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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 59
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 60
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 61
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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SOURCES, FATES, AND EFFECTS OF SHIPBORNE GARBAGE 57 The fourth finding, which is multifaceted, is that available data on the sources, fates, and effects of marine debris—particularly vessel-generated debris —are often of poor quality, incomplete, and out of date. Because this problem may be too diffuse to be obvious, the specific deficiencies are enumerated here: Sources: Detailed, comprehensive data on garbage generation have been collected only for the Navy, and neither U.S. nor international Annex V compliance and enforcement regimes support the gathering of such data for other maritime sectors. Amounts of garbage generated and discarded overboard by the various fleets can only be estimated. Fates: Knowledge concerning the fates of vessel garbage is derived primarily from beach surveys, and the percentage of beach debris that comes from vessels is unknown. Few data are available on debris that ends up in sediments or the benthos. Effects: Although the harm to individual animals is apparent, the ecological effects of marine debris (including frequency of harm to wildlife and population impacts) cannot be established on the basis of surveys and other information gathered to date. Even for endangered species subject to continuous monitoring, cause-effect relationships have yet to be established. Part of the problem is that data on effects of marine debris have been gathered largely by individual researchers, working without an overall program of data collection. There is little centralized data analysis, and reporting on wildlife interactions with debris is not standardized. The value of systematically compiling and maintaining a database on debris interactions with wildlife is demonstrated by the information collected on West Indian manatees. Another problem is that no systematic effort coordinates the exchange of information on wildlife interactions with marine debris, other than through NMFS workshops and proceedings, and published literature on the topic remains scarce. There are fundamental barriers to the development of comprehensive knowledge about the effects of marine debris on wildlife. It is and will remain difficult to detect entangled and dead animals at sea and to distinguish the effects of marine debris from other impacts. Indeed, the true magnitude of the effects of marine debris on wildlife may never be defined absolutely. REFERENCES Alig, C.S., L. Koss, T. Scarano, and F. Chitty. 1990. Control of plastic wastes aboard naval ships at sea. Pp. 879-894 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. II), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA- TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash.

SOURCES, FATES, AND EFFECTS OF SHIPBORNE GARBAGE 58 Alverson, D. and J.A. June, eds. 1988. Proceedings of the North Pacific Rim Fishermen's Conference on Marine Debris. Seattle, Wash.: Natural Resources Consultants. American Red Cross. 1991. American Red Cross National Boating Survey. Washington, D.C.: American Red Cross. Amos, A.F. 1993a. Technical Assistance for the Development of Beach Debris Data Collection Methods. Final Report submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf of Mexico Program, Dallas, Tex. TR/93-002. May 31. Amos, A.F. 1993b. Solid waste pollution of Texas beaches: a Post-MARPOL Annex V study, Vol 1: Narrative. OCS Study MMS 93-0013. Available from the public information unit of the U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region, New Orleans, La. July. Araya, H. 1983. Fishery biology and stock assessment of Ommastrephes bartrami in the North Pacific Ocean. Mem. of the National Museum in Victoria (Australia). 44:269-283. Art Anderson Associates. 1993. NOAA Fleetwide Shipboard Waste Management. Report prepared for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration by Art Anderson Associates, Bremerton, Wash. Balazs, G.H. 1985. Impacts of ocean debris on marine turtles: entanglement and ingestion. Pp. 387-429 in Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris, 27-29 November 1984, Honolulu, Hawaii, R.S. Shomura and H.O. Yoshida, eds. NMFS NOAA- TM-NMFS-SWFC-54. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Beck, C.A. and N.B. Barros. 1991. The impact of debris on the Florida manatee. Marine Pollution Bulletin 22(10):508-510. October. Bourne, W.R.P. (chair). 1990. Report of the working group on entanglement of marine life. Pp. 1207-1215 in Proc. of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. II), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM- NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Breen, P.A. 1990. A review of ghost fishing by traps and gillnets. Pp. 571-599 in Proc. of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. I), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Brothers, G. 1992. Lost or abandoned fishing gear in the Newfoundland aquatic environment . Paper presented at the C-Merits Symposium: Marine Stewardship in the Northwest Atlantic. Department of Fisheries and Oceans, St Johns, Newfoundland, Canada. November. Cited in. Laist, D.W. 1994. Entanglement of Marine Life in Marine Debris (draft). Paper prepared for the Third International Conference on Marine Debris, Miami, Fla., May 8-13, 1994. Marine Mammal Commission, Washington, D.C. Butler, J.N., B.F. Morris, and J. Sass. 1973. Pelagic Tar from Bermuda and the Sargasso Sea. Bermuda Biological Station Report No. 10. Available from the librarian, Bermuda Biological Station for Research, St. George's West, Bermuda. Cantin, J., J. Eyraud, and C. Fenton. 1990. Quantitative estimates of garbage generation and disposal in the U.S. maritime sectors before and after MARPOL Annex V. Pp. 119-181 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. I), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS- SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. Cart, H.A. 1986. Observation on the occurrence of impacts of ghost gillnets on Jeffrey's Ledge (abstract). Pp. 134-135 in Program and Abstracts, Sixth International Ocean Disposal Symposium, April 21-25, 1986, Pacific Grove, Calif. Washington, D.C.: National Oceanic and Atmo

SOURCES, FATES, AND EFFECTS OF SHIPBORNE GARBAGE 59 spheric Administration. Cited in. Laist, D.W. 1994. Entanglement of Marine Life in Marine Debris (draft). Paper prepared for the Third International Conference on Marine Debris, May 8-13, 1994, Miami, Fla. Marine Mammal Commission, Washington, D.C. Cole, C.A., J.P. Kumer, D.A Manski, and D.V. Richards. 1990. Annual Report of National Park Marine Debris Monitoring Program: 1989 Marine Debris Survey. Tech Rpt. NPS/NRWV/ NRTR-90/4. Available from the Natural Resources Publications Office of the National Park Service, Denver, Colo. Cole, C.A., W.P. Gregg, D.V. Richards, and D.A. Manski. 1992. Annual Report of National Park Marine Debris Monitoring Program: 1991 Marine Debris Surveys with Summary of Data from 1988 to 1991. Tech. Rpt. NPS/NRWWNRT-92/10. Available from the Natural Resources Publications Office of the National Park Service, Denver, Colo. Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA). 1994. The CLIA Fleet: Post 1987. New York: CLIA. Debenham, P. and L.C. Younger. 1991. Cleaning North America's Beaches: 1990 Beach Cleanup Results. Washington, D.C.: Center for Marine Conservation. May. Eastern Research Group. 1988. Development of Estimates of Garbage Disposal in the Maritime Sectors. Final Report prepared for the Transportation Systems Center, Research and Special Programs Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation by ERG, Arlington, Mass. (now Lexington, Mass). December. Ebbesmeyer, C.C. and W.J. Ingraham Jr. 1992. Shoe spill in the North Pacific. EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union 73(34):361,365. Aug. 25. Ebbesmeyer, C.C. and W.J. Ingraham Jr. 1994. Pacific toy spill fuels ocean current pathways research. EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union 75(37):425,427,430. Sept. 13. Florida-Caribbean Cruise Association. 1993. The Cruise Industry's Role in Waste Management. Paper prepared by the association, Miami, Fla. April. Forecast International. 1992. Warships Forecast, Appendix V: U.S. Navy Force Levels. Newtown, Conn.: Forecast International/DMS Market Intelligence Report. August. Fowler, C.W. 1982. Interactions of northern fur seals and commercial fisheries. Pp. 278-292 in Transactions of the 47th North American Wildlife and Natural Resources Conference. Washington, D.C.: Wildlife Management Institute. Cited in. Laist, D.W. 1994. Entanglement of Marine Life in Marine Debris (draft). Paper prepared for the Third International Conference on Marine Debris, May 8-13, 1994, Miami, Fla. Marine Mammal Commission, Washington, D.C. Fowler, C.W. and T.R. Merrell. 1986. Victims of plastic technology. Alaska Fish and Game 18 (2):34-37. Garrity, S.D. and S.C. Levings. 1993. Marine debris along the Caribbean coast of Panama. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 26(6):317-324. June. Gregory, M.R. 1994. Plastic micro-litter: an underestimated contaminant of global oceanic waters. Paper prepared for the Third International Conference on Marine Debris, Miami, Fla., May 8-13, 1994. Henderson, J.R., S.L. Austin, and M.B. Pillos. 1987. Summary of webbing and net fragments found on Northwestern Hawaiian Islands beaches, 1982-1986. Rpt. H-87-11. Southwest Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). Honolulu Lab. Long Beach, Calif.: NMFS. Hoss, D.E. and L.R. Settle. 1990. Ingestion of plastics by fishes. Pp. 693-709 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. I), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. ICF, Inc. 1989. Inventory of Medical Waste Beach Washups, June-October 1988. Report prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Policy, Planning and Evaluation, Washington, D.C. March 13. Johnson, S.W. and T.R. Merrell Jr. 1988. Entanglement debris on Alaskan beaches, 1986. NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS F/NEC-126. Auk Bay, Alaska: National Marine Fisheries Service, North

SOURCES, FATES, AND EFFECTS OF SHIPBORNE GARBAGE 60 west and Alaska Fisheries Center. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Johnson, S.W. 1990a. Entanglement Debris on Alaskan beaches, 1989. NWAFC Processed Report 90-10. Auk Bay, Alaska: Alaska Fisheries Science Center. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Johnson, S.W. 1990b. Distribution, abundance, and source of entanglement debris and other plastics on Alaskan beaches, 1982-1988. Pp. 331 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. I), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. Laist, D.W. 1987. Overview of the biological effects of lost and discarded plastic debris in the marine environment. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18 (6B):319-326. Laist, D.W. 1994. Entanglement of Marine Life in Marine Debris (draft). Paper prepared for the Third International Conference on Marine Debris, Miami, Fla., May 8-13, 1994. Marine Mammal Commission, Washington, D.C. Landsburg, A.C., E. Gabler, G. Levine, R. Sonnenschein, and E. Simmons. 1990. U.S. commercial ships for tomorrow. Marine Technology. 27(3): 129-152. May. Lecke-Mitchell, K.M. and K. Mullin. 1992. Distribution and abundance of large floating plastic in the northcentral Gulf of Mexico. Marine Pollution Bulletin 24(12):598-601. December. Lutz, P.L. 1990. Studies on the ingestion of plastic and latex by sea turtles. Pp. 719-735 in Proc. of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. I), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. Machida, S. 1983. A brief review of the squid fishery by Hoyo Maru No. 67 in southeast Australian waters in 1979/80. Mere. of the National Museum in Victoria (Australia). 44:291-295. Cited in. Walker, W.A. and J.M. Coe. 1990. Survey of marine debris ingestion by odontocete cetaceans. Pp. 747-774 in Proc. of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. I), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Manski, D.A., W.P. Gregg, C.A. Cole, and D.V. Richards. 1991. Annual Report of the National Park Marine Debris Monitoring Program: 1990 Marine Debris Surveys. Tech. Rpt. NPS/ NRWW/ NRTR-91/07. Available from the Natural Resources Publications Office of the National Park Service, Denver, Colo. September. Maritime Reporter. June 1993. Cruise Shipping—Recent Orders Help to Buoy Market. 31. Merrell, T.R. Jr. 1980. Accumulation of plastic litter on beaches of Amchitka Island, Alaska. Mar. Env. Res. 3:171-184. Merrell, T.R. Jr. 1985. Fish nets and other plastic litter on Alaskan beaches. Pp. 160-182 in Proceedings of a Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris, 27-29 November 1984, Honolulu, Hawaii, R. Shomura and H. Yoshida, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFC-54. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Miller, J.E. 1993. Marine Debris Investigation: Padre Island National Seashore, Texas. Corpus Christi, Tex.: National Park Service. December. Miller, J.E. 1994. Marine Debris Point Source Investigation: Padre Island National Seashore, Texas. Paper prepared for the Third International Conference on Marine Debris, Miami, Fla., May 8-13, 1994. Resource Management Division, Padre Island National Seashore, Corpus Christi, Tex.

SOURCES, FATES, AND EFFECTS OF SHIPBORNE GARBAGE 61 Minerals Management Service. 1992. Federal Offshore Statistics. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Interior. Minerals Management Service (MMS). 1992. Proceedings: Twelfth Annual Gulf of Mexico Information Transfer Meeting, Nov. 5-7, 1991, New Orleans, La., compiled by Geo- Marine Inc. OCS Study MMS 92-0027. New Orleans: U.S. Department of the Interior, MMS, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region. December. Mudar, M.J. 1991. Reducing Plastic Contamination of the Marine Environment under MARPOL Annex V: A Model for Recreational Harbors and Ports. Ph.D. dissertation. Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York. February. National Marine Fisheries Service. 1994. Fisheries of the United States: Current Fisheries Statistics 9,300. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. May. National Research Council (NRC). 1975. Assessing Potential Ocean Pollutants. Ocean Affairs Board, NRC. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences Printing and Publishing Office (now National Academy Press). National Research Council (NRC). 1991. Fishing Vessel Safety: Blueprint for a National Program. Marine Board, NRC. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council (NRC). 1994. Review of NOAA's Fleet Replacement and Modernization Plan. Marine Board, NRC. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Natural Resources Consultants. 1990. Survey and Evaluation of Fishing Gear Loss in Marine and Great Lakes Fisheries of the United States. Report prepared for the National Marine Fisheries Service, Marine Entanglement Research Program, Seattle, Washington. O'Hara, K.J. and L.C. Younger. 1990. Cleaning North America's Beaches: 1989 Beach Cleanup Results. Washington, D.C.: Center for Marine Conservation. May. Palmisano, A.C. and C.A. Pettigrew. 1992. Biodegradability of plastics. BioScience 42(9):680-685. October. Plotkin, P.E. and A.F. Amos. 1988. Entanglement in and ingestion of marine debris by sea turtles stranded along the south Texas Coast. Pp. 79-82 in Proc. of the Eighth Annual Workshop on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SEFC-214. Available from the Southeast Fisheries Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service, Miami, Fla. Polmar, N. 1992. Ships and Aircraft of the U.S. Fleet, 15th ed. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press. Ribic, C.A., T.R. Dixon and I. Vining. 1992. Marine Debris Survey Manual. NOAA Tech. Rpt. NMFS 108. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Wash. Schultz, J.P. and W.K. Upton, III. 1988. Solid Waste Generation Aboard USS O'Bannon (DD 987). DTRC/SME-87/92. Bethesda, Md.: U.S. Navy, David W. Taylor Naval Ship Research and Development Center. Smolowitz, R.J. 1978. Trap design and ghost fishing: Discussion. Marine Fisheries Review 40 (5-6):59-67. Sutinen, J.G. 1986. Enforcement Issues in the Oyster Fishery of Chesapeake Bay. Paper presented at the Conference on Economics of Chesapeake Bay Management, Annapolis, Md., May 28-29, 1986. Swanson, R.L. and R.L. Zimmer. 1990. Meteorological conditions leading to the 1987 and 1988 washups of floatable wastes on New York and New Jersey beaches and comparison of these conditions with the historical record. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (U.K.) 30:59-78. Cited in. Swanson, R.L., R.R. Young, and S.S. Ross. 1994. An Analysis of Proposed Shipborne Waste Handling Practices Aboard United States Navy Vessels. Paper prepared for the Committee on Shipborne Wastes, Marine Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Swanson, R.L., R.R. Young, and S.S. Ross. 1994. An Analysis of Proposed Shipborne Waste Handling Practices Aboard United States Navy Vessels. Paper prepared for the Committee on Shipborne Wastes, Marine Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. Trulli, W.R., H.K. Trulli, and D.P. Redford. 1990. Characterization of marine debris in selected

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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