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Suggested Citation:"1 Introduction and definitions." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 269
Suggested Citation:"1 Introduction and definitions." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 270
Suggested Citation:"1 Introduction and definitions." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 271

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APPENDIX B 269 Guidelines for the implementation of Annex V of 73/78 Preface The main objectives of these guidelines are to (1) assist governments in developing and enacting domestic laws which give force to and implement Annex V, (2) assist vessel operators in complying with the requirements set forth in Annex V and domestic laws and, (3) assist port and terminal operators in assessing the need for, and providing, adequate reception facilities for garbage generated on different types of ships. Part IV (Garbage) of the Organization's Guidelines on the Provision of Adequate Reception Facilities in Ports, June 1978, has been modified and incorporated in this publication to consolidate all Annex V related guidelines. In the interest of uniformity, governments are requested to refer to these guidelines when preparing appropriate national regulations. 1 Introduction and definitions 1.1 These guidelines have been developed taking into account the regulations embodied in Annex V, the articles and resolutions of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973, as modified by the Protocol of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78) (hereinafter referred to as the ''Convention''). Their purpose is to provide guidance to countries which have ratified Annex V and are in the process of implementing the Annex. The guidelines are divided into seven categories that provide a general framework upon which governments will be able to formulate programmes for education and training of seafarers and others to comply with the regulations; methods of reducing shipboard generation of garbage; shipboard garbage handling and storage procedures; shipboard equipment for processing garbage; estimation of the amounts of ship-generated garbage delivered to port; and actions to ensure compliance With the regulations. 1.2 Recognizing that Annex V regulations promote waste management systems for ships, and that ships vary tremendously in size, mission, complement and capability, these guidelines include a range of waste management options that may be combined in many Ways to facilitate compliance with Annex V. Further, recognizing that waste management technology for ships is in an early stage of development, it is recommended that governments and the Organization continue to gather information and review these guidelines periodically. 1.3 Although Annex V permits the discharge of a range of garbage into the sea, it is recommended that whenever practicable ships use, as a primary means, port reception facilities.

APPENDIX B 270 1.4 Governments should stimulate the provision and use of port reception facilities for garbage from ships, as outlined in section 7.2 of these guidelines. 1.5 The Convention provides definitions for terms used throughout these guidelines which establish the scope of Annex V requirements. These definitions are incorporated in section I of these guidelines and in regulation I of Annex V. Definitions taken directly from the Convention are listed in section 1.6, and are followed by other definitions which are useful. 1.6 Definitions from the Convention 1.6.1 Regulations means the regulations contained in the annexes to the Convention. 1.6.2 Harmful substance means any substance which, if introduced into the sea, is liable to create hazards to human health, harm living resources and marine life, damage amenities or interfere with other legitimate uses of the sea, and includes any substance subject to control by the Convention. 1.6.3 Discharge, in relation to harmful substances or effluents containing such substances, means any release, howsoever caused, from a ship and includes any escape, disposal, spilling, leaking, pumping, emitting or emptying. 1.6.3.1 Discharge does not include: (i) dumping, within the meaning of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, done at London on 13 November 1972; or (ii) release of harmful substances directly arising from the exploration, exploitation and associated offshore processing of sea-bed mineral resources; or (iii) release of harmful substances for purposes of legitimate scientific research into pollution abatement or control. 1.6.4 Ship means a vessel of any type whatsoever operating in the marine environment and includes hydrofoil boats, air-cushion vehicles, submersibles, floating craft and fixed or floating platforms. 1.6.5 Incident means an event involving the actual or probable discharge into the sea of a harmful substance, or effluents containing such a substance. 1.6.6 Organization means the International Maritime Organization. 1.7 Other definitions 1.7.1 Wastes means useless, unneeded or superfluous matter which is to be discarded.

APPENDIX B 271 1.7.2 Food wastes are any spoiled or unspoiled victual substances, such as fruits, vegetables, dairy products, poultry, meat products, food scraps, food particles, and all other materials contaminated by such wastes, generated aboard ship, principally in the galley and dining areas. 1.7.3 Plastic means a solid material which contains as an essential ingredient one or more synthetic organic high polymers and which is formed (shaped) during either manufacture of the polymer or the fabrication into a finished product by heat and/or pressure. Plastics have material properties ranging from hard and brittle to soft and elastic. Plastics are used for a variety of marine purposes including, but not limited to, packaging (vapour-proof barriers, bottles, containers, liners), ship construction (fibreglass and laminated structures, siding, piping, insulation, flooring, carpets, fabrics, paints and finishes, adhesives, electrical and electronic components), disposable eating utensils and cups, bags, sheeting, floats, fishing nets, strapping bands, rope and line. 1.7.4 Domestic waste means all types of food wastes and wastes generated in the living spaces on board the ship. 1.7.5 Cargo-associated waste means all materials which have become wastes as a result of use on board a ship for cargo stowage and handling. Cargo- associated waste includes but is not limited to dunnage, shoring, pallets, lining and packing materials, plywood, paper, cardboard, wire, and steel strapping. 1.7.6 Maintenance waste means materials collected by the engine department and the deck department while maintaining and operating the vessel, such as soot, machinery deposits, scraped paint, deck sweeping, wiping wastes, and rags, etc. 1.7.7 Operational wastes means all cargo-associated waste and maintenance waste, and cargo residues defined as garbage in 1.7.10. 1.7.8 Dishwater is the residue from the manual or automatic washing of dishes and cooking utensils which have been pre-cleaned to the extent that any food particles adhering to them would not normally interfere with the operation of automatic dishwashers. Greywater is drainage from dishwater, shower, laundry, bath and washbasin drains and does not include drainage from toilets, urinals, hospitals, and animal spaces, as defined in regulation 1(3) of Annex IV, as well as drainage from cargo spaces. 1.7.9 Oily rags are rags which have been saturated with oil as controlled in Annex I to the Convention. Contaminated rags are rags which haw been saturated with a substance defined as a harmful substance in the other annexes to the Convention. 1.7.10 Cargo residues for the purposes of these guidelines are defined as the remnants of any cargo material on board that cannot be placed in proper cargo holds (loading excess and spillage) or which remain in cargo holds and elsewhere after unloading procedures are completed (unloading residual and spillage). However, cargo residues are expected to be in small quantities.

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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