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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 3: Literature Review and Case Studies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24972.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 3: Literature Review and Case Studies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24972.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 3: Literature Review and Case Studies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24972.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 3: Literature Review and Case Studies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24972.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 3: Literature Review and Case Studies. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24972.
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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Impr Volu Jim Amd Universi Transp New Orl William Transpo Provide Tom Cal UII Springfi Jon A. C Alan M. Transp Rutger of New New Bru ACKNOWLED This work was (TDC). It was c Research Boa COPYRIGHT I Authors herein persons who o Cooperative R purposes. Per FMCSA, FRA, product, metho uses will give a request permis DISCLAIMER The opinions a are not necess or the program The informatio edited by TRB oving t me 3: L al ty of New Orleans ortation Institute eans, LA Ankner rtation Solutions nce, RI lahan eld, VA arnegie Voorhees ortation Center s, The State Univer Jersey nswick, NJ GMENT sponsored by t onducted throu rd (TRB) of the NFORMATION are responsibl wn the copyrigh esearch Progra mission is give FTA, Office of d, or practice. ppropriate ack sion from CRP nd conclusions arily those of th sponsors. n contained in t . he Res b iteratur sity he Federal Tran gh the Transit C National Acade e for the authen t to any previo ms (CRP) gran n with the unde the Assistant Se It is expected th nowledgment o . expressed or im e Transportatio his document w TC Web-Only ilience o y Natu e Revie Julie Louis Kansa Debo Louis Wash Jane Louis Kansa Eric P Vienn John Florid Boca sit Administrat ooperative Re mies of Scienc ticity of their m usly published o ts permission to rstanding that n cretary for Res at those reprod f the source of a plied in this re n Research Bo as taken direct RP Docume f Trans ral Disa w and MacLachlan Berger s City, MO rah Matherly Berger ington, DC Mobley Berger s City, MO eterson a, VA Renne a Atlantic Univers Raton, FL ion (FTA) in coo search Program es, Engineering aterials and for r copyrighted m reproduce ma one of the mate earch and Tec ucing the mate ny reprinted or port are those o ard; the Nation ly from the subm nt 70: it Syste sters Case S ity Contra peration with t (TCRP), whic , and Medicine obtaining writte aterial used he terial in this pub rial will be used hnology, PHMS rial in this docu reproduced ma f the researche al Academies o ission of the a ms Th tudy Su Ja Jim Ch Ma Ve La Nie Lo Ne Ry NJ Tre Br Lo Ba ctor’s Final Rep he Transit Deve h is administere . n permissions f rein. lication for clas to imply TRB, A, or TDC endo ment for educat terial. For oth rs who perform f Sciences, Eng uthor(s). This m reatene mmari mes Schwab Schwab Consulti icago, IL rie Venner nner Consulting kewood, CO k Veraart uis Berger w York, NY an Whytlaw Department of Tra nton, NJ ian Wolshon uisiana State Unive ton Rouge, LA ort for TCRP P Submitted lopment Corpo d by the Trans rom publishers sroom and not AASHTO, FAA rsement of a p ional and not-fo er uses of the m ed the researc ineering, and M aterial has not d es ng LLC nsportation rsity roject A-41 May 2017 ration portation or -for-profit , FHWA, articular r-profit aterial, h. They edicine; been

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The National Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

TCRP PROJECT A-41 PANEL Emmanuel C.B. "Cris" Liban, Los Angeles County (CA) Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Los Angeles, CA (Chair) Madinah Ali, Excelente, Inc., Atlanta, GA Andrew D. Brennan, Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, Boston, MA Dana C. Coyle, MTA Metro North Railroad, New York, NY Erik S. Johanson, Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority, Philadelphia, PA Hilda Lafebre, San Mateo County Transit District, San Carlos, CA Steven Loehr, MTA New York City Transit, New York, NY Vincent D. Pellegrin, Metro Transit - Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minneapolis, MN Susan K. Reinertson, AMTRAK, Washington, DC Linbing Wang, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA Nina Chung, FTA Liaison Adam Schildge, FTA Liaison Richard Weaver, APTA Liaison Monica Starnes, TRB Liaison

AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Acknowledgments:  The study team appreciates the contributions of time, information, and  materials from APTA, the transit agency case study participants, and the National Aeronautics  Space Administration (NASA).  

Table of Contents  Appendix A. Literature Review.….………………………………………….………………………………..A‐1  Reference Documents Cited in the Literature Review Synthesis Report…………………………………………….…A-2  Reference Documents Not Cited in Synthesis Report ........................................................................... A‐160  Appendix B. Case Study Summaries.………………………………………………………………………..B‐1  Hillsborough Area Regional Transit Authority (HART) ............................................................................... B‐2  Honolulu Department of Transportation Services (DTS) ......................................................................... B‐10  Idaho Valley Regional Transit (VRT) ......................................................................................................... B‐14  Kansas City Transit Authority (KCATA) ..................................................................................................... B‐19  Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority (LA Metro) ................................................ B‐29  Maryland Transit Administration (MTA) .................................................................................................. B‐38  Massachusetts Bay Transportation Agency (MBTA) ................................................................................ B‐47  Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) ......................................................................... B‐53  Nashville Metropolitan Transit Authority (MTA) ..................................................................................... B‐63  New Jersey Transit Corporation (NJ TRANSIT) ......................................................................................... B‐68  New Orleans Regional Transit Authority (NORTA)................................................................................... B‐76  San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) .......................................................................................... B‐84  SFMTA/MUNI: San Francisco Municipal Railway ..................................................................................... B‐92  Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) ............................................................. B‐101  Swedish Transportation Administration (STA) ....................................................................................... B‐113  Transport for London (TfL) ..................................................................................................................... B‐122  Utah Transit Authority (UTA) ................................................................................................................. B‐136  Explanatory Notes on Case Studies:  1. Attachments such as tools, presentations and documents that are referred to in the case studies are in the project database and not included with this document.  2. Some tools are followed by a number reference in parentheses (#).  The numbers refer to the references at the bottom of the case study.

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TRB's Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP) Web Only Document 70: Improving the Resilience of Transit Systems Threatened by Natural Disasters, Volume 3: Literature Review and Case Studies includes appendicies that outline the literature reviewed and 17 case studies that explore how transit agencies absorb the impacts of disaster, recover quickly, and return rapidly to providing the services that customers rely on to meet their travel needs. The report is accompanied by Volume 1: A Guide and Volume 2: Research Overview.

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