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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 29
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 30
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 31

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DIMENSIONS OF THE CHALLENGE AND U.S. PROGRESS 29 should not be disruptive, competitively harmful, or so expensive as to drain the resources of government or private organizations. While addressing domestic needs and opportunities, U.S. policy also needs to recognize the international aspects of the problem of vessel garbage, which is generated by all maritime nations and taints the environment worldwide. U.S. officials must have a full understanding of both the opportunities and constraints afforded by international law, which provides the context for Annex V implementation. The United States also carries the responsibility of a world leader to provide a model for compliance and promote multilateral cooperation to advance Annex V implementation worldwide. The following chapter further defines the challenges in the Annex V implementation by examining what is known about the sources, fates, and effects of vessel garbage. REFERENCES Ad Hoc Advisory Committee on Plastics. 1988. Reducing Navy Marine Plastic Pollution. A report to the Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Shipbuilding and Logistics. Available from the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Washington, D.C. June 28. Alig, C.S., L. Koss, T. Scarano, and F. Chitty. 1990. Control of plastic wastes aboard naval ships at sea. Pp. 879-894 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. II), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA- TMNMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. Amos, A.F. 1993, Solid waste pollution of Texas beaches: a Post-MARPOL Annex V study, Vol 1: Narrative. OCS Study MMS 93-0013. Available from the public information unit of the U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region, New Orleans, La. July. Bierce, R. and K. O'Hara, eds. 1994. 1993 National Coastal Cleanup Results. Washington, D.C.: Center for Marine Conservation. Chitty, F. 1989. Presentation by Fred Chitty, supply officer for the U.S. Navy Atlantic Fleet, to the Ad Hoc Advisory Committee on Plastics, Washington, D.C., May 30, 1989. Cole, C.A., W.P. Gregg, D.V. Richards, and D.A. Manski. 1992. Annual Report of National Park Marine Debris Monitoring Program, 1991 Marine Debris Surveys with Summary of Data from 1988 to 1991. Tech Rpt. NPS-NRWV/NRT-92/10. Available from the Natural Resources Publications Office of the National Park Service, Denver, Colo. Debenham, P. and L.K. Younger. 1991. Cleaning North America's Beaches: 1990 Beach Cleanup Results. Washington, D.C.: Center for Marine Conservation. May. Eastern Research Group, Inc. (ERG). 1992. Report to Congress on Compliance with the Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act of 1987, Report prepared for the U.S. Coast Guard by ERG, Arlington, Mass. (now Lexington, Mass.). June 24. F.I.S.H. Habitat Education Program. 1994. Net Recycling Program Summary. Fact sheet prepared by the Fishermen Involved in Saving Habitat Education Program, Gladstone, Ore. Goldberg, E.D. 1976. The Health of the Oceans. Paris: UNESCO Press. Gulf of Mexico Program. 1991. Marine Debris Action Plan for the Gulf of Mexico. Dallas, Tex.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. October.

DIMENSIONS OF THE CHALLENGE AND U.S. PROGRESS 30 Hodge, K.L. and J. Glen. 1993. 1992 National Coastal Cleanup Report. Washington, D.C.: Center for Marine Conservation. August. Hollin, D. and M. Liffman. 1991. Use of MARPOL Annex V Reception Facilities and Disposal Systems at Selected Gulf of Mexico Ports, Private Terminals and Recreational Boating Facilities. Report to the Texas General Land Office by Dewayne Hollin, Texas A&M University Sea Grant College Program, and Michael Liffman, Louisiana State University Sea Grant College Program. September . Hollin, D. and M. Liffman. 1993. Survey of Gulf of Mexico Marine Operations and Recreational Interests: Monitoring of MARPOL Annex V Compliance Trends. Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, Gulf of Mexico Program by Dewayne Hollin, Texas A&M University Sea Grant College Program, and Michael Liffman, Louisiana State University Sea Grant College Program. Kauffman, J., M. Brown, and K. O'Hara. 1990. California Marine Debris Action Plan. San Francisco: Center for Marine Conservation. Kauffman, M. 1992. Launching A Recycling Program at Your Marina. San Francisco: Coastal Resources Center. February. Koss, L.J. 1994. Dealing With Ship-generated Plastics Waste on Navy Surface Ships. Paper presented at the Third International Conference on Marine Debris, Miami, Fla., May 8-13, 1994. Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C. Marine Mammal Commission (MMC). 1986. Annual Report of the Marine Mammal Commission, Calendar Year 1985, a report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: MMC. Jan. 31. Marine Mammal Commission (MMC). 1987. Annual Report of the Marine Mammal Commission, Calendar Year 1986, a report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: MMC. Jan. 31. Marine Mammal Commission (MMC). 1988. Annual Report of the Marine Mammal Commission, Calendar Year 1987, a report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: MMC. Jan. 31. Marine Mammal Commission (MMC). 1989. Annual Report of the Marine Mammal Commission, Calendar Year 1988, a report to Congress . Washington, D.C.: MMC. Jan. 31. Marine Mammal Commission (MMC). 1990. Annual Report of the Marine Mammal Commission, Calendar Year 1989, a report to Congress. January 31. Marine Mammal Commission (MMC). 1991. Annual Report of the Marine Mammal Commission, Calendar Year 1990, a report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: MMC. Jan. 31. Marine Mammal Commission (MMC). 1992. Annual Report of the Marine Mammal Commission, Calendar Year 1991, a report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: MMC. Jan. 31. Marine Mammal Commission (MMC). 1993. Annual Report of the Marine Mammal Commission, Calendar Year 1992, a report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: MMC. Jan. 31. Marine Plastic Debris Task Force. 1988. Marine Plastic Debris Action Plan for Washington State. Olympia, Wash.: Washington State Department of Natural Resources. Mauro, G. 1993. Testimony of Garry P. Mauro, commissioner, Texas General Land Office, before the Subcommittee on Superfund, Ocean, and Water Protection of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate, 102nd Congress, Second Session, Washington, D.C., Sept. 17, 1992. P. 10 in Implementation of the Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act. S. Hrg. 102-984. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Middleton, L., J. Huntley and J. Burgiel. 1991. U.S. Navy Shipboard Generated Plastic Waste Pilot Recycling Program . Washington, D.C.: Council for Solid Waste Solutions of the Society of the Plastics Industry. March. O'Hara, K.J. and P. Debenham. 1989. Cleaning America's Beaches: 1988 National Beach Cleanup Results. Washington, D.C.: Center for Marine Conservation. September. O'Hara, K.J. and L.K. Younger. 1990. Cleaning North America's Beaches: 1989 Beach Cleanup Results. Washington, D.C.: Center for Marine Conservation. May.

DIMENSIONS OF THE CHALLENGE AND U.S. PROGRESS 31 R.L. Associates. 1988. The Economic Impact of Visitors to the New Jersey shore the summer of 1988. Report prepared for the New Jersey Division of Travel and Tourism by R.L. Associates, Princeton, N.J. Recht, F. 1988. Report on a Port-Based Project to Reduce Marine Debris. NWAFC Processed Report 88-13. Report prepared for the Northwest and Alaska Fisheries Center of the Marine Entanglement Research Program (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. July. Roehl, W.S. and R. Ditton. 1993. Impacts of the offshore marine industry on coastal tourism: The case of Padre Island National Seashore. Coastal Management 21:77-89. Rose, R. 1990. Marine plastic debris: What Washington state has done. Pp. 1020-1028 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. II), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS- SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. Ryan, P.G. and C.L. Moloney. 1993. Marine litter keeps increasing. Nature 361:23. Jan. 7. U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO). 1992. International Environment: International Agreements Are Not Well Monitored. GAO/RCED-92-43. Washington, D.C.: GAO Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division. January. U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO). 1994a. Pollution Prevention: Chronology of Navy Ship Waste Processing Equipment Development. GAO/NSIAD-94-221FS. Washington, D.C.: GAO National Security and International Affairs Division. August. U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO). 1994b. Pollution Prevention: The Navy Needs Better Plans for Reducing Ship Waste Discharges. GAO/NSIAD-95-38. Washington, D.C.: GAO National Security and International Affairs Division. November. Younger, L.K. and Hodge, K. 1992. 1991 International Coastal Cleanup Overview. Washington, D.C.: Center for Marine Conservation. May.

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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