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Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes (1959)

Chapter: Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center

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Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center

CARL J.WESSEL and WALTER M.BEJUKI

ABSTRACT. This paper will present a detailed account of the nature of the literature control problem and the historic development of manual systems as applied in the area of deterioration prevention.

From the experiences of the Prevention of Deterioration Center, an analysis of the principles and problems in literature control will be drawn. Material for the analysis of this manual storage and retrieval system stems from an organization having an applied and technical library of approximately 30,000 documents.

Decisions involved in going from a card catalog system, to an edge-punched card, to a Batten-type card encompass comparative costs, speed, personnel requirements, efficiency of retrieval, capacity for future growth, and similar problems. These, plus decisions on the size and type of dictionary of terms to be associated with the art and technology of deterioration prevention, shall serve to illustrate the evolutionary pathway traversed.

A model Batten system is being constructed for a hitherto unindexed satellite collection of 2500 specifications in this field. It is expected that the knowledge gained from the model will assist in perfecting a system for the larger central collection.

The significance of special concepts, such as data ranking, in a general theory of literature storage and retrieval will be considered.

Background

The Prevention of Deterioration Center is a nonprofit, scientific organization maintained jointly by the three United States armed services, by means of an Office of Naval Research contract, under the operating supervision of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. The principal

CARL J.WESSEL and WALTER M.BEJUKI Prevention of Deterioration Center, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

The Prevention of Deterioration Center operates with the support of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force, under contract between the National Academy of Sciences and the Office of Naval Research.

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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purpose of the Center is to collect and organize in one depository the latest research information on workable technics and scientific studies relating to deterioration prevention, and to serve in a consulting and advisory capacity on such matters for the military agencies, for other government groups, and for authorized persons not directly associated with the federal government.

In the years since its inception in 1945, the Center has accumulated a comprehensive knowledge and facility not readily available elsewhere on this highly specialized subject. It is the purpose of this paper to show the evolutionary steps traversed by the literature control system of this Center during 14 years of development under periodic contract renewal circumstances. Initially a modest conventional indexing system, it moved to a more elaborate manual procedure involving edge-punched cards, direct coding, information classification and the sundry accoutre associated with such a technic. The present state of evolution is a studied effort to modernize information storage and retrieval, particularly from the viewpoint of increasing the comprehension and ability to collate information. This requires the evaluation of the requirements of the Center.

Since the literature of deterioration is voluminous, the Center maintains a library staff to collect, catalog, and index pertinent technical data, and a publications group to summarize and condense incoming technical reports, of which some 30,000 have been accumulated to date.

The functions of the PDC library are not unlike those of any library serving a consulting group in the technical field, although the subject matter is unusual, and characterized by a marked heterogeneity. The professional staff regularly scans approximately 150 journals pertinent to the field, including official society and trade journals, other subject matter journals, and a large variety of abstract services. These perusals generate in turn the need to examine, as the occasion requires, contributory publications. All reasonable efforts are made to process government reports on the subject of materials deterioration and its prevention, including those which originate as reports of contract work performed. Bibliographical rules are interpreted to fit the special needs of the publishing activities of the Center without sacrificing what we consider to be essential library standards. Through the central library of the National Academy of Sciences, the PDC library has access to books and journals belonging to the numerous government collections in Washington.

The study of our information handling methods is well circumscribed in time. The art of deterioration prevention began as a discrete study area, in terms of the Center and the United States, when it was recognized by the armed forces in the early years of World War II that equipment with definite predictable life durations, when used in temperate climates, became inoperable

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

in a matter of weeks when shipped to the tropic or polar regions. The Navy and Army, after some preliminary work on evaluating the extent and possible significance of the problem, established a Joint Army-Navy Deterioration Steering Committee under the National Defense Research Committee. Together with the necessary subcommittees, the organization set out to analyze the needs of the armed forces and to determine the means of satisfying those needs. Subsequent to the establishment of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, the Tropical Deterioration Information Center was instituted in 1943, using the services and facilities of the George Washington University. Acting initially in a trouble shooting capacity, the Joint Army-Navy Deterioration Steering Committee and the Tropical Deterioration Information Center proved by the end of World War II that their activities had a continuing usefulness. In 1945, therefore, the Office of Research and Invention (ORI) of the Navy Department recommended a more permanent organization. With the two existent groups, the wartime Joint Army-Navy Deterioration Steering Committee and the Tropical Deterioration Information Center as a basis, the latter was reorganized. The University group became the Prevention of Deterioration Center. This activity was governed by an ORI contract within the administration system of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council. Subsequently the Army and later the Air Force added financial support to the ORI contract, supported initially only by the Navy, with ORI continuing to act as the contracting office.

History of the storage and retrieval problem

In addition to being of historical interest, the foregoing information contributes to the evolution of the philosophy of the literature storage and retrieval problem. The development of the art of information storage and retrieval has not kept pace with the need of personnel in this field. This, therefore, has created opportunities for people who have the need for information storage and retrieval or document control thrust upon them. An analysis of the attendance at this conference would probably indicate that the number of chemists, biologists, clinicians, lawyers, administrators, and others greatly exceeds that of people trained purely in the information field. The history of the approach to literature control therefore most often reflects the thinking of technical personnel in fields other than the library sciences. Good fundamental bases are often wanting, too, because in new areas of endeavor the sense of need for perpetuity is often unrecognized. What begins as a fairly mundane and discrete problem, involving the effect of moisture on a unit of electronic equipment, may end up as an information center involving a number of lifetime

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

TABLE 1. Chronology of information handling, Prevention of Deterioration Center

Date(s)

Sponsor-source

Information mobilization form

Content retrieval method

Prior to 1944

Joint Army-Navy Deterioration Steering Committee of the National Defense Research Committee

No formal control of newly generated minutes of meetings, conferences and similar information. Outside reference collecting diffuse, uncentralized and personal to members of contributory committees

No known formal method; individual memory recall

1944–1945

Tropical Deterioration Information Center

1. Information Center miscellaneous reports

2. Information Center reports

3. Tropical Deterioration Bulletin No. 1–24A Tropical Deterioration Bulletin No. 1–7A, Vol. II

4. Tropical Deterioration Bulletin Supplements

5. Tropicalization News

No known indexes or other formal retrieval method Some evidence of an incipient system of categories being considered

As above, two bibliographies in series of 14 reports, indexed, however, by subject

Author and subject indexes issued 1946

Author and subject indexes issued 1946

Author and subject indexes issued 1946

No known formal method

1945

Prevention of Deterioration Center, National Academy of Sciences (NAS)-National Research Council (NRC); Office of Research and Invention Contract

Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts

Abstracted and indexed approximately 1/3 of reports received annually, continued categorical divisions; balance not retrievable in any systematic way

1946

PDC, NAS-NRC; Office of Naval Research Contract

PDC Abstracts

Index to abstracted reports

1949

PDC, NAS-NRC; Office of Naval Research Contract

1. PDC Abstracts

2. Edge-punched card system installed for both abstracted and unabstracted reports. Described by Curtis Brown, 1955

3. Fungicide file established as an edge-punched card system

Index

Through use of a direct code on 14 separate categorical files

Indirect code based on modified American Chemical Society classification system

1956

PDC, NAS-NRC; Office of Naval Research Contract

Supplementary or satellite file of pertinent non-commercial specifications established

Indexed as an experimental group of documents prior to possible installation as a Peek-a-boo, field-punched card system

1957

PDC, NAS-NRC; Office of Naval Research Contract

PDC Abstracts, supplemented with extracts or telegraphic treatment of hitherto undisseminated reports

Conventional indexing supplemented with monoterm rubrics preparatory for subjecting information in Volume XV to Peek-a-boo treatment

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

careers correlating knowledge from numerous and not obviously related disciplines. Conversely, not every problem is blessed by a coincidence of events which fertilize it into a growing, self-sustaining, entity. If there is to be ultimately a universal system of information storage and retrieval, its roots must lie in the recognition that knowledge should never be subjected to the vagaries of indecision in terms of perpetuity of the organization doing the work. Each mobilization of knowledge, be it that represented by a student processing his first thesis or some international agency dealing with a universal problem in infinite time, should command the respect entitling it to its place in the universal system. Only this guarantee can be sobering enough to induce a proper approach to producing and processing each endeavor in a serious intussusceptive manner.

In Table 1 the outline of the development of information mobilization and recall methods at the Prevention of Deterioration Center is given. Examination of this table indicates that early in the history of this development the need for some control was recognized. The first elements of order will be found in the Tropical Deterioration Bulletin which divided the information into discrete areas of interest, reflecting in part the various committee organizations which were staffed separately by men from the textile, wood, leather, optical instrument, packaging, and similar fields. The biological aspect of the problem was conceded from the very beginning, and a section “Prevention of Growth of Organisms” under which subheadings of “Inorganic materials,” “Organic materials-cellulosic” appeared, was established in 1944. A Table of Contents first appeared in April 1945, and this recognized the area of “Finished Assemblies,” which included electrical and electronic equipment in addition to studies on optical instruments. This fundamental organization is still well reflected in the present 14 categories characteristic of the Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts today.

In 1955 Curtis A.Brown, formerly of the staff of the Prevention of Deterioration Center, described the retrieval methods used at the Center in his paper presented at the Minneapolis ACS meeting. Brown contributed to the study “Two Approaches to the Retrieval of Information from a Special Library” of which specifically, “Part I: Application of a Simple Punched-Card System to a Special Information Center,” described Brown’s interpretation of the then existing system. The possible application of a Uniterm Coordinate Indexing system to a segment of the same files described by Brown, was discussed by Mortimer Taube as Part II of the above study.

The Uniterm system approach to the Prevention of Deterioration Center task disclosed in a very practical way the most serious shortcoming of the punched card method as established at PDC. This is the fact that the edge-

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

punched system is characterized by a limited number of descriptors, restricted to 1148 punching positions for the total system. On the other hand, an unrestricted or a maximum depth type of indexing as practiced by the uniterm approach which included specific materials, organisms, chemical names, and similar conceptual categories obviously was not handicapped by any fixed limitation of terms. The chosen documents generated approximately 3000 terms in the first 500 analyses with each document on an average contributing 25 uniterms. This volume yield of descriptors generated by only 2% of the total file, re-emphasized the capacity problem. Among the many attractive features of the uniterm approach, the most appealing was the abandonment of many of the restrictions, in terms of descriptors. The complete and nondiscriminate indexing as exemplified by the above trial in terms of descriptors or rubrics must be recognized, however, as a mixed blessing. The desire to get every possible concept from an article is inherent to a good indexer and is a commendable avarice. The indexing load as described by Taube was in no way embarrassing, in what we must consider a limited trial—limited being defined as the ratio of five hundred documents as compared with the total collection of 22,000 reports. Input time here, although not specifically defined in print, is probably greater than input time in terms of conforming to the fixed code of the edge-punched card. The advantages of deeper indexing need no champion. The limits of practicality, however, will not long be ignored, and posting through the supernumerary retrieval pathways bodes an increasingly greater burden. Assuming, too, that the 500 documents used in the trial were subjected to the posting procedure which involves dividing a card into ten vertical columns marked 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 and the document numbers placed into these respective stalls by their terminal digit characteristic, the rigors of collating, again minimal with but the derivatives of 500 documents, undoubtedly becomes quite overbearing psychologically, if not physically, as the existing rubrics become associated with more and more documents. It is essential to remember that indexing per se is comparatively a light task and is only the basis for the far more onerous task of posting and collating. The mental image of a pretty young lady, or a sedate one for that matter, coping with the alignment of numerous cards, wherein she is to recognize collated documents by similar terminal digits in a veritable sea of numbers, is quite distressing. It is not so distressing, however, that the desirability of providing her with a more suitable read out device is not apparent. The end would seem to justify the means if the means were just a little less fatiguing.

It appeared then that the Center was on the horns of a dilemma—tempted by the fundamentally sound, deep indexing approach but intimidated by the overwhelming personnel problem and the pragmatic justification relative to em-

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

bracing the “sin” of overengineering. Repeatedly, the edge-punched card, as used in a direct coding method, had been found to be too inadequate in its language capabilities. Originally conceived in a distinctive analytical way, the fundamental logic seemed comprehensive and sound. This involved seven cardinal philosophical considerations beginning with (1) environmental agents interacting with (2) materials of various types which are subject to (3) deterioration in different forms and degree thus in turn demanding various (4) corrective and preventive considerations, the value of which can be measured by (5) test methods which draw heavily on supportive (6) applied and theoretical studies on materials properties, mechanism of destruction, inhibition, and control, all of which come from established, contributory (7) literature consisting of reports, surveys, patents, bibliographies, etc.

The scope of the system was further enhanced very early in the plan by creating what is primarily a taxonomy of materials. This established the 14 satellite files in the constellation which was our PDC edge-punched card system. These satellite files are:

  1. Biological agents and pesticides

  2. Ceramics, cements, glass, and plaster

  3. Electrical and electronic equipment

  4. Lacquers, paints, and varnishes

  5. Leather

  6. Lubricants, fuels, and hydraulics fluids

  7. Metals

  8. Optical instruments and photographic equipment

  9. Packaging and storage

  10. Paper

  11. Plastics, resins, rubbers, and waxes

  12. Textiles and cordage

  13. Wood

  14. Weather and climate

Even with this studied attempt to gain versatility, supplemented further by the use of descriptive phrases and words written in on the card, there were too often times when the beast was both deaf and dumb. Gradually undedicated spaces were used to increase the vocabulary of the quasi-automaton, but the privilege of continuing to do this ad infinitum would, within the foreseeable future, be available no longer. The desirability of an open-ended system became very apparent. To add to this the very intriguing ability to collate, if and when the occasion demanded, was soon accepted by the Center as an evolutionary step to be recognized and abetted.

Independently of the Center, other investigators of the comparative merits of existing manual systems had been considering respective advantages and disadvantages, and when our edge-punched card system was selected as a guinea pig, we welcomed the exploration. Probably by way of comparative trial to evaluate extension or promotion of possibilities relative to their own needs, the Office of Naval Research offered a set of questions to both our system and the Uniterm system in 1955, and although the question-answering

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

ability of both systems was sustained, no detailed analysis or comparison of the two methods has been published. Similar tests, however, in other areas with other collections have indicated that any comparable systems so tested usually give the proponents of the vying methods considerable thought-provoking data and indications of potential improvement areas, within the system each is championing. That this was true of our position became apparent after the comparative trial. What information we gained indicated that our performance in terms of question-answering ability was competitive. This was not satisfaction enough. Our growing sense of disaffection was not altered. The necessity to reword or interpret the questions, handling large numbers of cards, the feeling of insecurity concomitant with turning the system over to strangers less familiar with it than we, all helped to fix our determination to move into some more flexible manual information storage and retrieval method.

Improving the system by abandoning a direct code and substituting an indirect one was never seriously considered, primarily because we believed this would further isolate the information in terms of utility for untrained users, coders, indexers, and administrators. We suspected too, that dealing with an indirect code would have an unfavorable effect on handling time, thereby increasing costs.

The Prevention of Deterioration Center is most rigidly bound by the economics associated with a group cataloguing documents at about 200 a month. This average is rising, and the basic figures reported by Brown in 1955 no longer hold. At that time the increase per year was represented by approximately 2000 reports; however, in the last quarter of 1957 alone, 999 documents passed through the hands of our accession librarian. Table 2 gives a somewhat expanded statistical version of the accessions activity at the Center through the last four years. Peak years such as 1956, wherein several special studies were carried out are reflected in the number of documents involved. This indicates the inherent flexibility that any literature handling system must have, while recognizing the rigor of a fixed annual budget, staff, and facilities. We have accepted as an approximate measure of work load the tenet that processing a document for the storage and retrieval function is probably at least as time-consuming as conventional library cataloguing procedures. At no time have we considered abandoning the typical library practices of cataloguing and supplementary information control through title and author index approaches. Our desire relative to conventional cataloguing is to increase the specificity of the total information system by supplementing the catalog with an input and output system for more detailed information units. The function of the Center as a technical document lending institution is believed to be soundly founded in classical librarianship. Although the relationship between processing time

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

TABLE 2. Documents accession data, four-year period, Prevention of Deterioration Center

Year

Ordered

Received

Catalogued

 

1954

1st quarter

750

547

567

 

2nd quarter

695

490

482

 

3rd quarter

617

417

544

 

4th quarter

728

435

379

 

Total

 

 

1972

164/month

1955

1st quarter

1048

798

512

 

2nd quarter

1011

761

677

 

3rd quarter

1302

881

604

 

4th quarter

1110

871

505

 

Total

 

 

2298

192/month

1956

1st quarter

1022

769

836

 

2nd quarter

1040

875

707

 

3rd quarter

879

731

793

 

4th quarter

846

691

541

 

Total

 

 

2877

240/month

1957

1st quarter

785

664

515

 

2nd quarter

792

706

621

 

3rd quarter

805

641

498

 

4th quarter

999

790

612

 

Total

 

 

2246

187/month

 

 

 

Average

196/month

and costs, comparing the library cataloguing of documents with information storage and retrieval handling, is not known, the cataloguing data are considered to be a realistic measure of work volume since at any given time, the ratio of handling times in each operation, cataloguing vs. information system input time, is a discrete number. The fluid condition in work methods relative to our evolving information storage and control methods makes this an unsuitable area for relative cost estimates, whereas the more standardized library procedures lend themselves better to accounting methods. For these reasons we generally measure our work load in terms of library rather than information system activity.

Basic concepts in available systems

The stimulus of the comparison between two systems as indicated above served to crystallize many of the questions that had arisen from time to time as to what might constitute a better information storage and retrieval system. Here the dynamic flux of the state of this art was both an aid and a hindrance. In looking about for a tailor-made system that would service our needs, there

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

were none found that could be accepted without reservation. The marginal punch-card system by now had been evaluated against time and, although fundamentally sound, was being found somewhat uncomfortably pinching in its limitations associated with capacity where no indirect code was involved. The need to handle a continually greater number of cards was proving a strain on the nervous and muscular system not only of ourselves, but even on some of the early proponents of this routine.1 The limited capabilities of the edge-punched card in respect to collating information too had been placed on the balance and found lacking. An extension or revision of the edge-punched-card system seemed to be precluded. The change to a system involving high machine costs was considered only in passing and was only considered seriously from the aspect that ultimate growth of our system could conceivably demand, in the future, a machine method. Today the machine method ranks high in importance of consideration primarily because current practices in manual systems should be, in as much as it is conceivably possible, such that ultimate absorption into a machine system can be accomplished with optimal efficiency. The move from man to machine, at present is apparently governed by the physical and time limitations of man in terms of work volume. All other things being considered equal, in the several competitive systems available today, given an economical machine that would reduce the physical burden of handling an ever growing number of 5 by 8 edge-punched cards, this system would probably be ideal for certain type information system performance requirements. No allowances should be entertained, however, which will bar it from absorption into or interpretation by a universal approach.

Of the various possibilities that suggested themselves to us, all within the realm of manual methods, gradually the Batten or Peek-a-boo approach became our principal interest. Here there seemed to be numerous advantages which on the surface appeared to contribute to our aspirations for a more versatile, less trying method.

The major difficulty in the Peek-a-boo approach apparently resides, in common with other punch-card systems, in the demands associated with the art of indexing. Batten, pioneer in this field, in his appraisal of this method points out clearly the difficulties in this respect, stressing the fact that indexing was in his studies considered as an art and not a science, and with the passage of time others have pointed out that this continues to be the principal difficulty. J.W.Perry has succinctly summarized these difficulties in discussing aspect cards in the book Documentation and Information Retrieval, co-authored by him and Allen Kent.

The parallelism between needs at the Imperial Chemical Industry at the time

1  

J.W.Perry, personal communication.

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

of Batten’s work in 1939 and patent literature control expresses well the difficulties common to many information groups and the Prevention of Deterioration Center. His analysis showed:

  1. Inadequacy of classical indexing systems, particularly because they do not lend themselves to rejection of unwanted material by nontechnical personnel.

  2. Fully mechanized systems are too expensive.

  3. Classification pattern changes with time.

  4. Hollerith (IBM) or Powers (Remington Rand) cards, suggest a fixed lace-work pattern for a given set of facts, but as the collection grows, the capacity of cards is exceeded and a costly reorganization and a retraining with the use of technical personnel become inevitable.

Reflective consideration of this problem finally led him to the conclusion that there was a need for a simple apparatus that would be open in the sense that it could absorb an infinite increase in items. The system should be capable of handling diverse material and permit fine classification from a great number of points of view. This suggested a concept of “one item, one card,” as opposed to one document for each card.

In the Batten system the information is considered and indexed from point of view of topic, class, subclass, subject, name, or property, and for each of these items a punchable card is provided. The card is divided into a large number of frames which are numbered by marginal coordinates. Each frame represents a patent “document.” As various aspects of each document are noted, the proper position on each card is punched. This process is continued until all the documents have been dealt with and the spaces on the card have been filled. This results in a series of cards perforated in such a way as to characterize the contents of each document. By superimposing selected cards one on the other in a stack, the visible perforation throughout the entire stack will be obtained. Wherever the frames represent patent specifications having the selected characteristics, the coordination or collation of the selected criteria or rubrics becomes apparent through the uninterrupted light path through coincident punches, thus yielding a tailored answer to a tailored question. In addition, this system provides answers of the yes or no, fit or not fit type question.

Batten notes further the special problems in indexing patents. He brings out the demanding exactness of the legal type of language, the necessity for having unambiguous terminology.

In the classification of the information in the patents, considerable thought was given to the sorting system which would be used throughout the procedure. It is strongly emphasized that no mechanical aids can compensate for a defective classification scheme, although the converse is true. There is a basic need for a stock set of characteristics to be used for coding. This set is subjected

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

to revision as the need arises and consists primarily of additions to the catalog of rubrics. One of the characteristics of a good aspect is that it is readily combined with other aspects and is capable of expressing all the stages between a generic and a specific situation. It is to be noted that this approach is a contradiction to “fixed” types of index handlings which are mutually exclusive. Further, in the Batten system the classes and subclasses are selected on the principle that these types of aspects are to be anticipated and will be sought in combination. Classification of this kind is considered by Batten to be an art, and as such the creation of rules should be governed by the nature of the material and the objectives of the system. With plastics as an example, the chemical nature of the material, manufacturing processes, use areas, and invention details were chosen as indexing bases. The four selected criteria are considered to be reflective of the memory process by which the seeker should hope to find the material he needs. Expansion of these four points occurs only when necessary.

The apparatus used by Batten consisted of a movable spring-loaded punch in a jig. The original card size was 8 by 10 inch, divided into 400 frames. The limitation of this card, however, was that it covered only 400 items, and the subsequent card selected was the standard Hollerith card which permits 800 items and is adaptable to punching with a standard keyboard punch. It is to be remembered that this card was used in an inverse manner, i.e., each card represented a characteristic in a document, rather than the entire document.

At the time of Batten’s report, published in 1951, the system had been in use over 7 years, and consisted of 6800 items. There are 14 series, 10 on the old and 4 on the new cards. These decks permit a chronological succession sorting of the catalogued material which would not be possible in a time random collection. The latest deck would represent the newest knowledge, the oldest deck the earlier knowledge.

Although Batten believed the system to be unknown generally, it appears that in France during World War II certain army service records and data had been manipulated by a similar system, and the work of American investigators seemed to be moving almost contemporaneously, in these same channels, independently of the British and French work.

This brief review of the early Peek-a-boo effort reveals a marked similarity in needs between those recognized by Batten and the needs of the Prevention of Deterioration Center.

In 1955 the general state of the art of manual systems was reviewed by I.A. Warheit. He points out that where specific demand requires detailed subject headings, the need for quick indexing and easy availability has been met by creating additional categories or subcategories, and the addition of sentence

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

type modifiers to expanded indexes. Brown’s paper on the system at PDC reveals that these expediencies were excercised in our case too.

The details of any expanded index, Warheit points out, require that the untrained library client have elaborate cross references in order to use the expanded system. Further disadvantages are that the entries are inconveniently on individual file cards, and any excessive wording makes them impractical to code or even to arrange alphabetically.

Currently, the sciences are being offered several basic systems involving the use of punch cards, both edge-punched and field-punched, and either hand- or machine-sorted. These are the edge-punched McBee and field-punched Peek-a-boo system and the method of coordinated indexing with uniterms. There are also some incipient systems which depend on magnetic or film storage technics involving possible use of cathode ray tubes, and which require expensive machines for their operation. These, however, are much too elaborate and expensive for use in an ordinary library or an information center, such as is illustrated by PDC.

Both the coordinated index and the Batten method depend on the utilization of a system of indexing which may be referred to as the post-combination or multiple-aspect approach, where individual items are indexed separately and later recombined to meet the needs of each specific search. The differences among the systems lie, in part, in the method of physically manipulating these subject heading components, or “monoterms.”

Reports, particularly those involving installed systems of uniterm coordinate indexing, were of interest to us for here at last seemed to be a method which would free us of punch holes. The uniterm coordinate indexing method takes into consideration the difficulties inherent to any punched-card system which we at PDC summarize as, primarily, mechanical problems—the system is too big, too heavy, too bulky, too inflexible, etc.—and any improvement lies in alleviating these conditions. The uniterm system approach to literature control takes the “too factor” into consideration and very neatly fractionates the punched card denoting many qualities by labeling ordinary cards with the terms indicating each separated quality. On the back of each card labeled with a concept, rubric, descriptor, aspect, heading, or what have you, and currently much in vogue is the phrase “unit term,” a list of numbers is assembled, representing references giving information on a rubric. The term rubric is the word long used by Dr. Jeanne MacCreight, formerly Index Editor at Biological Abstracts, and we wonder whether this might not have a claim to priority, at least over many of our newer words describing the indexing unit. Nevertheless, collation between two rubrics such as copper naphthenate and cordage in the uniterm system means comparing the backs of these cards for common

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

report numbers posted thereon in 10 ranks. Adoption of this scheme frees one from gadgets—no needles, punches, or peekabooing is involved. Size limitations are presumably avoided, and no coding is necessary; it can handle an infinite number of documents without slowing down the searching process, and it is adaptable for machine operation in relation to posting and matching numbers. The system, however, still requires that precautions and controls of ordinary cataloguing be maintained, that thoughtful, serious indexing from parent documents, not abstracts, be practiced, that adequate uniterm control with an authority list be scrupulously maintained.

Warheit further analyzes costs, particularly in relation to conventional cataloguing, and concludes that coordinate indexing presents little or no economic advantages. Unfortunately, no comparison between a coordinate indexing method and the peekaboo system of information retrieval was noted. We hope to contribute through our own studies information which may be applicable in this evaluation.

The practical application of the uniterm coordinate indexing system has been reported by Jahoda as it pertains to the information control in a soap industry file. Here there are revealed several significant evolutionary developments and concessions requisite to reducing the method to practice. In essence the system bows to the need for a dictionary of terms based on the need to “minimize this dispersion of information in the index,” which apparently occurs when synonyms, etc., are not reduced to unit concepts. The bound term need is recognized and compound terms are accepted into the system as their need becomes evident. Even with broad indexing as established for the system, auxiliary classified lists have been created. This indicates that, in the resolution of a practical approach to the problem of broad versus specific indexing, one system, admittedly desirable, cannot be efficiently and practically established by using the numbers matching technic for retrieval. Additional recall devices established include author card index, a chronological-serial number for primary sorting aided by different colored cards for various time periods, and classification of documents by prefixes indicating types such as trade literature, patents, photographs, and reprints. The burden of posting here seems self-evident and is listed along with false coordination and danger of physical loss of cards as being the three specific disadvantages of the system. The advantages lie, he found, in that the system provides intensive indexing, the file is compact, and its size is leveling off gradually, and it is a simple system fundamentally, if the basic input rules are enforced consistently. In discussing this paper with Jahoda, after its presentation, the impression arose that there was a growing apprehension relative to the burden of posting.

After considering these many facets contributing to our ability to make as

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

proper a decision as possible relative to the collection at PDC, we were most strongly influenced by the Batten system developments as published on by Wildhack, Stern, and Smith of the Office of Basic Instrumentation (OBI), National Bureau of Standards. Development on this essentially Cordonnier-Batten2 approach, renamed more functionally and descriptively Peek-a-boo by the team at OBI, consisted primarily in increasing the capacity of the field-punched card, instrumenting a precise, reproducible low-cost punch with appropriate gages and preparing an accurate read out device. The size of the punch was reduced to provide registration positions for 18,000 documents. The prototype machine has now been improved and several copies of the device are distributed among investigators for clinical trials. Through the courtesy of the OBI, PDC has one such machine for evaluation in terms of our file.

Prior to the use of this proposed new system, however, we were faced with the problem of readjusting our entire thinking on the basis of now having available to us a potentially adequate and open end system containing no restrictions in terms of a limited code. The penultimate, we considered, was a hypothetically ideal number of index entries per document. The physical limitations, however, could not be readily assessed. No staff increases were contemplated. Although coding as required by the older system would no longer be necessary, no information was available on how our coding and indexing load would be related to our document accession load. Out of deference to our previous indexing method used in the Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts our conventional approach we felt had to be continued. This contains the usual element of precoordination as interpreted by our indexing-abstracting staff, based on each individual’s own understanding of the document. Although we considered a simple listing of the rubrics generated by each document from which it was conjectured that our readers could do their own collating as required, the mechanical problems in creating such a coordinate index apart from a card system did not appear to be readily overcome. Theoretical considerations of adequate indexing were difficult too in all terms of the absolute. How should the index discriminating sense be judged? Should every trade name, every possible organic compound, all genera and species of organisms become rubrics? After much discussion it was conceded that possibly a principle of self-limitation would become operative in our field. We considered that not all possible organic compounds will ever fall into the sphere of a single system, nor will all the organisms in the world be associated, for example, with the field of biological deterioration. It was recognized, therefore, that one of our early functions would be to try to measure in some way the size of the vocabu-

2  

Inventorship is not implied here.

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

lary inherent to our business and to find at which point, if at all, the principle of self-limitation becomes operative. From looking at other systems we were inclined to believe that this is a manageable number of rubrics and that the total number is not one by which we should be intimidated. Taube’s work on our files showed that 500 reports generated 3000 uniterms, but this gave us no indication at which point the leveling off would occur. Taube’s original estimate of what our total vocabulary would probably be was revised upward subsequently, too, based on the prolific yield associated with the first 500 documents.

Experiences in indexing a satellite file

At this point one of our former staff editors, William Wood, suggested that our collection of hitherto unindexed United States specifications would be a good experimental file. This suggestion was recognized as an opportunity to crystallize some of the physical and ideological difficulties more realistically than a theoretical evaluation, and it was adopted.

Indexing the specifications file produced several useful items of information. First, once an individual has indexed conventionally, that is, by using descriptive phrases and precollating with the document in hand, there is a marked psychological block to reducing the content of a document to a series of disjointed words. The monoterm selection type of indexing does not, apparently, produce the same satisfaction that comes with the correlating of ideas presented by an author and as interpreted by an indexer. This judgment sense, ability, call it what you may, is strongly reminiscent of what by many people is recognized as the art of indexing. An indexer prides himself on the fact that he is capturing ideas and concepts, not merely herding words into a corral, which later can be reassembled at will to produce compound concepts so meticulously before disassociated, or perhaps even to give interpretations which may be entirely unrelated to parent material. The meaning of words alone is basis for controversy, collating out of context may well be nothing more than superimposing two or more variables, the selected rubrics in this instance, so that a result reminiscent of events at the Tower of Babel might ensue. Even currently in our work, apart from time limitations, there is a marked reluctance to take out of context the various single or bound terms that are characteristic of a document. Theoretically it is possible to argue, sincerely and convincingly, that any information recall system which recognizes the value of collation can function ideally only when each document yields its full number of bits. We are forced, by practicality, however, to recognize this again as a depth of indexing problem and thereby grant our indexer the license to use his or her judg-

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

ment in relation to any given bit. Even though a casual reference has often sparked a significant series of investigations or provides the missing link in a much wanted answer, we concede that the laws of probability militate against such an ideal coincidence. The use of a dictionary of terms is often proposed to minimize the necessity for decision making; however, it must be remembered that although the dictionary of terms will definitely enumerate the words in your technical vocabulary, it cannot help in judging significance. For example, no dictionary of terms can direct on how he should deal with this example. A report comes to PDC, and it deals with a specially prepared, waterproofed, treated paper which in experimental trials yields a great deal of good data indicating that the subject paper is quite worthy of application trials in certain packaging uses. In conclusion, the author summarizes the qualities of the wrapping paper and emphasizes that certain lumber shipments can very well be protected from the effects of moisture in possibly the hold of a ship. Hopefully, too, the proponent suggests, in passing, that of course this wrapping paper should also be protective in relation to dust. There are no dust protection studies reported. Dust is certainly by its abrasive qualities, its soiling properties, and its microbiological implications truly a rubric in the vocabulary of a deterioration prevention information center. Time demands and quality of factual information standards as interpreted by the analysts, even though there are arguments both pro and con for inclusion or exclusion of this experimentally untested reference, govern the final disposition. The ultimate decision, we have found, rests in the hands of our abstracting-indexing group, who are guided primarily by their own interpretation of each document they survey.

The indexing of our satellite group of specifications produced from 2 to 24 entries for each specification. The indexing of the specifications provided us with the opportunity of assessing the applicability of each document to our field of endeavor. Although 2500 pieces were examined, far from all were pertinent, and the finished index produced only two index entries for each specification.

The specification index, we believe, produced a conservative number of characteristic terms because specifications are, in their physical conceptual approach, infinitely more standardized than the random documents that come to our files. The concentrated indexing effort produced from zero to 24 entries for each document, and the final average number proved to be two. In considering this possibly low value, we feel we would need to remember that the specifications are selected by title only and often prove minimal in contributory value. Specifications, too, are very uniform and standard in format and thus minimize a diversity of entries. Our indexer, who had long worked with

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

specifications, understood that each specification usually includes characteristic categorical concepts such as scope, applicable related documents and drawings, requirements, sampling, inspection and test procedure, preparation for delivery, packaging, and notes. The indexing therefore was more strongly oriented toward materials and methods, typically the prevention of deterioration point of view, rather than toward a more comprehensive type of registration. Approach to the specifications file implies understanding the categorical makeup, and queries put to the collection would be centered on the need for more specific information. The orientation of indexing toward materials and methods proved fortuitous in two ways.

Primarily the index to the specifications placed a great deal of hitherto unavailable information into the overall system of information resurrection, and in a short while after its completion, it proved useful in several instances, enabling us to make a comprehensive search in several areas where, within the realm of specification requirements, hitherto we had been progressing in an unsatisfactory manner. Secondarily and more importantly, however, and we believe this to be a fundamental principle which will continue to be of service to us, we discovered for ourselves what we have chosen to call the principle of re-entry. This may be defined as the concept which gives an indexing system the potentiality of leading the searcher back to cardinal entries for the purpose of developing a chosen area in a more definitive way. Throughout the history of information storage and retrieval at the Prevention of Deterioration Center, we have studiously avoided, and, in fact in the edge-punched card system, made little allowance for specific names of organisms, compounds, trade names, and similar large and comprehensive areas of information, primarily because the capacity of the systems available to us then did not encourage an unlimited vocabulary. Secondly, the economic justification for a system encompassing a large and possibly uneconomic factor of redundancy and the candid recognition that it is very unsatisfactory to try to anticipate every question which may or may not be put to the system forced us to accept the limitation, barring direct entry of specific organisms, experimental compound names, and similar categories which we anticipate in part are best handled in separate satellite collections. Our respect for the possible need of a hierarchical approach encouraged us, too, to try for balanced indexing in a taxonomic sense, since it appeared to us to be a poor indexing approach to analyze subject material in certain taxonomically developed areas to a finite degree whereas in other undeveloped taxonomic regions no similar degree of indexing seemed readily apparent. Whether we have overemphasized the value and significance of a hierarchy in information handling is debatable, but with limited funds and

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

the need to devise a useful, practical economic system, we have been unable to dismiss considering the hierarchical approach as an instrument of balance aiding us in striving for a uniform depth of indexing. A uniform depth of indexing by experienced people plus the use of the re-entry principle gives us a sound and economic system in which the cost of redundancy is kept at a minimal value. No re-entry into the files is made until the need arises, and the cost of the re-entry is then amortized against the new need.

The soundness of the re-entry principle was made manifest to us in using the specifications file shortly after its completion. In considering the applied microbiology that is written or implied in the specifications concerning themselves with the deterioration of materials, it became desirable to catalog the organisms associated with all the tests covered in these documents. By pulling all entries under organic materials within the established fields of interest of the center, e.g., objects made of leather, paper, wood fabrics of various kinds, and coatings, a comprehensive roster of organisms associated with testing the aforementioned materials was made available. This, when reduced to index entries, is easily assimilated into the file for future needs, and it satisfied the need which engendered and financed the request. Development of the re-entry principle will require comprehension and obedience to existing good indexing practices plus possible subjective operational concepts based on the aims and purposes of each individual collection. Since a universal system of literature control continues to be quite elusive and applied information centers are required to store and release on call vast amounts of knowledge, always at minimal cost, we feel that the principle of re-entry with its clear-cut cost accountability is a concept of considerable interest and value to us. It seems a logical approach to the problem of redundancy.

Practical considerations in establishing the field punched-card system

During the experimental period prior to the adoption of the field punched coordinate system, which centered on our work with the hitherto unindexed specifications file, the problem of establishing a dictionary of terms required resolution. Our attitude on the desirability of having beforehand a comprehensive dictionary of terms has been that, in essence, this would be a real help in our current endeavor. As in many other systems, the field punched-card coordinate method requires the preparation of a standard dictionary of terms. It has been estimated that for our field this dictionary would consist of about

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

5000 to 8000 terms. Once established, this dictionary must be adhered to strictly. For each term in the dictionary, one card is dedicated. We have in mind cards 5 by 8 inches, providing sufficient space to dedicate 18,000 small holes. Each hole represents the number of a report. Thus, when 18,000 reports have been received and coded, it is necessary to start a new deck of cards for the next 18,000.

In brief explanation of the actual working system, suppose we receive a report on the subject of copper naphthenate being used as a fungicide to protect a cotton textile against mildew in the tropics. Let us say that this report is number 12,500. Cards corresponding to the terms copper, naphthenate, cotton, textile, fungicide, mildew, and tropics are removed from the file, and hole number 12,500 is punched. Let us also suppose that this same operation is carried out for a large number of reports with the standard dictionary of terms. Later, when a request is received for information on the use of copper naphthenate as a protectant of cotton fabrics against mildew in the tropics, the cards corresponding to the dictionary terms in the request are pulled from the file. The cards are aligned in a scanning or read out device containing a light source. Holes common to all cards will thus permit light to shine through and indicate the numbers of reports containing information common to the dictionary terms of the request. Consideration of this example illustrates that either of two courses relative to the time at which a dictionary of terms can or must be made available to the system may be taken. We considered seriously establishing the dictionary before our indexing. Our enthusiasm, however, in wanting to wade into the new technic plus some rationalizing on the basis that the current literature indexing would produce more synonyms, homonyms, and suggestions for arbitrary definitions than we could possibly recall led us to accepting the working practice of building the dictionary of terms and concept ranking as we moved ahead with our work. This is open to challenge from the efficiency point of view, particularly since with our accumulation of abstract indexes, index to the textbook Deterioration of Materials, edited by Greathouse and Wessel, and general group familiarity resulting from over ten years of Center operation we feel that the dictionary of terms does exist, in essence, within the four walls of the Center. Collecting this information into a discrete index is, however, considered to be but a matter of time, because after processing just five issues of Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts within the newer framework of accepting terms with a minimum of restrictions, the dictionary is growing well in structure and depth. The need for absorbing concepts from our older sources may be unnecessary. Editing of the newly acquired terms with proper signification of deletions, cross-indexing, see also entries, etc., we

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

believe will keep our system useful, comprehensible, and contemporary. This self-generated collection of descriptors will need, we believe, little more editing than any collection of raw terms.

The growth of our vocabulary in the category of metals and plastics at the conclusion of the fifth issue of Volume XV is presented in Tables 38. We do

TABLE 3. Quantitative generation of keywords in “Metals” category. Issues 1 to 5 inclusive, Volume XV, Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts

Number of reports (approximately 100 sheepa and 90 goats)

190

Number of keywords generated

432

Total number of entries

1373

Average number of entries per report

7.2

a “Sheep” are abstracted reports; “goats” are non-abstracted reports.

not present these data as a significant sample from which to make any valid extrapolations. We do hope eventually, with more of this type of data, to ascertain our plateaus and uncover corollary information which may be of use in general application areas for information groups collecting and analyzing

TABLE 4. Frequency of keyword occurrence, category “Metals,” Issues 1 to 5 inclusive. Volume XV, Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts

Frequency of occurrence

Number of key words

Frequency of occurrence

Number of keywords

1

257

17

2

2

76

19

2

3

21

20

2

4

7

21

2

5

13

22

2

6

24

24

1

7

7

25

1

8

1

29

1

9

3

36

1

10

1

37

1

11

2

60

1

13

3

78

1

15

2

96

1

16

1

 

 

data in an information center accessing documents at a rate comparable to the rate at PDC. Though one frequently finds general statements referring to the estimated approximate size of a vocabulary in any given area, precise, develop-

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

TABLE 5. Keywords and frequency of occurrence in the category of “Metals,” Issues 1 to 5 inclusive, Volume XV, Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts

Keyword

Entries

Acetylation

1

Acids

1

Acrylonitrile rubber

1

Adhesion

1

Adsorption

1

Aeration

1

Aging

1

Agricultural

1

Aircraft

7

Alkalies

1

Alkalinity

1

Allotropy

2

Alloy

1

Alloying

1

Alloying additives

2

Alloying agents

7

Alloying metal (element, additive)

2

Altitude

1

Aluminum

36

Aluminum alloy (s)

17

Amines

3

Anodes

6

Anodes (sacrificial)

1

Anodizing

5

Anticorrosive additives

16

Anticorrosive treatment (s)

5

Antifouling

1

Antifreeze

1

Antitarnish

1

Application (s)

9

Aqueous solution(s)

2

Asbestos

1

Asbestos-cement

1

Atmosphere

1

Atmospheric pollution

1

Austenitic

1

Automotive engines

1

Awnings

1

Bacteria

2

Bactericides

1

Ballast

1

Batteries

1

Benzophenones

1

Beryllium

1

Bibliography

1

Bis (5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-methane

1

Bitumens

3

Boilers

1

Bolts

1

Boron

1

Brass

4

Bridges

1

Brine See Salt water

 

Bronze

1

Butadiene rubber

1

Butyl rubber

1

Cable(s)

5

Cable sheath

1

Cadmium

2

Calcium silicate

1

Cans See Containers

 

Carbon black

2

Carbon dioxide

1

Casings See Shields

 

Casting

1

Cathodic protection

24

Cavitation

1

Cellulose resins

1

Cement

2

Ceramics

1

Cermets

1

Chemical

1

Chemical composition

1

Chemical plating

1

Chemical resistance

2

Chemical structure

2

Chemicals

2

Chlorinated rubber

1

Chlorination

1

Chlorine

1

Chlorophyll

1

Chromallizing See Chromizing

 

Chromate(s)

9

Chromate treatments

1

Chromic acid

2

Chromium

8

Chromium alloys

1

Chromium compounds

1

Chromizing

3

Cladding

2

Climate

4

Coal tar

2

Coatings

29

Cobalt alloys

2

Coloration

1

Columbium

1

Combustion products

1

Commercial

2

Commercial paper

4

Commercial publication

1

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Keyword

Entries

Communication systems

1

Compendium

3

Compilation

1

Components

2

Compound 1080

1

Concrete

4

Condensation

1

Condenser tubes

1

Container (s)

2

Contaminants

5

Conversion coating See Anticorrosive treatments

 

Cooling systems

1

Cooling towers

1

Copper

19

Copper alloys

7

Copper compounds (organic)

1

Copper-8-quinolinolate

1

Corronizing

1

Corrosion

78

Corrosion inhibitors

2

Corrosion resistance

7

Corrosion resistant

2

Cost(s)

10

Cotton

1

Couples

1

Coupling

3

Cracking

1

Creep

1

Creosote

1

Crevice corrosion

1

Crystallography

2

Cycling

1

Cylinders

2

Decking

1

Deformation

1

Dehumidification

2

Detergents

1

Dichlorophene

1

Dielectric failure

1

Diesel engines

1

Discontinuities

2

Douglas-fir

1

Dow See Anodizing

 

Duck

1

Dust

2

Dyes

1

Economics

1

Electrical contacts

1

Electrical drainage

1

Electrical resistance

1

Electrode potential

2

Electrolytes

3

Electroplate

5

Electroplating

5

Enamels

1

Encasements

1

End uses

3

Engines

3

Epoxy resins

2

Equipment

1

Erosion

2

Exhaust gases

1

Fabrication

1

Farm equipment

1

Fastenings

2

Fatigue

2

Fenders See Shields

 

Ferricyanides

1

Ferrous metals

21

Fertilizer

1

Film(s)

5

Flame spraying

2

Fluorine compounds (inorganic)

1

Foreign

13

Fretting corrosion

1

Fuel ash

1

Fuels

1

Fungi

1

Fungicides

1

Galling

1

Galvanic corrosion

2

Galvanized coatings

1

Galvanizing

2

Galvanizing See Zinc

 

Gas lines

1

Gases (liquid)

1

Gasoline

1

Germany

1

Design

5

Glass

2

Glass textiles

1

Gophers

1

Graphite

1

Grease

1

GR-S

1

HAE See Anodizing

 

Halogen compounds

1

Halogens

1

Hardness

1

Hardware

1

Heat transfer

1

High pressure

1

High temperature (s)

20

Holidays See Discontinuities

 

Hot water

1

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Keyword

Entries

Houses

1

Humidity

2

Humidity (water vapor)

4

Hydrochloric acid

2

Hydrogen peroxide

1

Hydrogen sulfide

2

Impurities

1

Inconel

1

Industrial

3

Inspection

1

Insulation

1

Insulation (heat)

1

Intergranular corrosion

2

Intermetallics

1

Iridite See Anodizing

 

Iron

11

Iron alloy (s)

2

Iron oxide (s)

2

Irrigation

2

Israel

2

Joining

1

Joints

1

Kanegen See Nickel alloys

 

Kerosine

1

Lacquers

1

Laminates

3

Lead

5

Lead alloys

3

Light

1

Light stabilizers

1

Lime

1

Limnoria

1

Linings

2

Lithium

1

Low temperature (s)

5

Magnesia

1

Magnesium

13

Magnesium alloy (s)

7

Magnetic

1

Maintenance

4

Marine

7

Marine borers

1

Marine fouling

1

Mechanical properties

2

Mechanism (s)

15

Mercury compounds

1

Metal(s)

19

Metallizing

2

Microstructure

1

Migration (silver)

1

Mollerizing

1

Molybdate

2

Molybdenum

3

Monel

1

Naphthenate

1

Neoprene

2

Nephroe See Nickel alloys

 

Nickel

8

Nickel alloys

5

Nomenclature

2

Nuts

1

Oil(s)

4

Oil resistance

1

Okun See Solder or putty

 

Oxalate

1

Oxidation

7

Oxide (s)

6

Oxidizing agent

1

Packaging

6

Paint(s)

6

Paper

2

Passivation

6

Patent

11

Permeability

1

Pertechnetate

2

pH

2

Phenolic resins

2

Phosphate

2

Phosphates

3

Phosphorus compounds (organo)

1

Photoactivity

1

Piers

3

Pigment(s)

6

Piling(s)

5

Pipe(s)

20

Piston guides

1

Pistons

1

Pitting

3

Plastics

2

Platinum

1

Poisons

1

Poland

1

Polarization

1

Poles

1

Pollution

1

Polyester resin

3

Polyethylene

2

Polyvinyl chloride

1

Potting resin

1

Powder

1

Pressure treatment

1

Primer

1

Progress report

2

Putty

1

Pyridine derivs.

1

8-Quinolinol

1

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Keyword

Entries

Radiation

1

Railway equipment

1

Rain

1

Reactors

3

Reducing agent

1

Reinforcement (s)

2

Relaxation

1

Research

96

Resin

1

Resistivity

1

Review

60

Rivets

1

Roofing

1

Rubber

2

Rubber (synthetic)

1

Salt solutions

1

Salt spray

2

Salt water

1

Scale

1

Scaling

1

Sea water

15

Sealing

1

Seizing

2

Service life

1

Sheathing

1

Sheaths

1

Sheet

1

Shields

1

Ships

5

Shrouding

1

Silicon

3

Silicones

1

Siliconizing

2

Silver

6

Silver alloy

1

Slushing compounds

2

Sodium benzoate

1

Sodium hypochlorite

1

Sodium nitrite

2

Soil

10

Soil corrosion

1

Solder(s)

3

Solutions

1

Solvents

2

Sound Waves

1

Specifications

1

Sprays

1

Stabilizers

1

Stain

1

Stainless steel

25

Stannic chloride

1

Statistics

1

Steam

1 Entries

Steam See Water and High temperature

 

Stearic acid

1

Steel

37

Storage

2

Stray currents

1

Stress

2

Stress corrosion

7

Stress cracking

1

Structural materials

1

Structures

2

Strychnine

1

Sulfur

1

Sulfuric acid

2

Surface preparation

2

Surface treatments

7

Tabulation

1

Tank cars

1

Tankers

3

Tantalum

1

Tape(s)

3

Tarnish

1

Tarnish See Stain

 

Temperature

1

Termites

1

Ternary systems

1

Test(s)

21

Test equipment

6

Textiles

1

Theory

13

Thermosensitive

1

Thiokol rubber

1

Thorium

1

Thread

1

Tin

5

Tin-lead

1

Titanium

9

Titanium alloys

1

Tow reels

1

Transport

1

Transportation

1

Tropical

2

Tropics

1

Tubing

2

Tungstate

2

Ultraviolet light

1

Underground

6

Urban

2

Urea-formaldehyde resin

1

USSR

1

Utensils

1

Vanadium pentoxide

1

Vapor phase inhibitors

1

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Keyword

Entries

Vat dying

1

Vehicles

1

Velocity

1

Vessels

1

Vibration

2

Villanova Cycling Machine See Test equipment; corrosion inhibitors

 

Vinyl chloride

1

Vinyl chloride polymers

1

Vinyl resins

3

Vulcanizing agents

1

Water

17

Water systems

1

Waterproofing agents

1

Wear

2

Weather

1

Weather resistance

1

Weathering

2

Welding

2

Welds

2

Whiskers

1

White rust

1

Wire

2

Wood

2

Wood preservatives

1

Wrappings

1

Wrought metal

1

Zinc

22

Zinc chromate

1

Zinc compounds (organic)

1

Zinc oxide

1

Zirconium

1

Zirconium alloys

2

TABLE 6. Quantitative generation of keywords in “Plastics” category. Issues 1 to 5 inclusive, Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts

Number of reports (Approximately 67 sheep and 49 goats)

114

Number of keywords generated

316

Number of keywords generated per 100 reports

277

Total number of entries

815

Average number of keywords per report

7.15

TABLE 7. Frequency of keyword occurrence, category “Plastics.” Issues 1 to 5 inclusive, Volume XV, Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts

Frequency of occurrence

Number of keywords

Frequency of occurrence

Number of keywords

1

196

11

3

2

45

13

1

3

12

14

3

4

13

17

1

5

8

18

1

6

4

19

1

7

7

27

1

8

4

30

1

9

2

49

1

10

3

 

 

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

TABLE 8. Unedited keywords and frequency of occurrence in the category of “Plastics” Issues 1 to 5 inclusive, Volume XV, Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts.

Keyword

Entries

Abrasion

1

Abrasion resistance

1

Absorption

1

Acids (organic)

1

Acrylic rubber

1

Acrylonitrile polymers

3

Adhesion

1

Adhesive (s)

7

Age resistance

1

Aggregates

1

Aging

9

Aircraft equipment

1

Aluminum silicate

1

Amines

1

Ammunition

1

Animal glue

1

Anticorrosive additives

1

Anticorrosive coatings

3

Antimony compounds (organic)

1

Antioxidant(s)

10

Antiozonants

10

Antiozonants (candidates)

1

Application

2

Arctic

1

Asphalt

1 1/2

Atomic radiation

1

Automotive components

2

Autopolymerizing

1

Bacteria

1

Bactericide

1

Belts

1

Benzoic acid

1

Bibliography

1

Birch

1

Blooming

1

Book

2

Brittleness

1

Butyl rubber

4

Butyl rubber, brominated

1

Cables

1

Calcium carbonate

1

Camphor

1

Carbon black

2

Casein

1

Cellulose

1

Cellulose acetate

1

Cellulose acetate butyrate

1

Cellulose resins

1

Chemical modification

1

Chemical reactions

1

Chemical resistance

10

Chemical structure

2

Chlorosulfonated polyethylene See Hypalon

 

Chlorotrifluoroethylene See Fluorothene

 

Cladding

1

Coatings

11

Color

1

Commercial

5

Containers

1

Corona

1

Corrosion resistance

1

Cost

1

Cracking

3

Creep

1

Curing

2

Degradation

1

Depolymerization

1

Desert

1

Diester oils

1

Dimensional stabilization

1

Discoloration

1

Douglas fir

1

Durability

1

Dynamic properties

1

Economics

1

Elastomers

14

Electric insulation

1

Electrical properties

2

End use (s)

4

Epoxy-polysulfide resin

1

Epoxy resin(s)

7

Esters

1

Extenders

1

Extreme temperature

1

Extrusions

1

Fabrics

1

Fasteners

1

Ferrous metals

1

Fillers

5

Film(s)

5

Fire resistance

1

Fireproofing

2

Fittings

2

Flexibility

1

Flexural strength

1

Fluorine compounds (organo)

6

Fluorocarbons

2

Fluoroelastomers

1

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Keyword

Entries

Fluorosilicone rubber

1

Fluorothene

1

Foam(s)

2

Formic acid

1

Formulation

2

Fortisan

1

Fuel resistance

4

Fungi

3

Fungitoxics

1

Fungus resistance

1

Fungusproofing

1

Gaskets

1

Gasoline

1

Glass

1

Glass fabric

2

Glass fiber(s)

2

Glossary

1

Greaseproofing

1

GR-S

13

High temperature (s)

27

High temperature resistance

1

Humidity

4

Hycar

1

Hydraulic fluids

1

Hydrolysis

1

Hypalon

5

Inert atmospheres

1

Infrared

2

Inhibitors

1

Interface agents

1

Irrigation ditches

1

Isoprene

1

Joints

2

Jungle

1

Laminates

7

Leather

2

Leather substitute

1

Light

4

Light resistance

1

Light stabilizers

1

Liners

1

Low temperature (s)

6

Lubricants

1

Magnesia

1

Marine

1

Mathematics

1

Mechanical properties

4

Mechanisms

4

Melamine-formaldehyde resin

1

Melamine resin

1

Metal halides

1

Metals

2

Microbicides

1

Microorganisms

1

Migration

1

Moldings

1

Molds

1

Neoprene

3

Nitric acid

1

Nitrile rubber

4

Nitrogen dioxide

1

p-Nitrophenol

1

Nomenclature

1

Nutrition

1

Nylon

5

Oak

1

Oil resistance

8

Olefins

2

Oxalic acid

2

Oxidants

1

Oxidation

5

Oxygen

2

Ozone

11

Ozone cracking

1

Ozone resistance

4

Ozonization

1

Packaging

2

Paintings

1

Paper

3

Patent

18

Pentachlorophenol

1

Permeability

1

Phenol-formaldehyde resin

1

Phenolic resins

6

Phenols

3

Phosphorus compounds (organo)

1

Photochemistry

1

Photodegradation

1

Photometry

1

Pigments

1

Pine

1

Pipe

7

Plasticizers

4

Plastics

9

Plywood

2

Polyester(s)

1

Polyester resins

3

Polyethylene

14

Polymerization

1

Polymers

8

Polystyrene

1

Polysulfide copolymers

1

Polysulfide polymers

2

Polysulfide rubber

1

Polysulfide-silicone polymers

1

Polytetrafluoroethylene

2

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

Keyword

Entries

Polyvinyl chloride

7

Polyvinylidene chloride

1

Potting compound

2

Primers

1

Process

1

Progress report

17

Pumps

1

Radiation

2

Radiation (nuclear)

1

Reinforcement

2

Research

49

Residues

1

Resins

2

Resorcinol-formaldehyde resin

1

Resorcinol resins

1

Review

19

Rheology

1

Rodents

1

Rubber

30

Rubber (chlorinated)

2

Rubber hydrochloride

1

Rubber (raw)

1

Salicylic acid

1

Salt water

1

Screening

1

Sea water

1

Seals

2

Shellac

1

Shock resistance

1

Silastic See Silicone rubber

 

Silicone copolymers

1

Silicone-polysulfide polymers

1

Silicone rubber

3

Silicones

5

Siloxanes

1

Smoke

1

Sodium benzoate

2

Specifications

2

Spectroscopy

1

Splicing

1

Stability

1

Stabilizers

7

Staining

1

Standards

1

Steel

2

Storage

3

Stress

1

Stress relaxation

1

Structures

1

Styrene

1

Styrene-butadiene copolymers

2

Styrene-butadiene rubber

1

Styrene resin

1

Sulfides

1

Sulfur

2

Sulfur compounds (organo)

1

Sulfuration

1

Summary

1

Swelling

1

Symposium

2

Synthesis

11

Tanks

1

Tar

1

Techniques

1

Teflon See Polytetrafluoroethylene

 

Temperate

2

Temperature

3

Temperature extremes

5

Temperature resistance

1

Test(s)

14

Theory

1

Thiadiazole (derivs.)

1

Thiokol

2

Thymol

1

Tin compounds (organo)

4

Tire(s)

8

Tire treads

1

Triallyl cyanurate

1

Tropical

1

Ultraviolet

3

Underground

1

Urea (derivs.)

1

Urea-formaldehyde resin

1

Urea resins

2

Urethan

1

Urethan polymers

1

Urethan rubber

1

Vacuum

1

Vinyl chloride

2

Vinyl chloride polymers

2

Vinyl chloride resin

1

Vinyl halide resins

1

Vinyl resin (s)

4

Viscosity

1

Vulcanizing agent (s)

6

Water

2

Water vapor

2

Waterproofing

4

Wax

7

Weapons

1

Wear

1

Weather

8

Weather resistance

1

Windshields

1

Wood

2

Wood preservatives

1

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

mental, quantitative information is not readily available. Our establishment of the field punched-card coordinate system with its mustering in of rubrics gives us the opportunity to do this for our Center. General applicability may follow.

It is pleasant to realize that already our descriptive vocabulary is far superior to our previous code. The truer reflection of our analysis is especially satisfying because to date we have not had to increase staff and adoption of the system has enabled us to include telegraphic extracts of all retained documents and to provide our information seekers with a service far more comprehensive than any hitherto offered.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Sincere thanks are expressed to Mrs. Grace Chapman, Supervisor, Prevention of Deterioration Abstracts, for data appearing in Tables 3 to 8 inclusive, to Miss Faith Bissell, PDC librarian, to Mr. William J.Wood, Jr., formerly Editor at the Center, for his indexing accomplishments in the specifications file, and to the entire staff for their valuable assistance in preparation of this report.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BLOOMFIELD, MASSE. Evaluation of coordinate indexing at the Naval Ordnance Test Station. Am. Document. 8, 22–25. (1957).

BROWN, CURTIS L. Two approaches to the retrieval of information from a special library. Part I. Application of a simple punched-card system to a special information center. PEAKES, GILBERT L., ALLEN KENT, and JAMES W.PERRY, Editors, Advances in Documentation and Library Science, Vol. 1: Progress Report in Chemical Literature Retrieval. Interscience, New York, 1957, pp. 121–142.

BROWN, WILLIAM FULLER, JR., and GLEN ONEAL, Jr. Library searches with punched-card machines. Science 123, 722–723 (1956).


CASEY, ROBERT S., and JAMES W.PERRY, Editors. Punched Cards: Their Applications to Science and Industry. Reinhold, New York, 1951.

CONNOR, JOHN M. The need for documentation to government specifications. Special Libraries 47, 152–155 (April 1956).


Documentation, Inc., Washington, D.C. Application of the uniterm System and the Association of Ideas to a Special Library File, by Mortimer Taube. August 1955. (Technical Report 10).


FINDLAY, W.P.K. The use of perforated cards for preliminary identification of fungi. Brit. Mycol Soc. Trans. 31(1/2), 106–111 (1957).


GAMBLE, DEAN F. A coordinate index of organic compounds. (Paper presented before Chemical Literature Division, 127th Meeting American Chemical Society, Cincinnati, Ohio, March 31, 1955.)

GARRETT, G.T., and O.OSMON, Jr. New punched card system will help you organize corrosion data. Chem. Eng. 64(6), 342, 344, 346, 348 (1957).

GULL, C.D. Implications for the storage and retrieval of knowledge. Library Quart. 25,333–343 (1955).

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

MATHAY, W.L., and R.B.HOXENG. A classification and filing system for corrosion literature. Corrosion 12(11), 72–76 (1956).

Microcite, an aid to more effective referencing. Nat. Bureau of Standards (U. S.) Tech. New Bull. 41, 141–142 (1957).

Multidimensional indexing speeds instrument-document search at the National Bureau of Standards. Chem. Processing 19(4),96–97 (1956).


NELSON, W.L. Technical filing system. Oil Gas J. 54(25), 111 (1955).


OPLER, ASCHER, and TED R.NORTON. New speed to structural searches. Chem. Eng. News 34, 2812–2814, 2816 (1956).


PERRY J.W., and ALLEN KENT. Documentation and Information Retrieval. Interscience, New York, 1957, pp. 126–127.


STERN, JOSHUA. National Bureau of Standards instrument reference service. Can. Chem. Processing 39(10), 111–112 (1955).


TAUBE, M. Application of the uniterm System and the Association of Ideas to a Special Library File. U.S. Armed Forces Technical Information Agency document; AD 93969.


WARHEIT, I.A. Evaluation of library techniques for the control of research materials. Am. Document. 7, 267–275 (1956).

WELT, ISAAC D. Subject indexing in a restricted field. Science 123, 723–724 (1956).

WILDHACK, WILLIAM A., JOSHUA STERN, and JULIAN SMITH. Documentation in instrumentation. Am. Document. 5, 223–237 (1954).

Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
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×
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Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 737
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 738
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 739
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 740
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 741
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 742
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 743
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 744
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 745
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 746
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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Page 747
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 748
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 749
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 750
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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Page 751
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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Page 752
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 753
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 754
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 755
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 756
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 757
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 758
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 759
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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Page 760
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 761
Suggested Citation:"Evolution of Document Control in a Materials Deterioration Information Center." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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Page 762
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Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes Get This Book
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The launch of Sputnik caused a flurry of governmental activity in science information. The 1958 International Conference on Scientific Information (ICSI) was held in Washington from Nov.16-21 1958 and sponsored by NSF, NAS, and American Documentation Institute, the predecessor to the American Society for Information Science. In 1959, 20,000 copies of the two volume proceedings were published by NAS and included 75 papers (1600 pages) by dozens of pioneers from seven areas such as:

  • Literature and reference needs of scientists
  • Function and effectiveness of A & I services
  • Effectiveness of Monographs, Compendia, and Specialized Centers
  • Organization of information for storage and search: comparative characteristics of existing systems
  • Organization of information for storage and retrospective search: intellectual problems and equipment considerations
  • Organization of information for storage and retrospective search: possibility for a general theory
  • Responsibilities of Government, Societies, Universities, and industry for improved information services and research.

It is now an out of print classic in the field of science information studies.

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