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EDUCATION AND TRAINING 183 Because little formal communication took place among the agencies, the roundtable served as a clearinghouse for ideas, pilot projects, data analysis, and coordination. At the suggestion of the Marine Mammal Commission and in consultation with the Coast Guard and NOAA, the EPA plans to build on this concept in establishing a marine debris coordinating committee involving all appropriate federal agencies. The committee will address MARPOL-related issues and study all sources of marine debris. Another effective but temporary for am for information exchange was the Navy's Ad Hoc Plastics Advisory Group (described in Chapter 1), through which congressional staff and environmental organizations were able to share concerns about the military's garbage disposal practices and discuss alternatives. Notwithstanding the benefits of the international conferences and short- term government efforts, the lack of formal, ongoing information exchange reaching all maritime sectors dearly is holding back Annex V implementation. Although a variety of technologies and methods is available for managing marine debris, the committee found that knowledge about them is not widespread. For example, the Navy's experiences in developing shipboard garbage treatment equipment appear to be largely unknown within other government agencies and the private sector.3 And organizers of fishing net recycling efforts could benefit from knowledge of the EPA's waste exchanges, which could help locate markets for used nets. Information exchange could foster the development of a national infrastructure for recycling fishing gear. A MODEL ANNEX V EDUCATION AND TRAINING PROGRAM Based on its assessment of opportunities for intervention in each maritime sector (Chapter 4) and its review of past and ongoing education and training programs, the Committee on Shipborne Wastes developed a model strategy to support Annex V implementation. Many elements of this model may be found in the MERP program; the key element missing from that effort is adequate long-term resources to carry out comprehensive, nationwide education. What is needed is an aggressive, coordinated education program that modifies the ethics and behaviors of all who use and profit from the marine environment. In developing this model, the committee relied heavily on the professional expertise of several of its members as well as findings from the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, at which education was addressed in a workshop. The findings of that workshop (O'Hara, 1990) underscored the point that education is not a last resort to be employed when all else fails but rather a 3 Some information can be located, but only with effort and only if one knows where to look. For example, the Navy's 1993 report to Congress outlines the on-board technology development strategy and status and the Navy has participated in international conferences on marine debris.
EDUCATION AND TRAINING 184 strategic tool for fostering voluntary Annex V compliance and, as such, is deserving of adequate, long-term funding. The 1989 Education Working Group also found that dissemination of marine debris educational materials could be enhanced through existing organizations, such as the Coast Guard Auxiliary and licensing and registration procedures for fishing and boating. The need for program evaluation also was emphasized, because it may be necessary to prove that education is a productive investment of time and money. Indirect evaluation includes long-term monitoring of beach debris and use of port reception facilities; direct evaluation includes surveys conducted through re- licensing programs to assess changes in attitude and behavior. The 1989 working group stressed five criteria that must be satisfied to create strong educational programs: (1) involve members of the target audience when developing materials and organizing distribution; (2) identify specific, discrete behavior for individuals; (3) set realistic goals; (4) make educational experiences positive and enjoyable; and (5) involve individuals familiar with the target audience (each target group must identify its educator as well-known and reliable, expert, and sympathetic to the group's needs and concerns). In the judgment of the Committee on Shipborne Wastes, an Annex V education and training program of an effective scope could be created and implemented only under the aegis of a single entity that would have the ultimate responsibility for directing, coordinating, and funding the program. This lead organization would coordinate the efforts of all other government agencies and private organizations. The program could include the following elements: â¢ Targeted, Coordinated Efforts to Reach Multiple Audiences. Education and training programs need to be well-defined; "shotgun" efforts are more expensive and less effective. The lead organization could organize, coordinate, and encourage the participation of a group of educators qualified to represent and identify with target groups. There is a particular need to educate managers and to expand the types of groups targeted beyond those that generate marine debris. To address the marine debris problem fully, innovations are needed in packaging design, garbage treatment equipment, and approaches employed in operations and enforcement. Therefore, future educational efforts need to include groups such as the packaging industry, government officials, and fishing tackle manufacturers.4 The lead office could transform empirical data and information into a series of selected educational campaigns, which each educator could deliver to 4 Groups that have been or currently are targeted for Annex V implementation education include plastics manufacturers and processors,. offshore oil and gas workers, commercial fishermen and processors, military personnel, solid waste managers, port and terminal operators, commercial shipping companies, recreational fishermen, recreational boaters, charter vessel operators, and cruise ship operators and passengers. Additional groups that have been identified for future targeted education programs include the