National Academies Press: OpenBook

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea (1995)

Chapter: 4 Elements of an Implementation Strategy

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Suggested Citation:"4 Elements of an Implementation Strategy." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 83

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ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 83 4 Elements of an Implementation Strategy Given the diversity among vessels passing through U.S. waters and the ports they visit, it is clear that no single Annex V implementation approach will work across the board. No one reward or punishment will bring all mariners and ports into compliance with Annex V. The interventions chosen must be appropriate to the targeted maritime sector and sustainable within resource limitations. At the same time, the various interventions need to be integrated into a coherent national strategy, to conform with U.S. policy calling for the establishment of integrated waste management practices wherever possible. Using the hazard evolution matrix described in Chapter 3 and drawing on first-hand observations and research, the committee considered how Annex V compliance could be achieved within each sector of vessels and ports. To assess barriers and opportunities, the committee sought input from each community. Levels of preparedness and capabilities varied widely among the various groups as well as the government agencies tasked to enforce the rules. It became clear that many different individuals, not just vessel masters or port managers, can influence compliance levels. This chapter provides an initial assessment of promising intervention points and implementation methods for each maritime sector. (Later chapters offer a national perspective on how these elements could be woven together into a national strategy.) Key to the committee's assessment is the analytic approach of Kasperson and Pijawka (1985), who focused on intelligence gathering and control capabilities as the basis for selection of an effective management strategy. The chapter opens with a brief description of this approach.

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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