National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: APPENDIX D Time Line for U.S. Implementation of Annex V
Suggested Citation:"Antarctic Ocean." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
Page 324

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

APPENDIX E 324 APPENDIX E Characteristics of Annex V Special Areas excerpts1 from: An Analysis of Proposed Shipborne Waste Handling Practices Aboard United States Navy Vessels R. L. Swanson, R. R. Young, and S. S. Ross Marine Sciences Research Center State University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, New York CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIAL AREAS Antarctic Ocean The East Wind Drift (attributed to the prevailing easterly winds) is a westward-flowing coastal current around most of the continent. Further north, the Southern Ocean is dominated by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. This strong current flows in an eastward direction between about latitude 40°S and latitude 60°S. Surface flow is driven primarily by the frictional stress of the westerly winds in the region. This stress, together with the Coriolis force, contributes a northward component to the surface current, resulting in the formation of fronts. Below the surface layer, the density structure is in geostrophic balance with the circulation (Pickard and Emery, 1990). There are three major basins in the Antarctic Ocean: the Atlantic-Indian- Antarctic Basin, the Eastern Indian-Antarctic Basin (also referred to as the Australian-Antarctic Basin or Knox Basin), and the Pacific Antarctic Basin (or Bellingshausen Basin). There is also a single deep-sea trench, the South Sand- 1 These excerpts have been edited for grammar and style; factual accuracy is the sole responsibility of the authors. Copies of the complete paper may be obtained from the Marine Board, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. 20418.

Next: The Baltic Sea »
Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Get This Book
Buy Hardback | $52.95 Buy Ebook | $42.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook,'s online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!