, 144

236, 358

125, 123

5

A

43

B

F

The abstract card, issued with one of the 5 documents, refers to the subject document. Mach numbers.

 

(b) 112, 123

144, 236

10

 

 

A

F

“144-slipstreams” and “236-tail-plane” not indexed.

89

Experimental determination of the relationships between turbulent boundary layers on flat plates and cones at zero heat transfer.

112

140

137

333

11

A

35

B

S

 

90

Experimental measurements at high subsonic speeds of the pressure distribution over the leading edge of a two-dimensional flat plate with a rounded leading edge.

112

125

333

362

4

A

31

A

S

 

91

Wind tunnel tests at supersonic speeds on a canard configuration with ramjets.

112, 122

172, 192

392

1

A

54

A

S

 

92

Manometers for automatic measurement of pressures in supersonic wind tunnels.

122, 362

391, 392

417

4

B

23

A

S

 

93

The effect of small asymmetries at the nose of a cylindrical body at supersonic speeds.

(a) 240, 249.

122, 255

3

C

37

B

F

“249-straight parallel sides,” and “255-interest at nose” not indexed.

 

(b) 240

249, 122

43

 

 

B

F

 

 

(c) 122

240, 255

10

 

 

A

F

 

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Question No.

Question

Search plan

Documents retrieved

Indexer

Codes used

Searcher

Success or failure

Remarks

94

Theoretical methods for determining the performance of wing-tip controls.

113, 302

307, 322

3

B

35

A

S

 

95

Any information on moving-wing guided missiles.

164, 322

195

5

A

49

B

S

 

96

Wind tunnel tests at supersonic speeds on two-dimensional aerofoils.

(a) 112

122, 195

338, 392

7

B

34

A

F

“392-wind tunnels” was indexed but not punched.

 

(b) 112, 122

195, 338

10

 

 

A

S

97

Rapid recording methods for measuring signals from strain gauge wind tunnel balances.

(a) 417, 413

391, 416

0

A

18

B

F

“413-balances” not indexed.

 

(b) 391

416, 417

2

 

 

B

S

 

98

Design of a six-component strain gauge balance for use in supersonic wind tunnels.

392, 391

413, 122

5

A

23

B

S

 

99

Flow at supersonic speeds over bodies of non-circular cross-section.

240, 254

122, 128

11

A

27

B

S

 

100

Experimental information about the lift on wings at hypersonic speeds.

112, 120

195, 350

10

A

40

A

S

 

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

TABLE 2 Classification schedules

 

Code No.

Timesa used

Bibliographic characteristics

Pre 1935

100

77

“ 1945

101

149

“ 1950

102

194

“ 1955

103

500

Post 1934

104

633

“ 1944

105

555

“ 1949

106

505

“ 1954

107

192

Data/Tables/Methods; for Calculation/Reference

109

58

Bibliography/Survey

110

18

Dictionary/Directory/ Nomenclature

111

0

“Experiment”/Reports observation

112

524

“Theory”/Other

113

230

G.B.

114

493

U.S.A.

115

203

Other foreign/ International

116

3

RAE/NACA/AGARD

117

621

Firms

118

3

Other

119

77

Mach number/velocity

≥2.0

120

107

≥1.2

121

176

≥0.9

122

253

≥0.6

123

280

<2.0

124

393

<1.0

125

324

<0.6

126

236

Stationary

127

12

Flow/Fluids studied

128

359

Ideal fluid

129

20

Gas

130

328

Liquid

131

18

Real fluids other than Air/Water (including Rare air/Slip flow, etc.)

132

8

Homogeneous fluid/Total immersion

133

8

Other/Free surface/ Mixed flow

134

38

In own right

135

26

In relation to solids

136

279

Boundary Layer

137

94

Flow/Fluids studied

Other

138

27

Laminar/Streamline flow

139

51

Turbulent flow

140

59

Transition

141

42

Separation

142

36

Vortices

143

45

Slipstreams/Wakes/ Downwash

144

89

Jets

145

27

Blowing

146

16

Suction

147

28

Shock waves/Mach lines/ Compressibility

148

76

Circulation

149

4

Condensation/Evaporation

150

4

Convection

151

5

Dissociation

152

1

Gusts

153

16

Heating

154

41

Cooling

155

28

Acoustics/Noise/Sonic bangs

156

6

Aircraft/Aircraft components Aircraft “Type”

Fighter

157

117

Bomber

158

38

Transport

159

22

Personal

160

8

Other

390

38

Shell

161

1

Bomb

162

12

Target

163

3

“Missile”

164

47

“Single” engined

167

90

Multiple engined

168

67

Jet propelled

169

146

Turbojet

170

90

Rocket

171

33

Other/Ram, pulse

172

18

Propeller driven

173

85

Turbo prop

174

21

Other

175

24

Rotary wing aircraft

176

23

Towed

177

7

Sailplane

178

7

Lighter than air

179

3

Kite

180

3

a Times used in the indexing of 700 documents.

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

 

Code No.

Timesa used

Aircraft/Aircraft components

Aircraft “type”

Parachute

181

6

Other method of propulsion

182

0

Seaplane

183

16

Amphibian

184

1

V.T.O. Type/Flying platform, etc. (not helicopters)

185

4

Composite aircraft

186

0

No wing

187

14

No body

188

5

No tailplane/No foreplane

189

50

No fin

108

20

With multiple fuselage

190

8

With fins other than single tail fin

191

15

With foreplane/Canard

192

6

Components present and/or studied

Complete aircraft

193

286

Other

194

324

Wing

195

361

Monoplane

196

229

Biplane

197

16

Cruciform, Y, etc.

198

26

Other

199

1

Untapered

201

57

Tapered excluding delta, arrow

202

67

Triangular/Delta/Arrow

203

104

Other (circular, “W,” etc.)

204

6

Unswept (inc. 10° sweepback)

205

102

Swept

206

177

Forward

207

2

<40°

208

45

≥40°

209

108

<50°

210

87

≥50°

211

43

Aspect ratio <4

212

89

Aspect ratio ≥3.5

213

67

Aspect ratio ≥6

214

18

Leading edge sharp

215

15

Wing

Leading edge ducted

216

5

Leading edge drooped

217

3

Cambered

218

25

Uncambered

219

11

≥8% thick

220

56

<8% thick

221

42

Interest in/at/near—wings

Planform

222

89

Aspect ratio

223

28

Sweep

224

37

Taper

225

19

Other/span

226

25

Section

227

63

Camber

228

25

Thickness

229

34

Other/profile

230

35

Twist

231

22

Dihedral/anhedral

232

4

Leading edge

233

42

Trailing edge

234

61

Tip

235

42

Tailplane/Foreplane

236

79

Fin

237

35

Propeller

238

32

Rotor

239

22

Body

240

139

Pointed nose

241

74

Other nose

243

24

Pointed tail

244

18

Other tail

246

54

Fineness Ratio ≥6

247

43

Fineness Ratio <6

248

15

Straight parallel sides

249

58

Other

250

42

Rotationally symmetric/ Body of revolution

253

80

Other

254

23

Interest in/at/near—Bodies

Nose

255

17

Tail

256

29

Section

257

10

Sides

258

18

a Times used in the indexing of 700 documents.

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

 

Code No.

Timesa used

External store

259

38

Engine nacelle

260

32

Other

261

7

Wing mounted

262

26

Other

263

7

Strut mounted

264

11

Other

265

6

Canopy/Radome/Turret/ “Blister”

266

8

Bomb bay/Release gear

267

6

Guns/Armament

268

19

Escape device

269

2

Aerial/Antennas

270

2

Assisted take-off device

271

7

De-icing gear/Icing

272

4

Fuel/Fuel system

273

3

Fuel tank

274

12

Crew accommodation

275

2

Load/Passenger accommodation

276

3

Dirt excluders/Ventilation

277

5

Automatic control/ Servomechanisms/ Stabilization

278

31

Float/Planing surface

279

12

Undercarriage—Land

280

9

Internal flow

281

96

Located on aerofoils

282

26

Located on bodies, nacelles

283

34

Other/pipes

284

30

Intakes (divide as exits)

285

51

Exits

286

20

Nose/Tail

287

23

Side

288

11

With centre-body

291

21

No centre-body

292

9

Ducts

293

47

Straight sections

294

3

Bends

295

2

Contractions/ Expansions

296

20

Nozzles

297

21

Diffusers

298

18

Other

299

1

Convergence/ Divergences

300

4

Total enclosures

301

9

“Control” device

302

179

Attitude

303

71

“Control” device

Drag increase

304

34

Other purpose

305

42

Boundary layer control

306

17

Wing-located

307

104

T.E. region

308

76

L.E. region

309

21

Other

310

11

Fin located

311

26

Foreplane/Tailplane located

312

34

Body located

313

13

Other location

314

5

Flap type

315

93

Plain

316

23

Split

317

18

Other

318

16

Spoilers/Vortex generators

319

15

Fences/End plates/Flow guides

320

17

Auxiliary aerofoils/Slats

321

12

All moving component/ Tip

322

16

Tabs/Balancing devices

323

20

Parachute

324

10

Thrust reversal/Jet deflection

325

10

Other objects

Engine

326

74

Compressors/Turbines/ Windmills/Fans/Pumps

327

42

Cascades/Stators

328

5

Ground/Runways/Ground Facilities

329

11

Catapults/Launching devices

330

11

Ships/Watercraft

331

6

Man/Medicine

332

6

Flat Plate

333

28

Cylinder—perpendicular to flow

334

3

Particles/Droplets

335

5

Other solid

336

6

Geometry

3-Dimensional

337

274

Other

338

73

Full scale

339

173

a Times used in the indexing of 700 documents.

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

 

Code No.

Timesa used

Other

340

261

Rough surface/(Surface condition)

341

17

Steps

342

11

Projections

343

21

Fairings/Junctions

344

16

Distortions/Bumps/ Indentations

345

13

Recesses/Gaps

346

9

Perforated/Porous/ Slotted surface

347

35

Variable shape

348

12

Aerodynamic interest

349

569

Lift

350

193

Drag

352

232

Thrust

353

43

Moments/Stability/Control Moments

354

184

Stability

355

176

Control

356

102

Lateral

357

108

Longitudinal

358

209

Directional

359

88

Hinge

360

30

Damping

361

44

Pressure/Velocity distribution

362

192

Loads/Loading

363

83

Interference/Relative position

364

89

Stalling/High incidence

365

53

Sideforce/Sideslipping

366

34

Spinning

251

27

Landing/Take-off

367

56

Level flight

407

28

Diving/Descent/Gliding

368

34

Climbing

369

24

Turning

370

21

Hovering/Flapping

242

14

Separating/Jettisoning

371

13

Buffeting

372

15

Flutter/Oscillation

373

48

Aeroelasticity

374

23

Magnus effect

375

0

“Area rule”

376

10

Operation/Design

377

92

Load/Capacity/Performance/Range/Speed

378

79

Operation/Design

Economics

381

16

Reliability/Maintenance/ Safety/Accidents

382

25

Civil operation

383

17

Military operation/ Strategy/Tactics

384

45

Ballistics interest

385

20

Structures/Materials interest

386

47

Mechanical interest

387

35

Electronics/Radar/Radio

388

24

Mathematics

389

51

Principal test equipment/ Technique

Described

391

133

Wind tunnel

392

261

Continuous/Fan drive

393

45

Intermittent

394

8

Shock tube

395

4

Special purpose tunnel/Test rigs

396

23

Spinning tunnel

397

10

Water tunnel

398

4

Ballistic range

399

4

Analogy/Simulator

400

4

Ditching tank

401

2

Towing tank/Moving channel

402

12

Models mounted on air-craft

403

1

Tracks/Sleds

404

1

Free flight—Piloted aircraft

405

92

Free flight—Models/unpiloted

406

41

Components

408

24

Power/Flow production

409

15

Other

410

13

Auxiliary Apparatus/Technique

411

58

Model Design/Construction

412

49

Balances

413

18

a Times used in the indexing of 700 documents.

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

 

Code No.

Timesa used

Principal test Equipment/ Technique

Scale Effect/

414

31

Corrections/ Calibration Telemetry

415

8

Data Handling/ Methods/Computers

416

10

Flow visualization

252

51

Instruments

417

59

Combustion

418

17

Meteorology

419

8

Optics

290

4

Photography

165

11

Total postings in indexing 700 documents

 

20,270

a Times used in the indexing of 700 documents.

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

This page intentionally left blank.

Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 771
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 772
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 773
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 774
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 775
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 776
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 777
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 778
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 779
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 780
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 781
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 782
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 783
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 784
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 785
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 786
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 787
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 788
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 789
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 790
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 791
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 792
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 793
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 794
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 795
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 796
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 797
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 798
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 799
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 800
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 801
Suggested Citation:"Classification with Peek-a-boo for Indexing Documents on Aerodynamics: An Experiment in Retrieval." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 802
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Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes Get This Book
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The launch of Sputnik caused a flurry of governmental activity in science information. The 1958 International Conference on Scientific Information (ICSI) was held in Washington from Nov.16-21 1958 and sponsored by NSF, NAS, and American Documentation Institute, the predecessor to the American Society for Information Science. In 1959, 20,000 copies of the two volume proceedings were published by NAS and included 75 papers (1600 pages) by dozens of pioneers from seven areas such as:

  • Literature and reference needs of scientists
  • Function and effectiveness of A & I services
  • Effectiveness of Monographs, Compendia, and Specialized Centers
  • Organization of information for storage and search: comparative characteristics of existing systems
  • Organization of information for storage and retrospective search: intellectual problems and equipment considerations
  • Organization of information for storage and retrospective search: possibility for a general theory
  • Responsibilities of Government, Societies, Universities, and industry for improved information services and research.

It is now an out of print classic in the field of science information studies.

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