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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 12 NMFS should waive policy conditions, such as minimum cost requirements, that limit access to these programs. The NMFS also should discourage abandonment of fishing gear, particularly in intensively fished areas. And, where appropriate and feasible, fisheries observers should be enlisted to monitor garbage disposal practices. U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) The APHIS regime should be integrated as fully as possible with the Annex V implementation program and the system for managing land-generated waste. Cargo and cruise ships should be required to off-load APHIS waste at U.S. port calls. In addition, APHIS should consider developing standards based on compacted waste. Maritime Administration (MARAD) The Maritime Administration should develop and execute an R&D program that addresses needs for on-board garbage treatment equipment; alteration of commercial equipment; technology demonstration and information exchange; and operational, maintenance, and cost issues. MARAD should obtain technical support from the Navy and maintain contact with the various fleets through NOAA's Sea Grant Marine Advisory Service and the NMFS. The technology development program should be responsive to the needs of the Coast Guard, NOAA, and other government fleets, as well as the private sector.