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Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes (1959)

Chapter: Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work

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Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work

GEORGE S.BONN

The purpose of this paper is (1) to present a record of world-wide facilities presently available for the training of interested persons for activity in scientific documentation work, (2) to try to identify the responsibilities of agencies and organizations to provide these facilities, and (3) to suggest additional or differently oriented facilities and responsibilities which may be required to meet current and future needs of the users of scientific information.

The scope of the survey is world-wide within the limits of available information from published reports or from correspondence with more space being given to those facilities which seem to be unique, outstanding, or newly reported, and with references being made to adequate published accounts of other good ones.

Facilities for training are taken to include facilities (1) for formal education in colleges and universities, (2) for regular instruction by competent professional organizations, (3) for practical training on-the-job or in workshops, (4) for home study by correspondence, and (5) for continuation learning through current publications and periodic conferences of professional societies. The training is to prepare persons for work as special librarians (or documentalists or information officers or whatever else they may be called) concerned in any way with scientific or technological information, including the production of services to utilize such information and the performance of research and development to improve and enrich it. Facilities for the necessary subject training in science or technology per se are not included, but it should be pointed out that such subject training is considered to be highly desirable in order to enjoy a successful career in the science-technology information field.

GEORGE S.BONN Graduate School of Library Service, Rutgers, The State University, New Brunswick, New Jersey.

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Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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International organizations and their programs

Before examining the various national training facilities around the world, it is proper to point out the very important contributions to science-information-work training being made by certain of the international organizations active in the area of documentation and librarianship.

Certainly the most enterprising on the most levels in the most fields in the most countries is the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (Unesco) with headquarters at 19, avenue Kléber, Paris 16e, France. Its present program includes (a) sponsoring meetings and conferences on a variety of pertinent and timely subjects in the field of scientific information (1); (b) sponsoring, or otherwise aiding in their establishment, courses and seminars on documentation, bibliography, and other basic topics of interest to scientific information specialists (2); (c) sponsoring scholarships and travel grants for study and research in documentation and library education (3); (d) helping to establish and to train personnel for documentation centers in various parts of the world (4); (e) publishing and distributing outstanding reports, periodicals, series, and other works so necessary and so useful as training aids and as information media on documentation and library activities, techniques, methods, and training throughout the world (5). In many instances the emphasis in the documentation work is on the scientific aspects of it, as, indeed, it usually is in most present-day discussion of documentation. Many, if not all, of these projects are carried out in collaboration with other international organizations or their national affiliates, or with other national or local groups (6).

Two other international bodies working in the area of scientific documentation are the International Federation for Documentation (FID), Willem Witsenplein 6, The Hague, Netherlands, and the International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA), c/o Bibliothèque Nationale, Berne, Switzerland. In 1948 these two federations set up a joint committee to look into the training and professional status of archivists, librarians, keepers of museums, and documentalists, with Mrs. Suzanne Briet of the Bibliothèque Nationale (Paris) as rapporteur. (Lumping these four groups together in this manner seems to emphasize their common collecting-and-keeping function rather than any collecting-for-use function more common perhaps in America and other places.) The final report presented by Mrs. Briet to the joint committee was published in April 1950 by Unesco (another example of its helpful collaboration) first in French (7) and then in English (8).

The report with its important annexes (chronological table and list of training establishments, model courses, and multilingual bibliography of recom-

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Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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mended handbooks and works) clearly demonstrates the problems, the rewards, the gaps, and the high lights in professional training as of the late 1940’s, and presents the reasoned background for the recommendations offered for “action in the near future:” (1) a permanent council for professional training under the auspices of Unesco should be established, (2) exchanges of students and teachers should be intensified, (3) equivalences in cultural attainments should be developed to facilitate study abroad, (4) an international professional training review might be founded under Unesco, and (5) an international school for teachers and directors of training establishments should be considered. Certain of these suggestions have been put into effect, notably the one about exchanges of students and teachers and, to a limited extent, the one about developing equivalences of cultural attainments.

Mrs. Briet’s report was presented in September 1951 at the Rome FID/IFLA conference along with a Rapport complémentaire bringing the results up to the end of 1950 (9). Other joint committee meetings were held in Copenhagen (October 1952) (10) and in Vienna (June 1953) (11); the 1954 meeting was to be in Zurich and was to include a week-long seminar for those who teach documentation, but after the Vienna meeting no further activities of the joint committee were reported according to both Mr. F.Donker Duyvis, Secretary-General of FID, and Mr. P.Bourgeois, President of IFLA.

Instead, as Mr. Duyvis puts it, “FID members considered the joint committee to be too big to be of any real value for the special needs for the training of documentalists. The FID Council therefor decided in 1953 to establish an FID committee: FID/TD ‘Training of documentalists’” (12). The committee, apparently, had not been active enough to have made any reports until the September 1957 FID Council meeting in Paris where plans were announced to produce a loose-leaf booklet giving in some detail the programs of national courses for the training of documentalists (13).

In IFLA, on the other hand, “the opinion prevailed that really practical results would only be achieved if the training of librarians proper was treated separately from that of documentalists, archivists and museum staff,” as Mr. Bourgeois explains it (14). So, at the 1956 Munich meeting of IFLA an ad hoc committee was formed to prepare a preliminary report on professional training for librarians to be presented at the September 1957 Paris conference. The report of this committee, prepared by Dr. Egger of the Swiss National Library, presents a very thought-provoking analysis of the interrelated problems of professional training and of recruitment of librarians, particularly of special librarians, and points out the usefulness and even the indispensability of international cooperation and exchange in solving the two-in-one problem. “Notre métier, qui est au service de la documentation,” the report concludes, “se doit de faire

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Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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le joint, par ce moyen, entre les techniques, les sciences et les cultures et, dans un futur voué au robot, il pourra merveilleusement contribuer, par sa tradition, à sauver, à préserver cette petite flamme qui brûle au fond de l’âme des hommes” (15).

Five questions were raised by the report as to the part that IFLA could take in improving the status, the professional aspects, the public acceptance, the training, and the exchange of librarians. Further study of these questions is being undertaken by a new IFLA committee under the chairmanship of Mr. Piquard, Director of the Libraries of the University of Paris and present president of the Association des Bibliothécaires Français; its report will be awaited with interest.

Both FID and IFLA, alone and in various combinations, sponsor meetings, conferences, seminars, and other informational programs in a number of countries on topics of timely or special interest to all types of librarians and documentalists (16), and each federation puts out many publication that are valuable as training aids and as information media about training, techniques, and new ideas in documentation and librarianship generally (17).

Two other international groups, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Council on Archives (ICA), alone or in cooperation with Unesco, also publish materials of either informational or educational nature (18) which at least should be noted in this brief discussion of international bodies. One more specialized and, therefore, perhaps more pertinent organization has been formed so recently that it has not had much more time than to get a training committee appointed, but reports and suggestions should soon be coming from the International Association of Agricultural Librarians and Documentalists (19).

It may be noted in passing that the general feeling in these international groups seems to be that “although documentation may be considered a special branch of library service using special techniques, it should be as closely associated with other aspects of librarianship as possible,” as Eileen R.Cunningham expressed it in her report on the Brussels 1955 International Congress of Libraries and Documentation Centers (21). This same observation can not be made as readily about many national groups, as will be evident in the following review of certain important ones of them.

Training facilities in Europe

Since the comprehensive reports made by Mrs. Briet during the early 1950’s, a few short surveys of education facilities for librarianship or documentation work have appeared (22), and there was the Carnovsky paper in 1948 which

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Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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covered some of the history of library education in a number of countries (23). Then there is the Unesco series of annual reports on Bibliographical services throughout the world (24) which include a statement from each reporting country on the teaching of bibliography in that country, frequently specifically mentioning training facilities for science-technology bibliography, scientific documentation, special librarianship, and so on. All these cover more than one country and are often quite general, although they may contain the only available information on activities within some of the reporting countries, and may be, therefore, referred to on rare occasions in the following country-by-country survey of training facilities for scientific documentation work.

UNITED KINGDOM

In order to get into the library profession in the United Kingdom one must be certified as to professional qualifications by either (1) passing a series of rather stiff examinations and having the requisite experience and language ability (the usual way), or (2) graduating from the School of Librarianship and Archives in the University of London’s University College (the unusual way). Professional standards and the examinations are set by the Library Association, the long-established (since 1877) national organization representing to some degree all library interests in the U.K. But it does not provide training facilities for those who wish to take its examinations. For these persons training is available (1) on the job at an approved library; (2) through personal study, attending lectures, and so on; (3) through correspondence courses conducted by the Association of Assistant Librarians, an affiliate of the Library Association; (4) at some 38 centers throughout the country which offer part-time courses; and (5) at nine post-war technical or similar-type colleges which offer full-time course programs (25).

Now, the organization directly concerned with special librarians, documentalists, and information officers is Aslib, and it is also very much interested in their professional training with the emphasis, naturally, on the special library or science information service aspect of the training. Accordingly, Aslib is working with the Library Association to produce an examination syllabus which will be accepted as suitable to all types of librarians, since the L.A. exams have come to be associated in people’s minds with public librarianship only, thus affecting, understandably, the type of training available in the various courses and programs mentioned above. (As a matter of fact, the whole concept of education for librarianship of whatever kind seems to be under considerable scrutiny in the United Kingdom, and getting in—or keeping in—the information officers is just another part of the investigation (26).)

“Because of these difficulties,” writes Mr. Leslie Wilson, Aslib’s Director,

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Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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“Aslib has, for something like fifteen years, (a) been trying to get other institutions to provide full length training programmes for the people in its own membership, and (b) provided from its own resources short introductory and refresher courses for the numerous people who come into information work without full-scale librarianship training or qualifications” (27). In addition, Aslib branches and subject groups provide short courses from time to time on topics of local or timely interest (28).

There is some evidence that the efforts of Aslib and of a few of its more seriously concerned members who publish their views in strategic journals are having a gradual effect on the courses and programs mentioned earlier. At least two of the technical college library schools are now offering courses intended for information officers and they seem to be interested in offering still more. A direct report from the instructor of one of these courses (Mr. J. Farradane, a full-time scientific information officer himself, and responsible for an important abstracts journal which his company’s research laboratory publishes) tells how it got started and what it might lead to:

My course on abstracting at the North-Western Polytechnic is the first of its kind here, and was started experimentally on the suggestion of Mr. Sewell (of the School of Librarianship there) to see if I could implement the suggestions I had put out in various articles concerning the training required for information officers. The Polytechnic school is of course not tied to the Library Association requirements alone, and is interested to experiment…. The North-Western Polytechnic is as yet far from putting on an “information scientists” course [but] they have asked me whether I could personally take on another set of lectures, e.g., on patent literature (29). A little further on Mr. Farradane reports, “The Manchester school [College of Technology] has started a course intended for information work,” but he rejects the school’s opinion, decided in debate at the first session, that there is “no difference between special librarians and information officers,” an opinion also held, he reports, by the Library Association.

Besides the short courses, Aslib also organizes many meetings and conferences during the year, all having to do with some aspect of special librarianship and all providing individual members opportunities for further self-education and for exchanging ideas and views (30). In addition Aslib has a sizable publication program to keep its members (and others interested) well informed and up-to-date on new methods, techniques, training opportunities, and so on (31).

It must be pointed out that the Library Association, too, in this area of special librarianship, organizes meetings and conferences and puts out special publications through its Reference and Special Libraries Section, its Medical Section, and its University and Research Section (32).

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Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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NETHERLANDS

In the Netherlands, as in many other countries, there is one general library organization [Nederlandse Vereniging van Bibliothecarissen, NVB (Netherlands Association of Librarians)] and one special library or documentation work organization [Nederlands Instituut voor Documentatie en Registratuur, NIDER (Netherlands Institute for Documention and Filing)]. The NVB, again as elsewhere, also has a Section for Special Libraries (Sectie voor Speciale Bibliotheken, SSB) to look after the interests of special librarians and documentalists in the overall organization.

The two groups, NIDER and NVB, have set up a Central Examinations Board (Centrale Examencommissie van NIDER en NVB) which is, in effect, the responsible body in the Netherlands for professional standards and education in the area of science documentation and special librarianship. This board determines the requirements for examinations, sets the regulations for them, prepares them, administers them, and then to those who pass them it grants diplomas certifying the successful candidates as Special Librarians, Industrial Archivists, or Literature Researchers (Documentalists) (33).

Separate and distinct from this Centrale Examencommissie, NIDER and NVB/SSB have set up a Joint Committee on Training (Gemeenschappelijke Opleidingscommissie, GO) which is concerned with the actual training facilities for work in science documentation or special librarianship. The GO offers a regular scheduled program of lecture courses which are designed to prepare newcomers to the field for the certifying examinations of the Centrale Examencommissie, and it offers a group of correspondence courses for assistants and workers in various types of libraries to help them in classification, alphabetization, or title description, for example (34).

The teachers of the GO-organized courses, according to the GO catalog, are librarians of university and college libraries and of industrial and government libraries, archivists, workers in business and in other industrial organizations, and other experts in the fields which are taught. As Mr. Ir M.Verhoef, secretary of the GO, explains, “The courses are based on the principle of transfer of knowledge by those who are working in the field, to the new-comers” (35). Mr. Verhoef continues:

This has worked out to be very successful up to now, but as our courses are still growing, it is becoming more difficult to find enough experts who have sufficient time available to hold the lectures and correct the home work. Therefore we are now studying the possibility of founding an institute (library school) with professional teachers. But even then part of the courses will be given by non-professional ones.

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Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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The courses have a good reception in industry and governmental departments, nevertheless we are quite aware that the contents of the courses must follow closely the new developments in documentation. It is for this reason that for each lecture course a special committee is set up to advise the joint committee on alterations in the programs.

For additional comments on the need for a library school and for improvement in courses see remarks by Mr. Kessen and Mr. van Dijk in the August 1957 Bibliotheekleven (36).

A number of industries have in-service training programs for information officers (37) as well as for technical translators (38), and training for information officers is available at the Technische Hogeschool in Delft (39). Basic and introductory library courses, useful to special librarians and documentalists, are available at the Royal Library and the Public Library in The Hague and at the Public Library in Utrecht (40).

For additional information on training in the Netherlands for special librarians, information officers, and industrial archivists see articles by van Dijk (41), by van Dijk and Berkelaar (42), and by Dreese (43), all rather recent.

NIDER, like its counterparts in other countries, has an educationally useful program of meetings, conferences, and publications on timely and pertinent topics, and the entire program should be considered along with other training facilities (44).

DENMARK

By an act of May 25, 1956, the Danish Library School was officially established, to be “the State School for librarians of public libraries, and for librarians and library assistants of scientific and special libraries” (45). The act provides for the administration and the management of the school; it places the responsibility for the program of study, for regulations, and for entrance requirements; and it establishes the period of appointment (four years) of the necessary lecturers, at least one of whom “shall for a certain length of time have served at a scientific or special library,” a stipulation which must surely gladden the hearts of Danish special and scientific librarians.

An article on the new school in the July 1956 Bogens verden (46) states that the law makes a radical change in the training of librarians for scientific and learned libraries, and that special librarians will now have the chance of regular training. Heretofore, national science libraries took librarians with MA degrees and relied on short courses and lectures from the previous public librarian training program to impart the library knowledge required. The training for industrial librarians was always rather inadequate and somewhat dissociated from the

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Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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training for other librarians, but on three occasions in the past few years they were able to take part in 74-hour basic courses in librarianship given by the Danish Association of Scientific and Special Librarians (47). Several continuation courses followed the basic courses, but presumably this series of courses will be discontinued once the Danish Library School gets into productive operation.

Education at the Danish Library School is free for all students, but the requirements for admission and for continued attendance are rigidly determined. Section II of the school is for the scientific and technical library training (Section I is for the public library training) and is open only to those who have permanent jobs in such libraries, either as librarians or as library assistants. The librarians get 250–300 hours of courses oriented toward administration and readers’ services, while the assistants get about 200 hours of technical services courses. Special timely short courses and lecture series will be available occasionally for advanced study, and the school eventually will be expected to publish research papers in the area of librarianship generally (48).

SWEDEN, NORWAY

Perhaps the most active group in Sweden as far as special library training is concerned is the Society for Technical Documentation (Tekniska Litteratursällskapet, TLS) which has had a committee on professional training of industrial librarians since 1948. Besides arranging meetings and training courses, TLS has set up study groups and committees dealing with numerous technical library matters (49). Its extension courses, continuation courses, and workshops have been arranged from time to time for industrial librarians, industrial archivists, and for special librarians and documentalists from industry and research institutes, and a number of them have been described at some length in the Society’s own internationally known journal, Tidskrift för dokumentation (50), and elsewhere (51).

Training for intermediate personnel of research and specialized libraries has been carried on since 1946 by the Royal Library in Stockholm under the auspices of the Association of Special Research Libraries, the Academy of Sciences, the Medical Library, and the Library of the Technological Institute. Practical and theoretical work is combined in a three or four months’ course. For a good many years science libraries, university libraries, Technological Institute of Stockholm and of Gothenburg Libraries, the Royal Library, and the Archives have required only a university degree and a willingness to work through graded probationary periods of 3, 9, and 24 months in order to become a librarian on their staffs (52). The State Library School trains mostly for public

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Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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librarianship, and the Stockholm Municipal Library organizes courses for augmenting its own staff, but special librarians and science documentalists may find useful basic courses either place.

Swedish librarians, like those in a good many other countries, have been trying for some time to achieve a uniform system of training which would apply to public librarians as well as to university and special librarians. A 1952 proposal suggested a four-year central library institute in Stockholm, and a 1956 proposal recommended that library science become a new subject department at the four major universities so that it may be more closely related to the academic field (53), but so far neither proposal has been acted on as far as can be determined.

The National Library School at Oslo, Norway, offers a nine months’ course of training for positions in special libraries and in research libraries besides in the usual popular and children’s libraries. Students must have university degrees and two years’ experience in a recognized library. Certain large libraries have their own training programs, such as the three-year program at the University of Oslo library which is tied in with work toward a university diploma (54). There have been reports in the past few years that the National Library School was considering the possibility of giving courses only every other year, but there have been no recent announcements one way or another (55).

FRANCE

The Union française des organismes de Documentation (UFOD) is the agency in France concerned with training for science documentation work, special librarianship, or information work, and has been offering both preparatory and technical courses for “documentalistes” since 1944 (56).

The preparatory course (CPD) is for young assistants and leads to a certificate of proficiency. The technical course (CTD) takes two years to complete and is in two parts, the first consisting of instruction in general documentation, and the second in specialized documentation; it leads to an Institut National des Techniques de la Documentation (INTD) diploma and, after acceptable presentation of a thesis, to a State Diploma for Specialized Documentalists (57). Both the CPD and the CTD may be taken by correspondence, too. Descriptions of the courses and course syllabi are given in Annex III of the Briet joint committee report (58).

Elementary general library training courses have been organized by the Association des Bibliothécaires français; intermediate training has been available at the Library School of the Catholic Institute of Paris and through a supplementary course at the École des Chartes, the venerable school for archivists; and higher training has been organized under the authority of the ad-

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Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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ministration of the Bibliothèque Nationale (59). Certain of these courses will of course be helpful in the basic library training of special librarians or science documentalists.

Mr. R.Staveley, in his review of Malclès’ Cours de bibliographie, took occasion to describe briefly France’s new pattern of professional library training schemes of five important educational courses, in which special librarianship and information work are comprehended under the general term of Documentation (60).

CZECHOSLOVAKIA

The UFOD courses just mentioned, Mrs. Briet suggests, “may be said to have formed the basis of the training given in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Belgium” (61) for documentation work. The course in technical documentation given at the Polytechnic Library in Prague (62) does seem to follow the UFOD pattern, but there are other types of courses also available in Czechoslovakia.

Chairs of librarianship have been established since 1950 in the Faculties of Philology of both Charles University (Prague) and Comenius University (Bratislava) offering four-year non-diploma courses and five-year diploma courses as well as five-year correspondence courses. “For specialists employed in scientific libraries, the chair of librarianship arranges, in collaboration with the University Library, one-year courses covering a total of 200 to 240 lecture hours (instruction is given once a week for a full day) at which lectures in a condensed form are delivered on all the technical library subjects covered by the university course,” according to Dr. Jaroslav Drtina, holder of the Chair of Librarianship at Charles University (63). In addition, continues Dr. Drtina, “In 1953 the chair of librarianship in Prague started a course for postgraduates at the highest level, open to holders of university degrees who have had two years’ practical experience and intend to devote themselves to scientific work either at a university or in some other scientific sphere.”

Short-term courses in librarianship and bibliography are available at the two large universities’ libraries and at the libraries of the Academies of Science of Prague and of Bratislava (64). Still other courses, for the middle ranks of library workers, are offered at a number of the four-year vocational and technical schools throughout the country such as at Prague, Bratislava, and Brno (65). Among these more general courses there are a number which could be useful to special librarians.

HUNGARY

Since 1949 the National Library Center (Országos Könyvtar Kozpont), set up by a 1947 law, has organized professional documentation courses, presum-

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Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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ably patterned after UFOD’s, which include library science, UDC standardization, cataloging, classification, abstracting, and service in information bureaus (66).

The Unesco bulletin for libraries in February 1956 reported:

In the 1948–49 academic year, training of librarians on a university level began at the Philology and Literary Science Faculty of the Lóránd Eötvös University at Budapest. At the same time the Library Science Institute was founded as a department of the university to meet the need for expert librarians in the large libraries and in scientific libraries (67).

A form of training had to be adopted that would satisfy the need for experts of scientific and public libraries alike, and the curriculum decided on includes basic library science courses, some other specialized science courses, and two modern languages in addition to Latin and Russian.

The National Technical Library (Országos Müszaki Könyvtar) of Hungary in Budapest has a very practical training device in operation through its Methods and Procedures Division. This division first works out suitable methods to ensure the satisfactory operation and development of the National library, and then it gives help on methods and procedures to other technical libraries and to specialized libraries in factories. For librarians assigned to factories, it organizes seminars on the special problems of this type of libraries, and it publishes an information bulletin for them under the title of Information for the staffs of technical libraries (68).

A new library law was passed in March 1956 which regulates the training and appointment of librarians and places all Hungarian libraries under the administrative control and charge of the Minister of Public Education (69).

BELGIUM

In August 1951 a Belgian Bibliographical Committee was established at the Ministry of Education, and it included besides members of the Bibliothèque Royale the secretary-general of the Belgian Documentation Association. Among other topics the committee has interested itself in professional education for librarianship and documentation and has recommended a plan to coordinate teaching at the four major library schools in the country: the Bibliothèque Royale (also responsible for examining and certifying librarians), the Ecole Provinciale de Bibliothécaires du Brabant, the Provinciale Bibliotheekschool at Brussels, and the École du Service Social also at Brussels. While these schools offer training for general library work, they also provide training for documentation work (especially the latter three) somewhat after the pattern of the French UFOD courses. There have been no reports of special courses for science documentalists as such, but basic library techniques training is avail-

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Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
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able at these four schools and at others in Antwerp, Liége, Mons, and Hasselt (70), for science documentalists, special librarians, and others who may find them useful.

GERMANY

In the Federal Republic of Germany training for librarianship is centered more or less independently in Cologne, Hamburg, and Munich; in the German Democratic Republic training is systematically organized in the Berlin and Leipzig areas; but in neither one are there any special training facilities for documentalists or for librarians of scientific special libraries except on the job through staff training programs and through workshops and short courses arranged by professional societies. [See Mrs. Briet’s reports for further concise information (71), Dr. Horst Kunze’s handbook for a survey of general German library literature on all aspects of librarianship including professional training (72), a Bundesrepublik handbook for a list of the library schools in the western zone (73), and a Demokratische Republik volume for a description of the activities of its Library Commission for Professional Education (74).]

Much of the following information on German activities for training personnel in scientific documentation work comes from a special report in a letter from Prof. Dr. Horst Kunze, Hauptdirektor of the Deutsche Staatsbibliothek in Berlin (75).

In the Demokratische Republik the professional organization most concerned with training of documentalists has been the Zentralstelle für wissenschaftliche Literatur (Central Office for Scientific Literature) which was founded in 1951 but which has been since January 1, 1957, incorporated with the Institut für Dokumentation of the Deutschen Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. In 1953 the Zentralstelle formed an Arbeitsgruppe für Ausbildung und Arbeitsmittel which was to clarify the questions of basic training and the kind of training program, of the status of the profession, and of training materials and manuals. Documentalists, incidentally, were divided into three professional groups: scientific services, bibliographical services, and technical services. For more information on the work of this Arbeitsgruppe see the report by Mr. J.Koblitz in Dokumentation for 1953/54 (76).

The “General documentation” division of the Zentralstelle organized workshops for documentalists and bibliographers in a number of cities beginning with one in Freiberg/Saxony in December 1953, and continuing with others in Freiberg, Jena, Rostock, Dresden, Leipzig, Weimar, and Berlin; reports and announcements of these have appeared regularly in Dokumentation, as have method and summary reports of the General documentation division (77). Training of documentalists was also included in the workers’ training centers of

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certain nationalized firms (78) and a 20-hour course on the decimal classification was given at a Berlin university by one of the members of the Zentralstelle. A series of books about practical documentation work, “Bücherei des Dokumentalisten,” is being published by the Zentralstelle; of the eight titles so far, one, a manual by Peter Herrmann entitled Practical application of the decimal classification, is now in its third enlarged and revised edition and has found wide acceptance throughout Germany.

In the Bundesrepublik, training courses for documentalists have been organized by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Dokumentation (German Society for Documentation) which announces and reports on the courses in its Nachrichten für Dokumentation (79); the Society was formed in 1941 and has committees on many aspects of documentation including training. In addition, Wilson reports that the Deutsche Normenausschuss (German Standardization Committee) holds periodic seminars for librarians on the development and application of the U.D.C. (80).

In special libraries throughout Germany the emphasis seems to be on staff training after the subject specialist is once on the job. This may include professional reading, practical experience for a period, or even temporary work in a larger scientific library. Two books have been published recently which should be of considerable assistance to administrators of special libraries with insufficient library training (81); and a number of articles have appeared on education, training, qualifications, and recruitment of special librarians and documentalists (82). Training in the fundamentals of library work for these persons, is of course available in the several centers mentioned at the beginning of this section on Germany.

POLAND

Special librarians in Poland are, to some extent, recruited from graduates of certain library schools which are attached to universities and have developed particular specialties: Warsaw University for research libraries and the University of Lodz for documentation, for example (83).

The Central Institute for Scientific-Technical Documentation (founded by decree in 1950) has overall responsibility in its area (84), and it organizes from time to time courses of lectures and exercises on the history, methods, and organization of bibliography and on documentation (85). But again, as in Germany, in-service training and guidance and encouragement from older librarians (86) are looked upon as necessary for the adequate professional training of special librarians (87).

There are, however, a number of other programs for general library training at public libraries in Warsaw, Cracow, Poznan, Lodz, and Wroclaw; at social

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service schools in Cracow and Poznan; at training centers in Jarocin and elsewhere (88); and through correspondence courses financed by the Ministry of Education (89), all of which could be useful to provide basic library training for entrance into science documentation work.

ITALY

Early last year Dr. Bruno Balbis, director of the Documentation Center of the National Research Council (in full, Centro nazionale di documentazione scientifica al Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche), began a course on the “Techniques of scientific information” in the Faculty of Statistics of the University of Rome (90). The course of 15 lectures covers such topics as the preparation of the scientific report, distribution of scientific publications, methods of dissemination of scientific information, the organization of the material, its documentation, mechanical and non-mechanical methods of retrieval, and related subjects (91). Visits and practical exercises go along with the lecture series.

A previous paper by Dr. Balbis on the development of documentation in Italy (93) offered suggestions for appropriate professional education for documentalists, but as yet documentation is not an official course of instruction in the library schools and programs of Italian universities (for example, Rome, Florence, Naples) which offer the usual courses for a general library education (94). But these could be helpful to those going into science documentation work, too.

SWITZERLAND

The following account of the types of training available in Switzerland to all librarians, including industrial and scientific librarians and documentalists, is from a letter written by Dr. P.Bourgeois of the Swiss National Library, Berne (95).

Two ways are open to candidates: the Library School in Geneva and the in-service training given in our libraries under the auspices of the Swiss Library Association. Both have the same program and are leading, after examinations and a diploma thesis, to equivalent diplomas.

The curriculum in the Library School is two years including at least two months practical work in a library. For the in-service training a minimum of 18 months’ voluntariate is required before the examinations can be passed. Results are very satisfactory, and it is now quite exceptional that a library, even an industrial or administrative library, engages a new worker not possessing a diploma. For librarians in industry and administration, the Swiss Association for Documentation organizes from time to time special courses of two to four days, wherein particular subjects such as UDC, patent classification, punch cards, etc., are treated.

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We have no school for candidates possessing a doctor’s degree or another university degree. These aspirants to the library profession undergo the in-service training in a scientific library, a somewhat higher standard being asked from them at the examinations and for their diploma work than from the ordinary medium service candidates.

Wilson adds that the Swiss Association for Documentation also arranges the exchange of posts between documentalists for short periods (96), thus adding breadth and diversity to continuation learning programs.

UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS

It has been reported in Bibliotekaŕ that up until at least 1953 there were no special training facilities in the U.S.S.R. to prepare workers for technical libraries on either a professional or a clerical level, there was no organizational or procedural guidance given to technical libraries by any agency competent to do so, and the large central technical libraries were backward in publishing instructional materials in the field (97). But by 1955 certain of the large scientific libraries (the State Scientific Library of the Ministry of Higher Education, the Gorkij Scientific Library of the Moscow Lomonosov State University, for example) were offering higher qualification courses for their own staffs as well as special bibliographical courses and seminars for scientific workers selected for technical library training, similar to those given by the Lenin State Library and the Saltykov-Schedrin State Library for the training of general librarians (98). The State Scientific Library also publishes textbooks and manuals to be used in its own, and other, training courses (99).

Library training facilities in the U.S.S.R. are of four types (100): (1) library tekhnikums, about 40, specialized vocational secondary schools which give a three-year general library training course; (2) library institutes, three, in Moscow, Leningrad, and Kharkov; independent four-year college-level schools which admit by competitive examination students who have completed their middle-school education, and which turn out specialist librarians and bibliographers of higher qualifications; (3) certain teacher colleges and the pedagogical faculties of certain universities, which may, like the library institutes, grant Ph.D.’s in library science (first one was given in 1944); and (4) libraries, which have one- or two-year programs of courses and seminars for general or specialized work. Basic training in any of these would of course be helpful to those who wish to work in scientific documentation.

In a brief letter (101) the director of the Institute of Scientific Information of the Academy of Sciences of the U.S.S.R., Prof. A.I.Mikhailov, indicates that all of their new employees must be specialists in natural science, in exact and technical science, and in several foreign languages. In the process of working

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these specialists are taught the necessary knowledge in the area of scientific information, documentation, and bibliography. In the near future the Institute was to have installed a special training course for scientific information work on a much higher level.

In July 1957 it was announced that a “Scientific research institute of librarianship and bibliography” was being organized in the Lenin State Library (102), but its specific duties were not spelled out nor was there any indication of how much if any training would be given there.

SPAIN

In Spain the preparation and training of librarians and documentalists is given by the Cursos para la formación técnica de Archiveros, Bibliotecarios y Arqueólogos held in the Biblioteca Nacional under the Direccion General de Archivos y Bibliotecas. Most students come to this professional training with a previous background of philosophy and letters, but candidates to become bibliographers or documentalists must have had both theoretical and practical training, they must pass a difficult test, they must know Latin and two contemporary languages, and they must have other educational requirements. In all, 32 regular courses are offered by the school (103) of which bibliographers and documentalists must take general reference bibliography, special bibliography, and documentation as three of the required six; they also must work for a time in the Información Bibliográfica y Documental section of the Biblioteca Nacional.

The principal problems in the area of scientific documentation in Spain, according to Mr. Francisco Esteve of the Biblioteca Nacional’s Información Bibliográfica y Documental section, are (a) taking advantage of persons proceeding on scientific and technical careers, (b) employment of documental machines, and (c) possibility of using the same machines for bibliographical tasks (104).

In his letter Mr. Esteve also reports that there are other schools which teach more rudimentary or elementary courses in classification and documentation, one in Barcelona (Escuela de Bibliotecarias of the Biblioteca Central de la Diputación) and one in Madrid (Escuelas de Auxiliares de la Investigación of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas). These could, of course, be helpful, too.

Elsewhere in Europe whatever training is given for scientific documentation work (or any other kind) seems to be available only in the libraries themselvse most concerned. Library associations frequently sponsor lectures and discussions on non-specialist problems, professional library journals publish occasional educational articles, and consultations and conversations among librari-

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ans take care of many training problems, as in Yugoslavia, for instance (105). Dr. Duŝan Milaĉic, director of the Narodna Biblioteka in Belgrade, writes that staff members of scientific and industrial libraries in Yugoslavia are chosen from the best university graduates and are given in-service training as “dictated by the various functions the librarians have to do” through the actual working on the job as well as through attending meetings and lectures, reading journal articles, and so on (106).

Training facilities elsewhere outside North America

ISRAEL

The new Graduate Library School of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, opened in 1956, includes in its curriculum 42 hours on documentation, documentary reproduction, administrative problems of the special library, and preparation of bibliographies, according to a letter from Dr. I.Joel, its deputy director (107). More information on the activities of the new school is given in an article by Mrs. Nathalie Delougaz (108) who helped set up the school, and in a brief statement in the fourth annual Bibliographical services report (109). For background information on the school see Dr. Carnovsky’s Report on a programme of library education in Israel (110).

Dr. Joel also reports that the Israel Institute of Technology (Technion) at Haifa is planning to offer training for special librarianship, but more precise information is not yet available. Heretofore, incidentally, suitable persons received only in-service training for (and by) working in Israel’s scientific libraries (111).

UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA

Courses in documentation and/or bibliography and in special librarianship are available in the library schools of the Universities of Cape Town, Pretoria, Potchefstroom, and, by correspondence, South Africa (Pretoria) (112). The University of South Africa has recognized that because of the development of documentation and its association with scientific research it is necessary to have two types of training, (1) for research librarianship and (2) for public librarianship, with a portion common to each; details of its curricula are given in its journal Mousaion (113), and brief comments about the courses are given in other publications (114). Further recognition of the need for specialized training is seen in the fact that the South African Library Association, the national certifying body, includes special libraries and their organization in its final examinations (115).

The Library and Information Division of the South African Council for

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Scientific and Industrial Research has held elementary seminars on technical library methods and on scientific and technical information in various centers (Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, Pretoria) and it has published a basic guide, Books are tools (116), on the organization of small technical libraries for South African industries (117). The former Chief Information Officer of the division, Miss Hazel Mews, has been since this past February Senior Lecturer in a newly organized Department of Librarianship in the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, so it is safe to assume that there are now additional facilities in the Union of South Africa for training in scientific documentation work.

AUSTRALIA, NEW ZEALAND

The New Zealand National Library Service sponsors the New Zealand Library School in Wellington, and there are correspondence courses also available, for general library training (118). Australia has several centers for general library training, in Melbourne, Sydney, Hobart, and Canberra among other places; and the Association of Special Libraries and Information Services (ASLIS) in Melbourne offers a number of training courses in various aspects of special librarianship and information service, and it also holds regular professional meetings of an educational and informational nature (119).

The State Library of Tasmania in Hobart has developed an in-service training program using its own senior staff (120), and the Commonwealth National Library in Canberra has a library school to train staff for itself and other government libraries (121). The Public Library of New South Wales in Sydney and the Public Library of Victoria in Melbourne also have their own library schools. These training curricula generally follow the pattern of the U.K. or of the U.S. so appropriate basic courses would be available to those planning to go into scientific documentation work, in addition, of course, to the more specialized ASLIS courses (122).

A fairly comprehensive article on “Australian libraries and their methods,” including, presumably, training methods, has been scheduled for publication in the January 1958 Unesco bulletin for libraries; it was prepared by Miss Barbara Johnston (123).

SOUTH AMERICA AND MEXICO
Argentina

In 1955 a library school was established in the Faculty of Philosophy and Literature of the University of Buenos Aires, an outgrowth of a school organized the year before by the Library Association of the Federal Capital which

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had been founded in December 1953. Bibliography and reference services, including science-technology, are courses incorporated in the curricula of the school’s full program and short-course program. Late in 1955 the Centro Nacional de la Documentación Científica y Técnica was transferred back to the University of Buenos Aires under its old name of Instituto Bibliotecológico, the name it went under when it first instituted a course for documentalists from research laboratories, faculties, and state administrative services which, most likely, was continued (124).

Brazil

In March 1957 the Instituto brasileiro de Bibliografia e Documentaçâo began a series of courses planned especially to prepare specialized personnel to work in scientific libraries and information and documentation centers. Emphasis is on retrieval of scientific information, on research methods in the sciences, and on bibliography of the natural and medical sciences (125); basic library science subjects are also included in the training. Basic library subjects are taught at a number of places throughout the country, in library schools (São Paulo, Bahia, Campinas), in universities (São Paulo, Recife, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba), in the National Library in Rio de Janeiro, in the Department of Public Service in Porto Alegre, and in various state capitals by the Instituto Nacional do Livro (126).

Chile

The University of Chile gives a course in medical bibliography in its nine-month program for library education (127).

Colombia

A new Escuela de Bibliotecologia was opened in February 1957 at the Universidad de Antioquia, Medillín (128), offering at least the basic courses essential for library and documentation work.

Mexico

The Scientific and Technical Documentation Center organizes lectures for librarians on scientific documentation and lessons for scientists in French and in English (129), and the Escuela Nacional de Bibliotecarios y Archivistas devotes a considerable part of its bibliography teaching to the bibliography of science (130).

Peru

Courses in technical bibliography and in reference and research bibliography

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are given each year at the National School of Librarianship which is under the auspices of the National Library (131).

Venezuela

Bibliography of the sciences and of technology is covered in the three-year program of the School of Library Economy in the Faculty of the Humanities of the Central University (132).

Elsewhere in the world where there is any interest in scientific documentation, “the existing special librarians and documentalists have entered the field from conventional librarianship and have grown into their jobs, learning them by trial and error,” as Mr. J.Saha, chief librarian of the Indian Statistical Institute puts it (133). Almost all the universities in India are running courses in librarianship, Mr. Saha reports, so basic library technique training is broadly available. One other country, Japan, should be mentioned because of its increasing interest in scientific documentation and the attendant increased work in that area. Some 40 universities in Japan offer lectures on basic librarianship and there are two college-level professional library schools which offer training for all types of library work. The Japan Library School in the Faculty of Literature of Keio-Gijuku University, and the Library Staff Training Institute of the Ministry of Education, both in Tokyo, include study of scientific-technological bibliography and reference materials in their curricula (134). The Japan Library School also does considerable consulting work with special libraries and sponsors workshops and clinics on various problems of interest to all kinds of librarians.

Training facilities in North America

CANADA AND THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

In the U.S. and in Canada much of the training for special librarianship or scientific documentation work is done in the 35 or so accredited college or university library schools in the two countries (two schools are in Canada) which meet the standards for a fifth-year college program of professional education for librarianship adopted by the American Library Association in July 1951. Graduation from any one of the accredited schools is comparable in effect to successful completion of the various registration requirements, examinations, and the like, for entrance into the library profession in the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, or elsewhere (135).

Actually there are 563 colleges and universities in the United States offering instruction of some sort in library science or bibliography, according to a survey prepared by the Office of Education of the U.S. Department of Health,

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Education, and Welfare (136), and there are at least another seven in Canada (137). Simple instruction in the general use of libraries and of reference materials is given in 233 schools; technical library training as a foundation for professional study, 8–12 hours of courses, is given in 278 schools; basic courses in library methods for part-time teacher-librarians, 6–23 hours of courses, are given in 220 schools; and an academic year of library study preparing for full-time positions, 24 or more hours of courses, is given in 122 schools, all these in the United States (138). Five of the seven in Canada offer an academic year of library study while the other two offer foundation training (139). In addition, six of the U.S. schools offer home study correspondence courses through their extension divisions (140), besides the courses mentioned above; in fact, a good many of the schools offer more than one kind of training as may be obvious from the fact that the numbers in the four groups add up to considerably more than 563, the total count.

A great many colleges and universities in these two countries also offer subject bibliography courses in science and technology (as well as in the humanities and in the social studies) given by the departments concerned; these courses are not included in the ones just enumerated, nor are any figures available on their numbers. But surely all the science-technology literature courses and probably most of the foundation library courses would be useful in some degree to persons going into scientific documentation work and to those already in, although, to be sure, non-accredited courses may not be acceptable to employers or applicable toward degrees.

In this part of the paper, however, only the facilities of the accredited library schools are being considered, and only those facilities that are particularly pertinent to the training of science-technology special librarians. Of the 37 accredited schools surveyed last year by the committee of which Dr. Karl Baer has been chairman (141), two are affiliated with state teachers colleges and are rather bound to be concerned only with school librarianship. A study of the catalogs and of the returns from the survey of the remaining 35 schools shows the following results:

  1. Eight schools have what may be called “special library training programs” mentioned or outlined in their published catalogs, including one in chemistry, one in science, one in science-technology, and two in medicine.

  2. Fifteen more have courses specifically identified with special or science-technology libraries, most of which seem to cover all types of special libraries.

  3. Three more schools have seminars arranged by kinds of libraries usually including special libraries in a separate seminar.

Of the 37 accredited schools surveyed in the spring of 1957, 26 had either a program of courses, an identified course, or a seminar in some aspect of special

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librarianship. All the schools have required bibliography courses, just as training programs in other countries have, which include some attention to the literature of the sciences and of technology often as part of a two- or three-course sequence of courses; thirteen schools have such an arrangement with a separate required course for science-technology literature as part of a sequence. Fourteen other schools have elective courses in science-technology literature.

Five schools give courses in “documentation” and two more in “science documentation.” Two give courses in indexing and abstracting; and one in machine literature searching, language engineering, and applications of micro-recording. Five give courses in the bibliography of medicine; and one each in agriculture, biology, and pharmacy. One school has its own Center for Documentation and Communication Research.

All the schools [except four (142)] offer all or part of their curricula in summer sessions, at least five offer extension courses, and at least nine offer evening courses. Actual course offerings would naturally depend on interest, need, and demand. Furthermore, 26 of these schools offer courses, usually the basic or introductory ones, for undergraduate credit, making them more available to persons without the college degrees necessary to matriculate in a graduate program, although probably all the schools would arrange some “special student” category for those who wanted to take just certain courses. Several of the schools have “work-study” programs enabling students to work under guidance on a part-time schedule coordinated with the class schedule, thus combining on-the-job practical training with lectures and assignments in a graduate school, and getting paid for it.

For results of previous surveys of special library education facilities in library schools see Miss Gwendolyn Lloyd’s 1954 report (143), Miss Linda Morley’s 1947 report (144), and Dr. Jesse Shera’s 1937 report (145).

There are several professional organizations, frequently including members from both Canada and the United States, which are very much concerned with science information work (or science-technology special librarianship) and with training for such work. Among these are the following especially pertinent groups:

(1) American Library Association (ALA) with its Committee on Accreditation (COA), Library Education Division (LED), and division-like Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) with its Pure and Applied Science Section (PASS) and Special Libraries Section (SLS); (2) Canadian Library Association (CLA) with its Research Libraries Section (RLS); (3) Association of American Library Schools (AALS); (4) Special Libraries Association (SLA) with its Science-Technology Division, Biological Sciences Division, Documentation Division, and Metals Division; (5) Medical Library Association

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(MLA) with its Committee on Standards for Medical Librarianship with its Curriculum Subcommittee; (6) American Documentation Institute (ADI) with its Committee on Education; (7) Council of National Library Associations (CNLA) with its Joint Committee on Education for Librarianship, its Subcommittee on Special Library Education, and its Subcommittee on Course Content; (8) American Chemical Society (ACS) with its Division of Chemical Literature; (9) American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) with its Engineering School Libraries (ESL) Committee. There probably are others of equal importance, either separates or affiliates, but these will give some idea of the variety (and of the complexity) of groups interested.

All these organizations carry on training programs for their members in the form of national and regional conferences and meetings and in the form of timely (145a) publications on new methods, new developments, new ideas, and so on. But none of these organizations sponsors or offers, as their European counterparts so generally do, regular courses or seminars to train persons for activity in science information work or for activity in any other type of work, although a few of them do hold occasional workshops or clinics or methods meetings on both national and local chapter levels. This fact should not be too surprising, though, when one considers (1) the American emphasis on school-sponsored and society-accredited professional education, (2) the American stress on strong national rather than regional organizations even though the important work is frequently done on the local level, and (3) of course, the very size of the area covered by Canada and the United States.

However, at least one of these groups, the Special Libraries Association, does have very active regional chapters, 31 of them including two in Canada, most of which have committees having to do in some way with training or education for special library work. Activity in this area at the same time varies greatly from chapter to chapter as is so evident from the results of a chapter survey made expressly for this paper in the fall of 1957 (146).

Seventeen chapters, including the two in Canada, reported in some detail what they have been doing in the area of education or training for special librarianship. Two distinct types of programs are in operation, one within the chapter for the benefit primarily of the members, the other outside the chapter for the benefit primarily of library school students or other non-members of the particular chapter.

Half the reporting chapters maintain liaison with nearby library schools: eight furnish speakers for talks on special libraries, eight (including three of the first eight) furnish the instructors for courses on special libraries (or at least the instructors are members of the local chapters), five arrange library tours for classes, nine invite interested students to meetings, and six act as consultants to

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the schools on special library course materials. Two chapters have been instrumental in establishing library courses in special schools, and one of these chapters has been instrumental even in establishing a special school with library courses. Two other chapters sponsor regional conferences jointly with other professional groups.

Training programs for members within the chapters are rather rare. Five of the 17 reporting chapters have never had such programs, but two of these are so newly organized that there has been no time for any. Six have had workshops or clinics at least once within the past two years (1956–1957). Four have had annual lectures by outside experts on educationally pertinent or timely subjects. Several have had at one time or another even fairly extensive education programs, but in most every case interest and participation could not be (or at least was not) sustained very long or renewed the following year, possibly because the particular series of lectures or discussions satisfied the immediate needs of those members who could benefit most from the program (147).

Most chapters have regularly published bulletins which frequently include items of immediate or local informational and educational interest. And one chapter has put out an experimental issue of a directory of training opportunities for special librarians in its own metropolitan area (148), certainly a long forward step in serving the training and educational needs of its members. Individual chapter concern for the training and education of its members is expressed in published reports (149) and in committee action and plans for programs (150), a few highly significant.

Even though these various formal and not-so-formal training facilities are available in the United States and in Canada, a number of science-technology libraries and science documentation centers find it expedient, or they may even prefer, to train their new employees on the job through in-service training programs of their own devising. Both professional and non-professional personnel, as judged by the type of work they do, are trained in such programs, and the programs naturally vary considerably in length, breadth, and depth depending on local needs.

For example, the Research Information Service of the John Crerar Library in Chicago employs a number of subject specialists to prepare comprehensive and exacting literature surveys, among other kinds of work they do. The determining factor in hiring one such person is his subject knowledge, given a general college education as background. Necessary library, bibliographic, or documentation techniques are learned on the job, by doing, under guidance. A comprehensive report by its director, Mr. Herman H.Henkle, covers the work of the Service and touches on its personnel problem (151).

Chemical Abstracts Service in Columbus has a similar problem, but rather in

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reverse, in that its problem is to train the indexers and editors of one of the abstracts journals which the John Crerar people use for their surveys. Again, subject knowledge (in this case, organic chemistry especially) is the specification most important to meet. On the job training in the Chemical Abstracts office is a five-year program of progressively more difficult and gradually less supervised work, beginning with relatively simple jobs very closely checked and ending eventually with indexing or editing any section of Chemical Abstracts on one’s own. The problem, the training arrangements, and the special uses of equipment have been described at some length by Dr. E.J.Crane in 1955 (152).

Battelle Memorial Institute in Columbus with its 1800 or so scientists and research workers maintains a science reference library (or science information center) of some 35,000 volumes. The library staff of 70 professional and near-professional workers is part of a larger Information Management Division of 230 persons which in turn is part of the Economics Service of the Institute. All the workers in the library, except the clerical group, have science or technology college backgrounds, but only four of the 70 have library school training. They learn science information work on the job, as a member of a team. Battelle lays stress on teamwork.

A new man in the library’s reference section will go through a prescribed schedule of jobs during the course of his in-service training which may take whatever time seems appropriate to the occasion, three years being not uncommon. The trainee is assigned for guidance to a library research group of seasoned personnel, and his introduction to the Institute is through the group leader. He tours, he reads, he works with different people. He makes preliminary searches, he handles telephone requests, he visits the branch libraries. He works for a time with other groups, abstracting, bibliography, cataloging, and ordering. Finally, then, he takes over his professional duties as reference information specialist in the Institute library (153).

There are many, many other (and simpler) approaches to in-service training in American science-technology libraries. A number of industries, for example, select technical persons from their staffs and send them to their main central libraries for training. Others hold quarterly or semi-annual conferences of all their technical librarians and information specialists to discuss basic and current problems and new methods. Some companies send out trained librarians from the main libraries to smaller libraries within the company to assist and to advise and to train the personnel (154). Most technical libraries will give training on the job in any specialized techniques required for particular positions (155). In any case, some instruction and indoctrination is always neces-

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sary for new employees regardless of where else or how well they have been trained previously.

While these programs are designed for the training of persons who will work in particular libraries or information centers, such in-service training always stands them in good stead if they later work in other libraries. In the past few years a number of articles have appeared which discuss in-service training of professional staff (156), non-professional staff (157), recruits (158), or just staff (159).

Patterns of training facilities

Training for scientific documentation work, science information service, special librarianship, or whatever else it may be called, is available in varying degree throughout the world through three major kinds of training facilities: (1) library schools, (2) professional societies, and (3) in-service programs. Besides regularly scheduled facilities for training, these three also provide: (1) periodic meetings, conferences, seminars, discussions, clinics, workshops; and (2) current journals, manuals, other publications, for continuing education.

There is general agreement that, irrespective of the kind of training facility, the trainee should (1) have a science or technology subject background, (2) have or get suitable experience in a library preferably of the type he intends to work in, and (3) study fundamentals common to all types of libraries preferably along with other kinds of librarians, in addition to specialties useful in his later information or documentation work. But three difficulties come up, also generally agreed on: (1) how to attract trainees with such background, (2) what really are the fundamentals common to all types of libraries, and (3) how to get competent experienced instructors to teach the specialties and, as an afterthought, which specialties should be taught.

Professional library literature is full of partial, current, expedient, urgent, and otherwise variously described answers to these problems. But the literature also contains a number of decidedly thought-provoking books and journal articles from Germany (160), from the United Kingdom (161), from the United States (162), and from elsewhere (163), on these and allied problems.

Judging from study of available course outlines and taking into consideration varied meanings of descriptive course titles and terms, it can be stated that most of the training seems to cover pretty much the same type of material, at least on paper, with any variations in the methods, in the approaches, in the emphases, or in degree. There is, unfortunately, no easy way of finding out just what actually is being taught short of direct personal contact with each course and

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with each instructor; course syllabi are often not even set down on paper or available to outsiders if set down. A deeper study going beyond the paper descriptions now available would be profitable to identify trends and emphases and to pinpoint more precisely just what different schools, societies, or other groups (as well as individuals) mean by such terms as “documentation,” “special librarianship,” and “information work.”

A parallel study of the work actually being done on the job by persons who call themselves special librarians, documentalists, information officers, information scientists, literature searchers, and whatever else, would also be profitable. Such a study would be most valuable, if not downright necessary, in order to determine the effectiveness of the presently available training for work in this broad area of science information activity and in order to suggest worthwhile changes in content or method for the improvement of present training. But beyond these findings, such a job analysis study along with the suggested course content study would provide working definitions of all these terms which are so glibly bandied about these days from the rostrums and in the literature concerned with science-technology information work. Since so much of the training seems to be so similar, it is quite possible that the jobs themselves are much nearer alike than some of their practitioners would have their readers and hearers believe. Neither job analysis nor course content could be covered in this paper.

Patterns of responsibility

Local, regional, or national factors pretty well determine the form of training that will be available in any country. Certain of these, such as the legal basis for the existence of the profession, the development and influence of professional organizations in general, the system of education, tradition, and the acceptance and social status of librarians and documentalists, for instance, also will help determine where the responsibility, if any, lies for providing the training facilities that are or should be available.

Responsibility in a number of countries is established directly by law. The responsibility for all library activity or development may be assigned to some government agency; or a state school for library training may be organized, either separate from or attached to the national library. Responsibility is fixed, and needs and facilities can be determined on a national basis. Coordination is more possible and national standards may be established and maintained. Denmark, Japan, Hungary, Sweden, and the U.S.S.R. are examples of countries with library laws.

In several countries strong national library associations uphold high national

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standards by requiring certification through examination for entry into the profession. The United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the Union of South Africa may be cited as examples. But the actual responsibility to provide the necessary training in order to pass the examinations has not been pinned down. Fortunately in every case the obligation to make training available to those who want it has been accepted by other professional agencies, library schools, and associations other than the ones which administer the exams. Since training is to help the student pass the examinations, the courses offered usually reflect the requirements of the examination syllabi. So the group of experts who prepare the syllabi determine, in effect, the content of the courses and therefore the direction of library education and development in these countries, inasmuch as no training would be needed or, presumably, given for those subjects or types of work not yet distinct enough (or respectable enough, or important enough, or whatever) to be included in the syllabi. Possibly thus indirectly the responsibility to provide facilities for training in scientific documentation work, for instance, lies with the exam and syllabi makers! It is certainly true, however, that the professional societies most concerned are offering courses to satisfy the needs of their members, and so are certain schools. But it is no wonder that there has been so much talking and writing about the Library Association syllabus and about library education in general in the United Kingdom.

In other countries, notably Canada and the United States, most of the facilities for training for a long time have been provided by library schools all of which in recent years have been attached to colleges or universities. Some 35 of these American schools, it was pointed out earlier, meet ALA’s standards and are so accredited by the ALA Committee on Accreditation. All these accredited schools together make up the Association of American Library Schools. The Library Education Division of ALA is made up of ALA members who are interested in any way in formal education for librarianship, librarians, and library science teachers from all schools, not just the accredited ones. The AALS, then, is responsible for education for all types of librarianship in the U.S. and Canada through its member schools; and the ALA/COA is responsible for making sure the schools maintain high professional standards. But there is no guarantee that each accredited school will offer special courses for particular types of libraries which, in the minds of advocates of such special courses, might be considered necessary for adequate training for work in those libraries; on the other hand, each accredited school may offer such courses if it chooses, consistent with the ALA standards (164). The fact that so many library schools do provide specialized training in special librarianship and that largely in the area of scientific documentation work is an indication that there has been a demand from the profession, from students, from industry, and from within

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the schools themselves to make the courses available. The final responsibility to provide facilities for training in scientific documentation work, it then seems, rests with the people who are working in the field itself to make their needs and wants known, perhaps through appropriate professional society action. Since the LED “has specific responsibility for—1. Continuous study and review of changing needs for library education, development of educational programs, and continuing education of library personnel” (165), it may well be that the LED has some responsibility in this area, too; needs must be made known here, also.

In all countries, with or without other training facilities, a certain amount of in-service preparation is required of all library or information workers, ranging from brief indoctrination sessions to extensive well-organized courses. Every institution has not only the responsibility but also the right and the duty to train its own employees in the methods and procedures it expects them to use and in the philosophy and level of service it expects them to maintain; no previous training can possibly take the place of this kind of in-service training. Insofar as any institution is responsible for its employees’ welfare, it is responsible for their having opportunities to improve their lots and to make themselves more useful and effective in their work; besides, it is profitable to the institution to have better trained and more efficient workers. So they have in-service training.

Again in all countries, with or without other training facilities, where there are well-established professional societies a certain amount of training is offered by the societies, ranging from workshops and methods meetings to full-fledged diploma courses for entrants into the profession. The societies usually hold meetings and conferences for all the members at least once a year at the national level and rather more frequently at the regional or local chapter level, for the exchange of opinions and ideas, for discussion, for fellowship, for enlightenment, and for transacting the business of the associations. The societies publish journals of informational and educational interest to keep their members informed on new developments, new concepts, new techniques in the profession, and handbooks and manuals to aid, guide, and assist members and others in the operation and administration of their libraries or information centers. The societies maintain headquarters staffs to serve the more immediate needs of the members (answering questions on training facilities, for instance) and to administer the activities of the association, among other jobs. The societies, in short, provide the clearing houses of professional knowledge, their raison d’être. In a recent article on “The functions of the professional association,” Mr. Robert K.Merton has said that the professional association “is typically dedicated to the objective of raising the standards of professional

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education, for if the organized body of informed professionals does not take on this task, who else can?” (166) “The foremost obligation of the association,” he says later on, “is to set rigorous standards for the profession and to help enforce them; standards for the quality of personnel to be recruited into the profession; standards for the training and education of the recruit; standards for professional practice; and standards for research designed to enlarge the knowledge on which the work of the profession rests.” (167) In carrying out part of this obligation, Mr. Merton suggests, the association works to help prepare the practitioner for the more effective discharge of his professional roles and, acting on the philosophy that professional education is a life-long process, it establishes institutes to advance the education of the practitioner and helps motivate him to develop his skills and to extend his knowledge. Certainly most, if not all, professional associations in the area of scientific information work are aware of and are discharging their professional responsibilities to a remarkable degree.

In the last analysis, of course, the responsibility to provide training for any profession rests with each member of that profession, acting alone or through duly organized associations, joint committees, advisory bodies, or whatever. How well each member meets this responsibility is a measure of his concern for and of his devotion to his chosen profession.

Desiderata

One of the purposes of this survey of facilities and responsibilities to provide training for scientific documentation work was to locate both strong spots and weak spots among them with a view toward overall development and improvement. Most of the following suggestions for consideration were prompted by reviewing those strong and weak spots: to promote and encourage and spread the strong ones, and to remove and correct and discourage the causes of the weak ones. A few suggestions came from correspondents and other professional persons with whom the problem was discussed during visits to libraries, library schools, library associations, and librarians, all in the area of scientific documentation work or special librarianship.

INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
  1. Improve the interchange of ideas and opinions on education and training for work in the scientific information field through already existing and/or entirely new journals, manuals, handbooks, reading lists, and the like.

  2. Work to improve the “climate” of librarianship generally so that much-

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needed science-technology-trained workers will be more readily attracted to the field:

  1. Improve social acceptance of library work of whatever kind.

  2. Improve research, scholarly, and educational acceptance of libraries.

  3. Improve salary scales.

  4. Improve professional standards.

  5. Improve professional status vis-à-vis other professional groups.

  1. Encourage the interchange of teachers, of students, of working librarians in the area of scientific documentation work, special librarianship, and so on.

  2. Encourage the establishment of an international school to train teachers of subjects and techniques involved in scientific documentation work.

  3. Continue the present good work.

NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS
  1. Improve relationships and liaison generally on all levels between the association and its members and the existing schools and courses in the area of scientific documentation work and special librarianship in order to work together toward improvement and extension of training facilities; offer help, suggestions, instructors, materials, tours, student memberships; encourage and patronize extension, evening, summer courses; plan joint projects; exchange speakers and lecturers.

  2. Encourage each chapter or local affiliate group to find out and publish information on nearby courses or other facilities for training in the general area of scientific documentation work or special librarianship, for the obvious benefit of its own members and of anybody else who might be attracted to the field.

  3. Arrange short courses, workshops, seminars, panel discussions, exhibits, lecture series on timely topics, taking advantage of the interests and abilities of members, of nearby school facilities, of nearby governmental facilities, of commercial facilities (e.g., IBM, Rem-Rand); sponsor lecture tours of experts in the scientific documentation and special library field, as the ACS does.

  4. Encourage joint meetings and programs with other professional groups in areas of mutual interest in order to broaden contacts and information both ways; encourage unity and work together on similarities within the whole profession.

  5. Do what can be done to help with points 1 to 5 under international organizations.

LIBRARY SCHOOLS, SCHOOLS OFFERING LIBRARY COURSES
  1. Improve relationships and liaison generally between the school and its instructors and nearby special librarians, information officers, and scientific docu-

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mentalists; encourage interest in courses, ask for suggestions, invite speakers, offer consultation; schedule extension, evening, summer courses; arrange institutes and short courses; offer high-level courses in areas of interest to science information specialists and special librarians generally; join local chapters.

  1. Publicize more widely and effectively what the school has to offer in the way of courses that may be of interest to special librarians, science documentalists, and so on, both inside and outside the library science department; besides the library science courses might be mentioned courses in language, business, economics, subject literature, general science survey, research methods, basic science or technology, etc.

  2. Encourage research and thesis topics on problems peculiar to special librarianship or scientific documentation work, including the literature of the field, the use of the literature, storage and retrieval of information, manual and mechanical methods of literature searching, the use of technical libraries, handling of questions in technical libraries, research methods in technical libraries, and education for work in the field. [See Dr. Herbert Coblans’ paper in the July 1957 Unesco bulletin for libraries, and Miss Barbara Kyle’s paper in the August 1957 Review of documentation, for some specific problem areas that need working on (168)].

  3. Make it possible for all students in the school (a) to learn that work in special libraries, scientific documentation, and information centers does exist and is highly rewarding in many ways; (b) to learn in what ways and to what extent such work differs from other types of library work; (c) to visit at least one good example of a special library or science information center; (d) to elect a course that pays more than just passing attention to special libraries or scientific documentation work, a course in science literature, or in documentation, or in special library service, or perhaps a seminar in some part of the field, but at least some course in which problems peculiar to the field are taken up and discussed at some length.

  4. Do what can be done to help with points 1 to 5 under international organizations.

LIBRARIES, INDUSTRIES, EMPLOYERS OF SPECIAL LIBRARIANS AND DOCUMENTALISTS
  1. Encourage workers to take advantage of nearby education and training facilities to develop and improve skills, to learn about new techniques, to raise their educational level, to increase their chances for advancement, etc.

  2. Develop in-service programs if the staff is large enough to encourage the advancement and participation of all the members of the group in all phases of

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work. But even small staffs need some indoctrination besides just reading staff manuals.

  1. Allow time for professional development, study, reading, courses, and the like; encourage participation in professional associations and at their meetings.

  2. Encourage closer liaison between science information workers and other research workers for mutual development within the overall organization.

  3. Do what can be done to help with points 1 to 5 under international organizations.

SPECIAL LIBRARIANS, SCIENCE DOCUMENTALISTS, INFORMATION OFFICERS
  1. Join and participate in professional associations, library, special library, documentation, information, scientific, technical, or whatever.

  2. Investigate nearby training facilities, educational, commercial, or governmental, for possible mutual or personal help and improvement; keep up with developments in both the library and the subject fields through current reading and study.

  3. Contribute ideas and experiences to professional publications, to make them more educationally useful.

  4. Think about, talk about, write about, and encourage improvements in any and all existing training facilities or methods or techniques or concepts or materials in the area of special librarianship or science documentation work or allied fields.

  5. Do what can be done to help with points 1 to 5 under international organizations.

REFERENCES

1. CAIN, JULIEN. The development of bibliographical and documentation services over the past ten years. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.10.11–12, Nov.–Dec. 1956. pp. 262–270. Chronology, pp. 269–270, covers conferences and meetings.

International exchange of publications in Latin America, Meeting of experts …. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.11.2–3, Feb.–Mar. 1957, pp. 29–31.

Conference on classification for information retrieval, Dorking, England…. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.11.4, April 1957, p. 97.

2. CAIN. op. cit., p. 270.

Seminar for documentalists, at Insdoc, New Delhi, India, May 31, 1956. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.11.2–3, Feb.–Mar. 1957, p. 68.

Seminar for documentalists, at the Technical and scientific documentation centre in Cairo, Egypt, June 1956. ibid.

3. Unesco’s library field missions and fellowships. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.10.11–12, Nov.–Dec. 1956. pp. 279–285. Fellowship holders on pp. 284–285.

Library bursaries for research in the Council for Scientific and Industrial Re-

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search Laboratories, South Africa. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.11.4, April 1957, p. 98.

4. Unesco’s library field missions and fellowships, op. cit.

Central American documentation centre for industry, Guatemala. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.11.8–9, Aug.–Sept. 1957. p. 215.

Scientific documentation centre in Pakistan, ibid., p. 216.

5. The bibliographical and reference publications of Unesco. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.10.11–12, Nov.–Dec. 1956. pp. 290–294.

Unesco bulletin for libraries, 1947–date. Also in French and Spanish.

CAIN. op. cit., pp. 268–269.

MALCLES, L.N. Bibliographical services throughout the world, First and second annual reports, 1951–52, 1952–53. Unesco, Paris, 1955.

COLLISON, R.L. Bibliographical services throughout the world, Third annual report, 1953/1954. Unesco, Paris, 1955.

——, Fourth annual report, 1954/1955. Unesco, Paris, 1957.

6. CAIN. op. cit., p. 266.

Unesco’s library field missions and fellowships, op. cit.

7. BRIET, SUZANNE. Enquete sur la formation professionnelle des bibliothécaires et des documentalistes. Unesco, Paris, 1950.

8.——Enquiry concerning the professional education of librarians and documentalists. Unesco, Paris, 1951.

9.——La formation professionnelle des bibliothécaires et des documentalistes, rapport complémentaire. Revue de la documentation, v.18.1, 1951. pp. 21–27.

10.——L’Enseignement et le statut professionels des bibliothécaires et des documentalistes. Revue de la documentation, v.19.2, 1952. pp. 21–26.

11.——Rapport à la commission mixte de l’enseignement et du statut professionnels…. Revue de la documentation, v.20.2,1953. pp. 49–56. See also v.20.4, 1953, pp. 132 and 135–136.

12. DUYVIS, F.DONKER. letter dated December 2, 1957, from La Haye.

13. Ibid.

14. BOURGEOIS, P. letter dated November 28, 1957, from Berne.

15. EGGER, E. Formation professionnelle et problèmes actuels du recrutement des bibliothécaires. Typescript of report, to be published in Libri.

16. CAIN. op. cit., p. 266.

WILSON, LESLIE. Organizations in the special library field. Chapt. 13 in Handbook of Special Librarianship and Information Work, Wilfred Ashworth, general editor. Aslib, London, 1955. pp. 356–359.

17. WILSON, ibid.

18. WILSON, ibid., pp. 354, 360.

MALCLES. op. cit., pp. 297–299.

19. COLLISON. Fourth annual report, op. cit., pp. 133–134.

20. Deleted on revision.

21. CUNNINGHAM, EILEEN R. International congress of libraries and documentation centers. Special Libraries, v.47.1, Jan. 1956. pp. 32–34.

22. e.g., PIETSCH, E. Nationale dokumentationseinrichtungen. Nachrichten für dokumentation, v.6.1, March 1955. pp. 5–18.

See also other reports by Mrs. Briet, in Bulletin de l’union française des organismes

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de documentation, v.22.5, Sept.–Oct. 1954, pp. 1–9, and in the Reports of the 1955 International Congress of Libraries and Documentation Centers.

23. CARNOVSKY, LEON. Education for librarianship abroad, in Education for Librarianship, edited by Bernard Berelson. ALA, Chicago, 1949. pp. 66–89.

24. MALCLES. op. cit. COLLISON. op. cit.

25. WILSON, op. cit., pp. 334–337.

Library association Year book and Students’ Handbook give particulars in their annual editions.

26. e.g., PATON, WILLIAM B. Education for librarianship. Library Association Record, v.58.12, Dec. 1956. pp. 460–464.

BENGE, R.C. Reactionary thoughts on the education of librarians. Library Association Record, v.59.1, Jan. 1957. pp. 2–4.

MALLABER, KENNETH A. Education for librarianship. Library Association Record, v.59.3, March 1957. pp. 91–94. “A rejoinder to Mr. Paton” above.

MORRISH, P.S. Training of librarians. Library Association Record, v.59.3, March 1957. pp. 104–5. Correspondence about Mr. Benge’s article above. etc., etc., etc.

27. WILSON, LESLIE, letter dated October 15, 1957, from London. List of proposed short training courses also enclosed; see Appendix 1. Announcements of the courses are made in the “Aslib information” section of Aslib proceedings at regular and appropriate intervals, e.g., v.9.9, Sept. 1957, pp. 291–2.

28. e.g., Aeronautical group, Textile group, announced in Aslib proceedings, v.9.11, Nov. 1957. p. 352.

29. FARRADANE, J. letter dated October 16, 1957, from Kent.

30. WILSON, letter op. cit.

31. WILSON, in Ashworth, ed., Handbook, op. cit., pp. 329–334. (ref. 16)

32. Ibid., p. 336.

33. CENTRALE EXAMENCOMMISSIE (NIDER, NVB). Examenreglement en exameneisen voor speciale bibliothecaris, bedrijfsarchivaris, literatuuronderzoeker. The Commissie, ’s-Gravenhage, 1955.

34. GEMEENSCHAPPELIJKE OPLEIDINGSCOMMISSIE (NIDER, NVB). Cursussen 1957–1958; opleiding van bibliotheek, archief, documentatie personeel. The Commissie, ’s-Gravenhage, 1957.

35. VERHOEF, IR.M. letter dated October 21, 1957, from The Hague.

36. KESSEN, A., VAN DIJK, C., and others. Symposion over de opleiding. Bibliotheekleven, v.42.8, Aug. 1957. pp. 213–226.

37. PIETSCH, E., HANTKE, G., MULERT, G. Massgeblichte dokumentationseinrichtungen in den Niederland. Nachrichten für Dokumentation, v.5.1, March 1954, pp. 13–24.

38. CITROEN, I.J. Training technical translators. Babel, v.1.2, Dec. 1955. pp. 61–64.

39. PIETSCH, HANTKE, MULERT. op. cit.

40. BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit., p. 28. MALCLES. op. cit., p. 220.

41. VAN DIJK, C. Special library training as it is in the Netherlands today. Aslib proceedings, v.5.4, Nov. 1953. pp. 276–283.

42. VAN DIJK, C. and BERKELAAR, P.H. The training of information officers in the Netherlands. International Congress of Libraries and Documentation Centers, 1955, Reports, II B, pp. 90–93.

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43. DREESE, M.J. De opleiding tot bedrijfsarchivaris. Tijdschrift voor efficientie en documentatie, v.26.4, 1956. pp. 123–125.

44. WILSON, in Ashworth, ed., Handbook…. op. cit., p. 350.

45. Copy of translation of the law, from Dr. Preben Kirkegaard, Director of the Danish Library School.

46. Danmarks biblioteksskole. Bogens verden, v.38.4, July 1956. pp. 181–185.

47. HØRDING-JENSEN, TOVE. Firmabibliotekarer og deres uddannelse. Tidskrift för dokumentation, v.11.3, 1955. pp. 31–33.

48. Copy of translation of a report on the school, from Dr. Preben Kirkegaard, Director of the Danish Library School.

49. WILSON, in Ashworth, ed., Handbook…. op. cit., p. 353.

50. FAHLSTRÖM, JAN MAGNUS. Course for industrial archivists (in Swedish). Tidskrift för dokumentation, v.10.4, 1954. p. 41.

Stimulerande TLS kurs. Tidskrift för dokumentation, v.12.3, 1956. pp. 42–44.

ENGEL, ERWIN. Bibliografiundervisning för företagsbibliotekarier. Tidskrift för dokumentation, v.12.5, 1956. pp. 59–61.

51. OTTERVIK, G. and MOHLENBROCK, S. Training for library service in Sweden. Annals of Library Science, v.1.1, March 1954. pp. 59–64.

——and ANDERSON, I. Libraries and Archives in Sweden. Stockholm, Swedish Institute, 1954. includes information on training for library service.

52. BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit., p. 30.

53. Utbildningsfragan. Biblioteksbladet, v.41.8, 1–2, 1956. pp. 589–621.

54. GERDWAN, Mrs. Library education in Norway. Abgila, v.3.4, Dec. 1953. pp. 175–178.

BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit., p. 27.

55. COLLISON. Third…. op. cit., p. 62; Fourth…. op. cit., p. 81.

56. MALCLES. op. cit., pp. 65–66.

57. Ibid., p. 66.

58. BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit. Annex III, pp. 28–35.

59. BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit., pp. 35–36.

60. STAVELEY, R. in his review of Cours de bibliographie…. Journal of Documentation, v.11.2, June 1955. pp. 83–84.

61. BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit., p. 43.

62. Ibid., p. 38.

63. DRTINA, JAROSLAV. Library training in Czechoslovakia. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.11.4, April 1957. pp. 80–82.

64. COLLISON. Fourth…. op. cit., p. 62.

65. SOLCOVA, SVATAVA. The Czechoslovak library system. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.10.7, July 1956. pp. 151–154.

66. BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit., p. 25.

67. Library development in Hungary. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.10.2, Feb. 1956. pp. 34–35.

68. National technical library of Hungary. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.10.7, July 1956. pp. 159–160.

69. KOVACS, MATE. The aims, basic principles and cultural significance of the Hungarian library law (in Hungarian). Magyar könyvszemle, v.72.3, July– Sept. 1956, pp. 181–200.

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70. BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit., p. 22. MALCLES. op. cit., p. 54.

71. BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit., p. 19.

72. KUNZE, HORST. Bibliotheksverwaltungslehre. Leipzig, Harrassowitz, 1956.

73. VEREIN DEUTSCHER VOLKSBIBLIOTHEKARE. Handbuch der offentlichen Bücherein. Hamburg, Eberhard Stichnote, 1952.

74. BIBLIOTHEKSKOMMISSION FÜR AUSBILDUNGSFRAGEN BEIM STAATSSEKRETARIAT FÜR HOCHSCHULWESEN. Aus der Arbeit der wissenschaftlichen Bibliotheken in der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik. Leipzig, Harrassowitz, 1955.

75. KUNZE, HORST. letter dated January 7, 1958, from Berlin.

76. KOBLITZ, J. Dokumentation, v.1.4, 1953/54. pp. 91–92, 123–124. (from Kunze).

77. Documentation, v.1.5, 1953/54, pp. 112–113; v.1.6, 1953/54, p. 127; v.2.1, 1955. p. 16; v.2.2, 1955, p. 39; v.2.3, 1955, p. 58; v.2.5, 1955, p. 101; v.3.3, 1956. p. 64–65; v.3.6,1956, p. 137–138 for announcements and reports of workshops, and v.2.3,1955, p. 58; v.4.2,1957, p. 31–37 for summaries. (from Kunze)

78. Gesetzblatt der DDR 1953, v.1, p. 406. Arbeits- und Sozialfürsorge, v.8, 1953, p. 581. (from Kunze)

79. Nachrichten für Dokumentation, passim, e.g., v.7.2, June 1956, p. 100–101.

80. WILSON, in Ashworth, ed., Handbook…. op. cit., pp. 352–353.

81. BRÄMER, JOACHIM, and VOGEL, DIETER. Die wissenschaftliche Fachbibliothek…. Leipzig, Harrassowitz, 1956.

FUCHS, HERMANN. Kurzgefasste Verwaltungslehre für Institutsbibliotheken. Wiesbaden, 1957. (from Kunze)

82. GÜLICH, WILHELM. Ausbildungs- und Nachwuchsfragen in Bibliotheken und Dokumentationsstellen. in Arbeitsgemeinschaft der technisch-wissenschaftlicher bibliotheken, Bericht über die 5-tagung in Braunschweig am 26 und 27 März 1953…. Essen, 1953. pp. 61–76.

GRUNWALD, WILHELM. Technische Hochschul-Bibliotheken. Zeitschrift für Bibliothekswesen und Bibliographie, v.2.4, 1955. pp. 257–279. see part 3, esp.

STÖTZER, WALTHER. Industrielbibliotheken und Industrielbibliothekare. Zeitschrift für Bibliothekswesen und Bibliographie, v.2.4, 1955. pp. 279–292.

FABIAN, RUDOLPH. Ausbildung von Nachwuchskräften in industriellen Dokumentationsstellen. Dokumentation, v.2.6, Nov. 1955, pp. 117–119.

83. DEMBOWSKA, M. Prerequisites of professional growth of younger staff members (in Polish). Bibliotekarz, v.33, Feb. 1956. pp. 26–28.

BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit., p. 29.

84. SIEROTWINSKI, S., tr. O.Wegner. Die wissenschaftliche-technische Dokumentation in der Volksrepublik Polen. Dokumentation, v.1.8, Sept. 1954. pp. 154–159.

85. COLLISON. Third…. op. cit., pp. 65.

86. DEMBOWSKA. op. cit.

87. PRZELASKOWSKI, R. Library staff in research libraries (in Polish). Przeglad biblioteczny, v.24, Jan.–Mar. 1956. p. 24.36.

88. BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit., pp. 29.

89. LACOUR, CHRISTINA. “Remarques sur le service des bibliothèques dans le Republique Populaire de Pologne.” Archives, bibliothèques, collection, documentation, no. 11, Sept. 1953, pp. 296–298.

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×

90. Instruction in scientific documentation at the University of Rome. American Documentation, v.8.2, April 1957. p. 146.

BALBIS, BRUNO. letter dated January 9, 1958, from Rome.

91. Programma del corso di Tecnica dell ’informazione scientifica svolto dal dott. Bruno Balbis, direttore del Centro nazionale di documentazione scientifica al Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, presso la Scuola di Pubblicistica alla Città universitaria—Facoltà di Giurisprudenza di Roma—nell ’anno accademico 1956–1957.

92. Deleted on revision.

93. BALBIS, BRUNO. Le développement de la documentation en Italie. Revue de la documentation, v.21.2, June 1954. pp. 53–59.

94. MORGHEN, RAFFAELLO. Preside, Scuola speciale per Archivisti e Bibliotecari, letter dated December 11, 1957, from Rome.

95. BOURGEOIS, letter, op. cit.

96. WILSON, in Ashworth, ed., Handbook…. op. cit., p. 354.

97. SOKOLOV, V., GARR, M., KULETZINA, A. Improving the leadership of technical libraries (in Russian). Bibliotekaŕ, no.2, 1953. pp. 20–21.

98. COLLISON. Fourth…. op. cit., p. 108.

99. WHITBY, THOMAS. Head, Cyrillic Group, Union Catalog, Library of Congress, communication during discussion October 8, 1957.

100. Ibid.

101. MIKHAILOV, A.I. letter dated December 12, 1957, from Moscow.

102. New institute of librarianship and bibliography (Moscow). Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.11.7, July 1957. p. 179.

103. Cursos para la formacion tecnica de archiveros, bibliotecarios y arqueologos, 1957–1958. Direccion general de archives y bibliotecas, Madrid.

104. ESTEVE, FRANCISCO. letter dated January 4, 1958, from Madrid.

105. MILAĈIC, DUŜAN. letter dated November 16, 1957, from Belgrade.

106. Ibid.

107. JOEL, I. letter dated December 27, 1957, from Jerusalem.

108. DELOUGAZ, NATHALIE. Library training in Israel. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.11.4, April 1957. pp. 82–83.

109. COLLISON. Fourth…. op. cit., p. 100.

110. CARNOVSKY, LEON. Report on a Programme of Library Education in Israel. Unesco, Paris, 1956.

111. WORMANN, CURT. The scientific libraries of Israel. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.8.1, Jan. 1954. pp. 1–5.

112. COLLISON. Fourth…. op. cit., p. 18.

113. VLEESCHAUWER, H.J.DE. The University of South Africa and its department of library science. Mousaion, no.12, 1956.

114. Pretoria. University of South Africa. Department of librarianship. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.9.10, Oct. 1955. p. 220. review of the new Mousaion.

115. MEWS, HAZEL. Chief Information Officer, Library and Information Division, South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, letter dated November 1, 1957, from Pretoria.

116.——Books are tools. C.S.I.R. Library and information division, Pretoria, 1951.

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×

117. C.S.I.R. Library and information division. Summary of activities, n.d. mimeo. WILSON, in Ashworth, ed., Handbook…. op. cit., pp. 348–349.

118. MALCLES. op. cit., p. 174.

JOHNSON, A.F. “Library training programs.” Australian Library Journal, v.2.1, Jan. 1953. pp. 3–5.

119. WILSON, in Ashworth, ed., Handbook…. op. cit., pp. 346–347.

120. JOHNSON, op. cit.

121. WHITE, H.L. The Commonwealth National Library of Australia. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.7.10, Oct. 1953. pp. E124–127.

122. BRIET. Enquiry…. op. cit., p. 32.

123. PETERSEN, E.N., Acting Head, Libraries Division, Unesco, typed bibliography of articles in Unesco Bulletin for Libraries accompanying letter dated October 18, 1957, from Paris.

124. COLLISON. Fourth…. op. cit., p. 33. MALCLES. op. cit., p. 38,

125. UNESCO. LIBRARIES DIVISION. Bibliographic Newsletter, v.6.2, 1957. pp. 40–41. Brazilian courses in bibliography. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.11.8, Aug. 1957. pp. 218.

126. COLLISON, Third…. op. cit., pp. 31.

127. Ibid., p. 32.

128. LITTON, GASTON. Inter-American school of library science, Colombia. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.11.8, Aug. 1957. p. 198.

129. Mexico: scientific and technical documentation centre. Bibliographic Newsletter of the libraries division of Unesco, v.1.2, 1952. pp. 18–19.

130. MALCLES. op. cit., p. 162.

131. COLLISON. Third.... op. cit., p. 35.

132. Ibid.

133. SAHA, J. letter dated November 27, 1957, from Calcutta.

134. COLLISON. Fourth…. op. cit., p. 51.

KEIO-GIJUKU UNIVERSITY. FACULTY OF LITERATURE. JAPAN LIBRARY SCHOOL. Announcement catalogue. The University, Tokyo, 1958. (also personal experience)

135. A.L.A. B.E.L. Standards for accreditation, presented by the ALA/BEL, and adopted by the ALA council Chicago July 13, 1951. ALA Bulletin, v.46.2, Feb. 1952. pp. 48–49. see also ALA/BEL Statement of interpretation to accompany standards for accreditation…. ALA, Chicago, 1952. (Board of Education for Librarianship)

136. U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE. OFFICE OF EDUCATION. List of 563 institutions of higher education in the United States announcing courses in library science and/or bibliography. Prepared by Willard O.Mishoff, Specialist for College and Research Libraries, Library Services Branch, July 30, 1957.

137. Library schools, in Canadian Almanac and Directory for 1954, edited by Beatrice Logan. Toronto, Copp Clark, 1954. p. 450.

138. MISHOFF, WILLARD O. Undergraduate programs of library education: a current summary. Higher Education, v.14.1, Sept. 1957. pp. 3–7.

139. Library schools, in Canadian…. loc. cit.

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140. Home-study correspondence courses, in Lovejoys Vocational School Guide. N.Y., Simon & Schuster, 1955. Chapt. 14, pp. 193–201.

141. Subcommittee on course content of the Subcommittee on special library education of the Joint committee on education for librarianship of the Council of National Library Associations; Dr. Baer is Chief Librarian of the National Housing Center, Washington, D.C. Questionnaire letters were sent to the accredited schools listed in Appendix 2, and a preliminary report was made early in May 1957; the final report of the subcommittee probably will have appeared by the time the present paper is published, and may, of course, have reached different conclusions. The results given herein are based on study of the announcement catalogs of the schools surveyed, and on perusal of the individual returns from the survey for which permission was obtained from Dr. Baer and from each school reporting, to all of whom the writer is very grateful.

142. see ALA Bulletin, v.51.11, Dec. 1957. p. 888, footnote, (also Appendix 2)

143. LLOYD, GWENDOLYN. Survey of study facilities for foreign library school students in the U.S. Special Libraries, v.45.1, Jan. 1954. pp. 7–12. Supplement appeared in Special libraries, v.45.9, Nov. 1954. pp. 384–385.

144. MORLEY, LINDA. Special library education in the United States and Canada. Journal of Documentation, v.3.1, June 1947. pp. 24–42.

145. SHERA, JESSE. Training for specials; the status of the library schools. Special Libraries, v.28, Nov. 1937. pp. 317–321.

145a. Check H.W.Wilson Co.’s Library Literature for professional publications, etc.

146. Letters were sent to the presidents of the 31 SLA chapters in October 1957 asking what each chapter is doing in the area of education or training for special librarianship; no follow-up letters were sent. Seventeen reports were received by the end of January 1958; two more were promised but did not come. Results given herein are based on these returns; see Appendix, 3.

147. HARPER, SHIRLEY, and KIENTZLE, ELIZABETH. Special library problems: Illinois chapter education program. Special Libraries, v.44.6, July–Aug. 1953. pp. 236–242. Excellent description of course, its problems, and its evaluation.

“During the last two years, it was found that, despite considerable expressed interest, actual participation was very small. Very likely another ‘cycle’ of interest in formalized education programs may come in a few years.”—Illinois. Comments from other chapters were similar but less direct.

148. RECRUITMENT & TRAINING COMMITTEE. NEW YORK CHAPTER. SPECIAL LIBRARIES ASSOCIATION. Directory of Training Opportunities for Special Librarians in Metropolitan New York. New York, 1957. 19 pp. Attention is also directed to the local Adult Education Council, Vocational Advisory Service, and public library’s Readers’ Advisers Office.

149. e.g., Professional training for special librarianship: panel discussion. New York Chapter News, v.28.3, Feb. 1956. p. 5 (announcement and reason for having).

KINGERY, ROBERT. S.L.A. N.Y. chapter Recruitment & training committee report. New York Chapter News, v.29.4, April 1957. pp. 10–11. Well-thought-out statement of principles, needs, and limitations of special library education.

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Special training vs. library training for special libraries. Texas Chapter Bulletin, v.7, Nov. 1955.

150. New library course due. New York Times, May 17, 1953. (at Queens College, suggested by the New York Chapter)

Ballard school course announcements periodically in New York Chapter News; elementary reference work, subject filing and indexing, elementary cataloging, are among those offered the year around. The Ballard School is in the YWCA and has been sponsored and developed by the New York chapter; certificates are given to those who complete the courses.

Two members of the Oak Ridge chapter “have been trying to establish a cooperative program with our company for the training of special librarians. The company has such a program for training engineers and seems sympathetic to the idea of including librarians in it.”

“A long range hope of our chapter is to cooperate in some library course or workshop at the University of New Mexico. Because of the lack of a library school in the area we feel the need for something like that…. In our libraries at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory we are experimenting with a reference course for technical library work which is aimed at refreshing the minds of our science librarians…. In a few years, after our chapter members have gained experience and confidence with such local ventures, we hope to take an active part in library training in the state.”—Rio Grande, one year old.

“Washington, D.C., chapter-sponsored U.S. Department of Agriculture Graduate School courses (current): Introduction to cataloging and classification, Principles of library organization, Basic reference service and reference tools, Introduction to bibliographic science, Law librarianship, Introduction to map library techniques, The principles of physical science (survey course in fundamental concepts).”

“We feel that it is so vital that we have made ‘Education for special librarians’ our 1957–58 Chapter project. Our approach to this problem has been to study the present library training facilities in the state…(few courses offered, few professors have knowledge of needs)…. Therefore, we felt one of the functions of our chapter could be to formulate our educational needs and to attempt to develop a mutually cooperative program with the schools to meet these needs…. We have appointed to the project committee the subject specialist, that is, a chemist with no library training, and conventional library school graduates without the subject specialization. In addition we have asked the key library schools to send representatives to our meetings to act as advisors. We have also asked the president of the Library Education Counsel of the state Library Association to act as an advisor. In this manner we can openly discuss our educational needs with these people and, therefore, we can generate interest in our problems at the library school level…. We feel that this is a long-term program. We do not anticipate a solution this year or even next year. We have, however, made some progress…(extension courses, Saturday classes) …. We are actively participating in the state Library Association Library Education Counsel and the Advisory Counsel of the Graduate School of Library Science at the University (to resolve the problem of poor communication

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between the special and the ordinary librarians)….”—Texas, very big and very active, especially in the area of special libraries.

151. HENKLE, HERMAN. Dissemination of information for scientific research and development with special reference to the work of Research information service, The John Crerar Library. The Library, Chicago, 1954.

152. CRANE, E.J. The training of chemists for abstracting and indexing, in Training of Literature Chemists, Advances in Chemistry series no. 17. American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1956. pp. 16–21.

153. Check list of proceedings for new reference personnel. Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, processed, one page.

154. DUGGAN, MARYANN. Technical Librarian, Magnolia Petroleum Company, letter dated November 19, 1957, from Dallas.

155. HOFFMAN, THELMA. Chief Librarian, Shell Development Company, letter dated December 17, 1957, from Emeryville, California, also enclosed, Shell’s statement giving descriptions and personnel requirements of non-laboratory research positions in technical files, patent library, and technical library.

156. DAHL, RICHARD. Professional development program. Library Journal, v.79.21, Dec. 1, 1954. pp. 2280–2283. Benefits and methods are given, for all libraries.

SHANK, RUSSELL; BEHYMER, E.HUGH; METCALF, KEYES. Staff participation in library management. College and Research Libraries, v.18.6, Nov. 1957. pp. 467–478.

157. WESNER, JEAN. Training of non-professional staff. Special Libraries, v.46.10, Dec. 1955, pp. 434–440. Those with no formal library science education and no experience in the field. Needs and methods demonstrated.

MCNEAL, ARCHIE. “Ratio of professional to clerical staff.” College and research libraries, v.17.3, May 1956. pp. 219–223. Comments at some length on need for training of non-professionals.

MULCAHEY, J.H. Training special library assistants. Special Libraries, v.48.3, March 1957. pp. 105–108.

158. CHAFFEE, RANDOLPH. The engineering library. Machine Design, v.24.9, Sept. 1952. pp. 110–127. “To attract more enrollments in special library courses, industry might offer scholarships or part-time employment in technical libraries to post-graduate students.”

Literature chemists scarce, too. Chemical and Engineering News, v.33, April 11, 1955. pp. 1518–1519. Industry “has been forced to provide on-the-job training.”

159. NORWOOD, M.L. Survey of current library in-service training practices. Thesis, University of North Carolina, 1957.

WOODRUFF, ELAINE. In-service training for government librarians. Special Libraries, v.44.2, Feb. 1953. pp. 48–52. Program needs and schedule given, adaptable to all kinds of libraries.

160. GRUNWALD, WILHELM. “Der Spezialbibliothekar: Aufgaben, Auswahl, Ausbildungsvorschläge.” Bibliothek, Bibliothekar, Bibliothekswissenschaft; Festschrift Joris Vorstius…1954. pp. 182–191. Interesting proposed training program.

FILL, KARL. Thesen zur ausbildung der dokumentalisten. Nachrichten für Dokumentation, v.5.1, March 1954. pp. 28–32. Stresses needs and then courses.

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PRESSL, LISSI, and SCHMOLL, GEORG. Einige Gedanken und Materialien zur Ausbildung von Dokumentalisten in der DDR. Dokumentation, v.4.2, March 1957. pp. 31–37. Includes a 20-category lesson plan and a bibliography.

161. MALLABER. op. cit. MACKIEWICZ, ELIZABETH. Education for special librarianship in Great Britain. Aslib proceedings, v.5.4, Nov. 1953. pp. 286–292.

Training for librarians and documentalists. Aslib proceedings, v.6.2, May 1954. pp. 117–119. Points out differences between librarians and information officers.

FARRADANE, J. Information service in industry. Research, v.6, Aug. 1953. pp. 327–330. Also discusses training of the information officer.

KAY, A.G. Qualifications for special library work. The Engineer, v.198, July 23, 1954. pp. 130–132.

HARRISON, J.C. Special librarianship and the library schools. In Library Association, Reference and special libraries section, Proceedings of the annual conference 1956. London, 1957. pp. 23–28.

Training of special librarians and information officers. Aslib proceedings, v.9.4, April 1957. pp. 99–100.

BENGE, R.C. The place of literature studies in library education. Journal of Documentation, v.13.3, Sept. 1957. pp. 147–151. Stresses importance of subject literature study to both librarians and information officers, in schools.

DAIN, N.E. review of and comments on Harrison’s paper (above). Library Association Record, v.59.10, Oct. 1957. pp. 347.

HARRISON. comments and reply to Dain (above). Library Association Record, v.59.11, Nov. 1957. p. 375.

HOLMSTROM, J.E. Observations on the training of information officers. Unesco Department of natural sciences, 30 September 1953. Reference 250/3930. mimeo. Gives definitions, functions, and suggested training syllabus. Similar to point of view of Farradane (above). Deplores lack of effect of previous appearance of observations (27 September 1948) on Library Association syllabus drafting.

162. ASHEIM, LESTER, ed. The core of education for librarianship. ALA, Chicago, 1954. Suggests seven “areas of the core,” and what might be included in library training at the undergraduate level and in special subject fields.

——Education for librarianship. Library Quarterly, v.25.1, Jan. 1955. pp. 76–90. Review of 1931–1955 and of beginning of demand for special library training.

BRODMAN, ESTELLE. Whither education for medical librarians? Stechert-Hafner Book news, v.8.6, Feb. 1954, pp. 61–62.

DISBROW, MARY. Impressions of the course in medical libraries at Emory University. Bulletin Medical Library Association, v.41.3, July 1953. pp. 277–282. Included lectures on departments of medicine by medical men. Education for special librarianship. Library Quarterly, v.24.1, Jan. 1954. pp. 1–20. Includes suggested education in science-technology and medicine library work.

LANCOUR, HAROLD. The training of the special librarian in the U.S. Aslib proceedings, v.5.4, Nov. 1953. pp. 271–275. Includes development of pattern.

LEONARD, RUTH. Education for special librarianship. Special Libraries, v.41.5,

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×

May–June 1950. pp. 157–159. Description and discussion of Simmons College program.

POSTELL, WILLIAM. Education for medical librarianship. Special Libraries, v. 48.5, May–June 1957. pp. 186–188. Development and present needs.

SHERA, JESSE. Education for librarianship—an integrated approach. ALA Bulletin, v.48.3, March 1954. pp. 129–130, 169–173.

——et al., ed. Documentation in Action. Reinhold, New York, 1956. passim.

——Librarians’ new frontier. Library Journal, v.82, Jan. 1, 1957. pp. 26–28.

——Research and developments in documentation. Library Trends, v.6.2, Oct. 1957.

——The training of the chemical librarian: a challenge and an opportunity. Special Libraries, v.47.1, Jan. 1956. pp. 8–16.

TAUBE, MORTIMER. Implications for professional organization and training, in The Communication of Specialized Information edited by Margaret Egan. University of Chicago Graduate Library School, 1954.

WATERS, EDWARD. Special library education. Library Trends, v.1.2, Oct. 1952. pp. 244–255. Whole issue devoted to special libraries.

——Training for special librarianship. Special Libraries, v.47.9, Nov. 1956. pp. 393–399. Gives definitions, deficiencies, training programs, and progress.

163. BRIET. op. cit. (ref. 22)

VAN DIJK. op. cit. (ref. 36)

PRZELASKOWSKI. op. cit. (ref. 87)

VLEESCHAUWER. op. cit. (ref 113)

164. A.L.A. B.E.L. Standards…. op. cit. (ref. 135)

165. Library education division. ALA Bulletin, v.51.11, Dec. 1957. p. 858.

See also reports on activities of Joint Committee on Library Education, e.g., in Association of American Library Schools Report of meeting, Chicago, January 28, 1957, pp. 59–62, in which Dr. Carl M.White explores the whys and wherefores of the committee trying to pin down its responsibilities, if any.

AALS Newsletter, January and July, frequently contains news and comments on instructional programs in the area of special librarianship.

LED News Letter, including its Teachers section issue, frequently contains news and reports of activities in all areas of education for librarianship, surveys, new courses, committee reports, and so forth.

166. MERTON, ROBERT. The functions of the professional association. American Journal of Nursing, v.58.1, Jan. 1958. pp. 50–54.

167. Ibid., p. 52.

168. COBLANS, HERBERT. New methods and techniques for the communication of knowledge. Unesco Bulletin for Libraries, v.11.7, July 1957. pp. 154–175.

KYLE, BARBARA. Current documentation topics and their relevance to social science literature. Revue de la documentation, v.24.3, Aug. 1957. pp. 107–117. The present state of “Research in librarianship” is examined and discussed from all points of view in the October 1957 Library Trends; the entire issue is devoted to the subject of research in librarianship.

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APPENDIX 1 Aslib training courses

The Education Committee has had under consideration means of extending Aslib’s programme of short training courses and has agreed that courses on the following subjects are desirable:

Organization of Science and Technology

Good relations with users and presentation of information to management and administration

Acquisition, handling and exploitation of periodicals

Advanced classification and indexing

Production of library and information department publications

Mechanical information retrieval

Work with technical reports

Patents and patent law.

Work is proceeding on the organization of these courses.

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APPENDIX 2 Survey of accredited library schools

 

Special libraries

Literature courses

Courses offered

Short name of school

Prog.

Cour.

Semr.

S-T

Doc

Med

Oth

U-g

Ext

Eve

Sum

Atlanta

 

 

 

e

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

California

 

 

 

e

x

 

 

 

 

 

x

Carnegie Tech

s-t

s-t

 

e

s

 

 

 

 

 

 

Catholic University

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

Chicago

 

x

 

r

 

 

 

x

 

x

x

Columbia

s,m

 

 

r,e

x

x

i,p

x

 

 

x

Denver

 

x

 

r

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Drexel Institute

x

x

 

e

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Emory

c

 

 

 

 

x

 

x

 

 

x

Florida State

 

x

x

e

 

 

 

x

x

 

x

Illinois

 

 

 

e

 

x

a,b

 

 

 

x

Indiana

 

 

 

r

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

Kentucky

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

Louisiana State

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

McGill

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

 

Michigan

 

x

 

e

s

x

i

x

x

 

x

Minnesota

 

x

 

r

 

 

 

x

 

x

x

North Carolina

 

 

x

e

 

x

 

x

 

 

x

Oklahoma

x

 

 

r

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

Peabody

m

 

 

r

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

Pratt Institute

 

x

 

e

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Rosary

 

 

 

r

 

 

 

 

 

x

x

Rutgers

 

 

x

e

x

 

 

x

x

x

x

St. Catherine

 

 

 

e

 

 

 

x

 

x

x

Simmons

x

x

x

e

 

 

 

x

 

x

x

So. California

 

s-t

 

r,e

 

 

 

x

x

 

x

Syracuse

 

 

 

r

 

 

 

x

 

x

x

Texas State College for Women

 

x

 

r

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

Texas

x

x

 

 

 

 

 

x

x

 

x

Toronto

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

Washington, St. Louis

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

x

Washington, Seattle

 

 

 

r

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

Western Michigan

 

 

x

e

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

Western Reserve

 

x

 

e

x

 

 

 

x

x

Wisconsin

 

x

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

x

Total 35

8

19

5

13r

5x

5

26

 

5

9

31

 

 

(15 add. 3)

16e

2s

 

a, agriculture; b, biology; c, chemistry; e, elective; i, indexing/abstracting; m, medicine; p, pharmacy; r, required; s, science; t, technology; U-g, undergrad; *, machine lit., etc., and Center for Documentation and Communication Research. Cour., course; Doc, documentation; Eve, evening; Ext, extension; Med, medical; Oth, other; Prog., program; S-T, science-technology; Semr., seminar; Sum, summer.

Page 1488 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×

APPENDIX 3 Survey of SLA chapters

 

Education/training programs outside chapter liaison with nearby library school

Programs inside chapter (held during 1956–1957)

Chapter

talks

teach

tours

cnslt

w/stud

other

none

wkshp

meth

lect

Georgia

x

 

x

x

x

 

 

x

 

 

Illinois

x

x

 

 

x

conf.

 

 

x

 

Louisiana

 

x

 

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

Michigan

 

x

 

 

x

conf.

 

x

 

 

Montreal

x

 

 

 

 

 

x

 

 

 

New Jersey

x

x

x

 

x

 

 

x

 

 

New York

x

x

x

 

x

1

 

 

x

 

Oak Ridge

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

 

x

x

Oklahoma

 

 

 

 

 

 

new

 

 

 

Pittsburgh

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

x

 

 

Puget Sound

x

 

x

 

x

 

 

 

x

x

Rio Grande

x

 

 

x

 

 

new

 

 

 

San Francisco Bay

x

 

x

x

x

 

 

 

x

 

Texas

 

 

 

x

 

3

 

x

 

 

Toronto

 

x

 

x

x

 

 

x

 

x

Washington, D.C.

 

x

 

 

 

4

x

 

 

 

Wisconsin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

Totals 17

8

8

5

6

9

 

5

6

5

4

1. Instrumental in establishing Ballard School library courses, and courses at Queens College, New York.

2. Establishing cooperative training program within a company.

3. Active program with industry, library associations, schools.

4. Instrumental in getting courses set up in USDA graduate school,

cnslt, consult; conf, conference; lect, lecture; meth, methods; USDA, United States Department of Agriculture; w/stud, with students; wkshp, workshop.

Page 1441 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1441
Page 1442 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1442
Page 1443 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1443
Page 1444 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1444
Page 1445 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1445
Page 1446 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1446
Page 1447 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1447
Page 1448 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1448
Page 1449 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1449
Page 1450 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1450
Page 1451 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1451
Page 1452 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1452
Page 1453 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1453
Page 1454 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1454
Page 1455 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1455
Page 1456 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1456
Page 1457 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1457
Page 1458 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1458
Page 1459 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1459
Page 1460 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1460
Page 1461 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1461
Page 1462 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1462
Page 1463 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1463
Page 1464 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1464
Page 1465 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1465
Page 1466 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1466
Page 1467 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1467
Page 1468 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1468
Page 1469 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1469
Page 1470 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1470
Page 1471 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1471
Page 1472 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1472
Page 1473 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1473
Page 1474 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1474
Page 1475 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1475
Page 1476 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1476
Page 1477 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1477
Page 1478 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1478
Page 1479 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1479
Page 1480 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1480
Page 1481 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1481
Page 1482 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1482
Page 1483 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1483
Page 1484 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1484
Page 1485 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1485
Page 1486 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1486
Page 1487 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
Page 1487
Page 1488 Cite
Suggested Citation:"Training for Activity in Scientific Documentation Work." National Research Council. 1959. Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/10866.
×
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Proceedings of the International Conference on Scientific Information: Two Volumes Get This Book
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The launch of Sputnik caused a flurry of governmental activity in science information. The 1958 International Conference on Scientific Information (ICSI) was held in Washington from Nov.16-21 1958 and sponsored by NSF, NAS, and American Documentation Institute, the predecessor to the American Society for Information Science. In 1959, 20,000 copies of the two volume proceedings were published by NAS and included 75 papers (1600 pages) by dozens of pioneers from seven areas such as:

  • Literature and reference needs of scientists
  • Function and effectiveness of A & I services
  • Effectiveness of Monographs, Compendia, and Specialized Centers
  • Organization of information for storage and search: comparative characteristics of existing systems
  • Organization of information for storage and retrospective search: intellectual problems and equipment considerations
  • Organization of information for storage and retrospective search: possibility for a general theory
  • Responsibilities of Government, Societies, Universities, and industry for improved information services and research.

It is now an out of print classic in the field of science information studies.

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