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Suggested Citation:"3 Implementation." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
Page 63

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IMPLEMENTATION 63 3 Implementation Implementation of MARPOL Annex V has been and continues to be problematic. The two greatest obstacles are the difficulties experienced by mariners seeking to comply with Annex V and the ease with which violators can escape detection. While both problems could be mitigated to some degree, the former—difficulty with compliance—probably is easier to resolve. This judgment is based on the assumption that human beings generally want to be helpful and can change if the barriers to voluntary compliance can be overcome. By contrast, increasing direct surveillance of mariners to identify Annex V violations would be difficult and in many cases impossible. Logic dictates, therefore, that an Annex V implementation strategy should focus on fostering voluntary compliance, while also ensuring robust enforcement capabilities. But the specific elements of an effective strategy are more difficult to determine. To pinpoint the opportunities to improve Annex V implementation, a systematic approach is needed. To that end, this chapter examines Annex V and the hazards it targets from a comprehensive hazard management perspective. The chapter opens with a description of a generic hazard evolution model. Then the model is adapted to the problem of vessel garbage, and opportunities for intervening in the evolution of the hazard (marine debris) are identified within this framework. Throughout the discussion, behavioral and organizational principles are introduced that must be considered in developing mechanisms for successful implementation of Annex V. The analysis also underscores how the provisions of the Annex welcome and support a very broad range of methods for facilitating compliance.

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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