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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 3 and because its Status and Trends Program could be expanded readily to monitor plastic debris. THE COMMITTEE'S ANALYSIS The committee adapted a hazard evolution model from the literature and used it to identify opportunities for enhancing implementation of Annex V in each maritime sector. The model establishes a framework for examining each stage of hazard evolution, from the satisfaction of human needs (such as the need for food, which may be wrapped in packaging that ends up as garbage) through the mitigation of consequences (such as through physical removal of debris during beach cleanups). The model also provides parameters to aid in the selection of interventions to halt or slow the evolution of the hazard (marine debris). Chief among these parameters are intelligence and control; the extent of available information and the means of influence determine in large part whether an intervention can be successful. The committee applied the model, with minor modifications, to each of the nine maritime sectors, seeking to identify means of intelligence and control as well as opportunities for intervention to enhance Annex V implementation. These sector-specific analyses resulted in the establishment of Annex V implementation objectives for each fleet. These objectives are summarized in Table ES-1. THE VESSEL GARBAGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM The committee examined vessel garbage management as a system. One part of the system encompasses on-board garbage handling techniques and treatment technologies. The other, often-neglected component of the system is port reception facilities, which need to be linked to the local scheme for managing land-generated waste. The committee found that the link between the vessel and port components of the system is generally clumsy and sometimes non-functional. Source control (i.e., reducing amounts of packaging and other waste materials brought on board) is an important aspect of garbage management. For garbage that is generated, a range of on-board treatment technologiesâ including compactors, pulpers, shredders, and incineratorsâis available or under development. However, these units generally are designed only for certain types of ships (e.g., the Navy's or passenger cruise ships) and, due to their size and operating features, are not appropriate to every type of vessel. Some fleets, such as fisheries, may need financial assistance in order to purchase and install appropriate equipment. In addition, several obstacles may be impeding safe and efficient on-board garbage management: the lack of federal guidelines on shipboard sanitation2 for 2 In this context, sanitation refers specifically to the promotion of hygiene and prevention of disease through proper handling and storage of garbage (not sewage).
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 4 TABLE ES-1 National Strategy for Annex V Implementation: Objectives for Each Maritime Sectora Sectors Objectives Recreational boats and their marinas â¢ Achieve zero-discharge capability â¢ Assure adequacy of port reception facilities â¢ Assure that boaters are provided with appropriate Annex V information and education Commercial fisheries and their fleet â¢ Achieve zero-discharge capability for ports fishing vessels that operate as day boats â¢ Provide adequate port reception facilities â¢ Assure access to appropriate on-board garbage handling and treatment technologies â¢ Provide comprehensive vessel garbage management system â¢ Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training â¢ Improve Annex V enforcement â¢ Extend U.S. cooperation to encourage compliance by foreign-flag vessels Cargo ships and their itinerary ports â¢ Improve access to on-board garbage handling and treatment technologies â¢ Provide comprehensive vessel garbage management system, including adequate port reception facilities â¢ Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training â¢ Fully exercise U.S. authority to improve compliance by foreign flag vessels and by all vessels in foreign waters Passenger day boats, ferries, and their â¢ Achieve zero-discharge capability, terminals integrating the handling of vessel garbage into local solid waste management systems Small public vessels and their home â¢ Improve on-board garbage handling and ports treatment technology â¢ Assure adequacy of port reception facilities â¢ Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training â¢ Develop model Annex V compliance program Offshore platforms, rigs, supply â¢ Achieve zero discharge at sea vessels, and their shore bases â¢ Assure comprehensive garbage management system, including adequate port reception facilities
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 5 Sectors Objectives â¢ Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training Navy surface combatant vessels and â¢ Develop plans for full Annex V their home ports compliance, including capability to achieve zero discharge in special areas, making the best use of existing technologies and strategies â¢ Develop model Annex V implementation program Passenger cruise ships and their â¢ Increase use of on-board garbage itinerary ports handling and treatment technologies â¢ Assure comprehensive vessel garbage management system, including adequate port reception facilities â¢ Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training â¢ Exploit U.S. authority to improve compliance by foreign-flag vessels and by all vessels in foreign waters Research vessels and their ports of call â¢ Provide model Annex V compliance program â¢ Improve on-board garbage handling and treatment technology â¢ Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training a In developing these objectives, the committee screened possible alternatives informally using six criteria: effectiveness, cost effectiveness, efficiency, timeliness of results, equity, and sustainability. The committee further emphasized actions ''upstream'' in the hazard evolution model (and therefore most effective from an environmental standpoint), and actions that would promote achievement of zero-discharge capability where feasible or required. The committee wishes to emphasize that an objective is something to be pursued, as opposed to an absolute requirement (as would be established by law), and that existing obstacles to Annex V compliance, however onerous, should not serve as justification for abandoning an objective. any sector other than cruise ships; the lack of quarantine standards based on compacted waste; and the lack of federal standards on shipboard incinerators. The committee concludes that (1) vessel garbage management must be viewed as a system that includes port reception facilities, and this system needs to be combined with the integrated solid waste management system for land- generated Waste; (2) there is a need for new and improved on-board garbage treatment technologies, a problem that may be resolved in part by adapting commercial equipment used in homes, retail establishments, and industry; (3) demonstration