National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"ON-BOARD TECHNOLOGIES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
Page 245
Suggested Citation:"ON-BOARD TECHNOLOGIES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
Page 246

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FEDERAL ACTION TO IMPROVE IMPLEMENTATION OF ANNEX V 245 sectors and should make use of the forthcoming IMO manual on reception facilities. In developing their solid waste management plans, states should assure that vessel garbage disposal fees are set on some rational basis, and that a mechanism for collecting the fees is established. Port operators should consider cooperating in setting fees, which should be comparable to local fees for disposal of land-generated garbage. The USDA should make any changes necessary to integrate the APHIS regime into the Annex V compliance program and the ISWMS as fully as possible. The Coast Guard should require vessel operators to report inadequate reception facilities using the IMO forms and should follow up these reports. And, if ports are required to issue receipts for garbage discharged into their reception facilities, then the Coast Guard should examine these receipts when reviewing vessel garbage logs. Unless and until the COA program is merged with the EPA program, the Coast Guard should incorporate into the program requirements that port reception facilities meet EPA technical standards and have any requisite state and EPA approvals. ON-BOARD TECHNOLOGIES At least some vessels in all fleets will require installation of appropriately sized and reliable compactors, pulpers, shredders, incinerators, or other technologies in order to minimize garbage for disposal in port. Although some equipment is available, it does not meet all the needs of all fleets, even the U.S. Navy, which has an extensive research and development (R&D) program dedicated to developing and demonstrating on-board garbage handling and treatment technologies. The cruise ship industry works with equipment vendors and engineers to meet individual needs, but the potential markets for many technologies; such as those needed for fisheries fleets, have not attracted commercial developers. The committee concludes that new and improved on-board garbage handling and treatment technologies are needed, a problem that may be resolved in part by adapting commercial equipment used in homes, retail establishments, and industry. The difficulty of developing appropriate on-board equipment is illustrated by the experience of the Navy, which has been working on this problem since the early 1980s and does not expect to bring its surface fleets into compliance until the turn of the century. Other fleets do not have direct access to

FEDERAL ACTION TO IMPROVE IMPLEMENTATION OF ANNEX V 246 the Navy's expertise, in some cases, they can purchase commercial equipment off the shelf, but more often individual alterations or entirely new technology is needed. This is an opportunity for the federal government to work toward two of its goals: development of dual-use technology and protection of the environment. Development, testing, and evaluation are needed to make available a suite of appropriately sized and configured equipment for all maritime sectors. To support and foster the wide use of new and improved on-board technologies, the committee concludes that demonstration projects, research on operations and maintenance issues, and information exchange are needed . Demonstration projects are important not only to gain experience with equipment but also to display it to the wider community and gain acceptance. The diverse equipment requirements of the various fleets could be met through small projects carried out through government grants or contracts with the private sector. New equipment could be demonstrated on various types of vessels in different fleets. Research also is needed to address operations and maintenance issues, such as human factors, safety, and reliability. Finally, exchange of technical information among the various maritime sectors is essential to maximize the return on R&D investments and avoid duplication of effort. Information about the Navy's equipment developments, for example, still needs to be shared with other government fleets and the private sector. The committee also concludes that steps must be taken to resolve issues that may be impeding safe and efficient garbage storage and expanded use of compactors and incinerators. Guidelines on shipboard sanitation may need to be developed for fleets other than cruise ships and these fleets offered technical assistance to ensure that on-board storage procedures are safe and efficient. To foster expanded use of compactors, APHIS could develop standards based on compacted garbage. U.S. standards for on-board incinerators also are needed if use of this technology is to be expanded. Finally, the committee concludes that economic issues—including the Cost of technologies to vessel operators and the tradeoffs with garbage disposal fees— need to be addressed. Economic considerations will determine whether on- board garbage handling and treatment technologies actually are used. Vessel operators will weigh the costs of these technologies against port fees for disposal of waste ''as is'' and, perhaps, the possibility of being fined or losing business for violating Annex V. Therefore, technologies must be not only affordable but also cost-competitive with other garbage handling options. Operators of fisheries fleets may need a source of capital to enable the development, purchase, and installation of technology. One resource may be the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) financial assistance programs for improvements in fisheries fleets. The Capital Construction Fund Program may be an appropriate source if the NMFS is willing to provide the funds for pollution-abatement equipment and waive the minimum cost requirements. To accomplish all the activities necessary to develop and deploy on-board

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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