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IMPLEMENTATION 63 3 Implementation Implementation of MARPOL Annex V has been and continues to be problematic. The two greatest obstacles are the difficulties experienced by mariners seeking to comply with Annex V and the ease with which violators can escape detection. While both problems could be mitigated to some degree, the formerâdifficulty with complianceâprobably is easier to resolve. This judgment is based on the assumption that human beings generally want to be helpful and can change if the barriers to voluntary compliance can be overcome. By contrast, increasing direct surveillance of mariners to identify Annex V violations would be difficult and in many cases impossible. Logic dictates, therefore, that an Annex V implementation strategy should focus on fostering voluntary compliance, while also ensuring robust enforcement capabilities. But the specific elements of an effective strategy are more difficult to determine. To pinpoint the opportunities to improve Annex V implementation, a systematic approach is needed. To that end, this chapter examines Annex V and the hazards it targets from a comprehensive hazard management perspective. The chapter opens with a description of a generic hazard evolution model. Then the model is adapted to the problem of vessel garbage, and opportunities for intervening in the evolution of the hazard (marine debris) are identified within this framework. Throughout the discussion, behavioral and organizational principles are introduced that must be considered in developing mechanisms for successful implementation of Annex V. The analysis also underscores how the provisions of the Annex welcome and support a very broad range of methods for facilitating compliance.