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Suggested Citation:"Intelligence." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
Page 111
Suggested Citation:"Intelligence." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
Page 112
Suggested Citation:"Intelligence." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
Page 113

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ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 111 changes on some military vessels. The Navy has yet to develop a complete compliance solution for auxiliary vessels, and it is not yet certain that the Coast Guard's plans can and will be implemented. Analysis of Interventions Table 4-5 lists possible interventions to improve Annex V implementation in this sector. In addition to retrofitting garbage treatment equipment on the Coast Guard fleet as planned, technological options include adapting these strategies for use on other small public vessels. Continued development of alternative packaging strategies and biodegradable materials is likely to be useful as well. For example, vessel operators might be able to use only paper packaging and then install pulpers to dispose of this waste. Among organizational strategies, each service would do well to foster fleetwide support for ending temporary coping mechanisms in favor of permanent compliance strategies. Other alternatives include development of recycling programs for items, such as cans, now thrown overboard (where permitted). There may be less need for new educational programs in this sector than in some others, because Coast Guard and Navy personnel are well aware of and willing to comply with Annex V. Still, there is room for improvement, such as with standardized training in compliance strategies. Possible regulatory interventions include a ban on use of certain disposable items, and extending to public vessels the requirement for garbage logs (now applied to U.S.-flag commercial vessels). The latter option might not accomplish much in terms of raising compliance levels, considering that uniformed personnel generally want to comply but face technical obstacles. Offshore Platforms, Rigs, Supply Vessels, and Base Terminals Intelligence The government's capacity for gathering information about the offshore oil and gas industry is significant, although the system is not geared to Annex V. The MMS collects data on outer continental shelf activities, but little of it relates to garbage. Platforms are inspected at least once a year for compliance with operating rules. In reviewing possible sources of pollution, inspectors focus on oil leaks rather than garbage but may check for compliance with equipment handling regulations designed to minimize overboard losses. Platform operators are required to mark equipment, tools, and containers weighing over 40 pounds for purposes of identification and to report equipment losses to MMS as well as record them in daily operations reports. Some information on disposal practices has been obtained from beach surveys. At Padre Island National Seashore in Texas, for example, National Park

ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 112 TABLE 4-5 Applying the Hazard Evolution and Intervention Model to Small Public Vessels and Their Home Ports Hazard Evolution Model Human Behavior that On-board Generation of Encourages Generating Garbage Garbage Intervention Model Modify Behavior that Reduce Garbage Encourages Generating Generation Garbage Technological Reduce or eliminate Provide alternate convenience packaging packaging when of supplies and foods. feasible (given packaging standards for electronic equipment). Organizational and Centralize or oversee Use only vendors Operational provisioning to foster committed to widespread innovation. minimizing waste. Sort garbage at site of generation. Hold garbage on board for shoreside recycling. Coordinate or review provisioning to extend innovation through fleets. Educational (Target Provide standard Population/Content) training in compliance methods for officers and crews. Government and Private Modify fleet supply Prohibit use of certain Regulation and contracts for provisions disposable items (e.g., Enforcement that trigger garbage plastics). Impose generation. mandatory sorting and holding of garbage for shoreside recycling.

ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 113 Hazard Evolution Breakdown in Discharge of Exposure to Model Compliance Garbage into Discharged Sea Garbage Intervention Model Prevent Block Block Exposure Breakdown in Discharge of to Discharged Compliance Garbage into Garbage Sea Technological Promote Install on-board Promote development of garbage compacting of improved on- treatment legal discards to board garbage equipment on minimize garbage management Coast Guard in water column, equipment for vessels. avoid blanketing small vessels. Develop ocean bottom, and Keep shipboard appropriate minimize harm to systems well units for other wildlife. Use maintained. small military biodegradable vessels. Make materials (except room to store plastics). garbage in places other than weather deck. Organizational Provide Foster fleet and Operational reminders for support for crew with permanent posters and compliance placards. procedures and equipment. Establish on- board recycling programs for items (such as cans) that otherwise would be discharged overboard legally. Educational (Target Population/ Content) Government and Encourage peer Require Develop in-house Private Regulation enforcement of internal records guidelines and and Enforcement internal of legal directives. guidelines. discharges at sea. Keep receipts issued by port reception facilities. Establish and enforce internal penalties (fleet policies).

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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