National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Intelligence." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 85 safety, by the Coast Guard. Offshore oil and gas platforms in federal waters are inspected for pollution compliance as part of Minerals Management Service (MMS) regulation of the industry. The recreational boating community is subject to little direct federal control, because relevant authorities have been delegated in large part to the states. In sum, government capacity for intelligence gathering and control is uneven and limited, but creative strategies may be devised to capitalize on any opportunities that exist. Identification and analysis of the opportunities could serve to stimulate their use. For example, forms are available from the International Maritime Organization (IMO) for reporting inadequate port reception facilities, but mariners rarely fill them out. This is a potential source of intelligence that has not been exploited. An examination of why this mechanism is ignored, and how this situation might be reversed, could suggest ways of improving Annex V compliance. In the forthcoming analysis, a matrix is presented for each fleet containing a range of intervention options. (As in Chapter 3, the columns are the headings from the modified Kasperson and Pijawka model and the rows are the five types of intervention options.) Some of the measures suggested have been tried— albeit usually in isolated locations—while others were conceived by the committee. There has been some pre-screening, to the extent that all the options listed are plausible and worthy of serious consideration; however, practical considerations may argue against or eliminate some of the ideas.2 The committee's views concerning the various intervention options will become evident in the commentary on each matrix and in later chapters. The final screening criteria and recommendations may be found in Chapter 9. ANALYSIS OF INTERVENTIONS Recreational Boats and Their Marinas Intelligence There is no formal intelligence-gathering network for recreational boaters, but the community is monitored by private groups and some research has been conducted. Available information suggests that recreational boaters are very concerned about the marine environment and many want to comply with Annex V, but that awareness of the mandate is far from universal and educational informa- 2 Interventions actually fall into five groups: (1) activities now conducted effectively that should be encouraged further, (2) activities currently under way that require improvement, (3) activities currently under way that should cease, (4) activities not being conducted that should be, and (5) activities that might be useful but are considered too costly or impractical.

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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