Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
FEDERAL ACTION TO IMPROVE IMPLEMENTATION OF ANNEX V 250 ation, to gather evidence to justify program expenditures. The program must make use of existing knowledge about effective teaching methods and build on successful past or ongoing educational efforts, notably those carded out by NOAA's MERP and Sea Grant programs and the CMC. Innovative strategies must be sought to reach and persuade mariners known to have poor records of compliance. Also essential is development of national and international channels, such as newsletters, for exchange of information across fleets about Annex V compliance strategies, including education and training programs and on-board garbage treatment equipment. To assure leadership, stable funding, and innovation, the committee concludes that a publicly chartered, independent foundation offers the most promise for coordinating and enhancing a successful education and training program over the long-term. There is considerable precedent for this approach to coordinating national programs. The National Boating Safety Advisory Council is an example. The Annex V foundation would award grants to private industry and associations, academic institutions, and public agencies to develop, test, and carry out education and training projects, with an emphasis on innovative concepts. The foundation also would develop information exchange strategies. Funding could be provided through modest congressional appropriations and industry support; oversight could be provided by a national commission (described and recommended in the following section on national leadership). The committee therefore recommends The Congress should charter and endow a foundation to coordinate a sustained, long-term, national program that would assure development and execution of Annex V education and training programs for all mart- time sectors as well as non-traditional target groups and provide for domestic and international exchange of information on Annex V compliance strategies. The program should include research, execution, and evaluation components and should promote innovation. To develop and carry out projects, the foundation should award grants to private industry and associations, academic institutions, public agencies, and nonprofit organizations. NATIONAL LEADERSHIP Because many federal agencies are involved in implementing Annex V and the Marine Plastics Pollution Research and Control Act (MPPRCA), there is no clear leader or centralized coordination of all aspects of this complex effort. Yet the inherent scope and importance of this task demands leadership. As a first step toward providing leadership, the committee concludes that U.S. government and government-supported fleets, to set an example, need to
FEDERAL ACTION TO IMPROVE IMPLEMENTATION OF ANNEX V 251 work systematically to comply with Annex V, upgrade crew training and provisioning practices, and encourage transfer of successful experiences to other fleets. Clearly, it would be difficult for the federal government to justify enforcing rules that its own fleets do not make every effort to observe. Zero discharge is required by law for vessels operating in special areas where the discharge rules are in force, and it is also an appropriate objective for vessels making day trips. The committee wishes to emphasize that an objective is something to strive for, rather than an absolute requirement as established by law. The committee recognizes that government fleets face serious and continuing difficulties in obtaining funds for Annex V implementation projects. The proposed Annex V foundation could be the mechanism for development of education and training materials and transfer of technologies and strategies among maritime sectors. Furthermore, the committee concludes that centralized oversight, direction, and coordination of Annex V implementation is needed. Evidence of the need is documented throughout this report. In absence of such leadership, important data on debris accumulation and garbage disposal practices have not been gathered, the adequacy of port reception facilities has been given only cursory consideration, key educational and technology development projects have not been pursued, and information about successful programs and technologies have not been disseminated widely. Leadership is needed if comprehensive national implementation of Annex V is to be achieved. The committee concludes that the United States needs to continue to take a leadership role in the international community with respect to Annex V implementation. Because U.S. implementation of Annex V is affected by the compliance levels of foreign-flag vessels, the United States needs to push for increased standards of performance worldwide. The nation could assist in the dissemination of Annex V information and technology to foreign maritime users through a variety of regional forums, including the United Nations Environment Programme's Regional Seas program, regional and bilateral fisheries agreements, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, international oceanographic organizations, and tourism and yachting associations. The United States also needs to find ways to help assure the adequacy of port reception facilities in the Wider Caribbean special area, perhaps through the development of memoranda of understanding (MOUs) for the sharing of enforcement assets and other resources. The United States could assist in identifying and overcoming obstacles hindering Caribbean nations from adopting the provisions of MARPOL, either through ratification of the convention or national legislation. To provide consistent, independent, expert oversight and coordination of Annex V and MPPRCA implementation, as well as international leadership, the committee concludes that a permanent national commission is needed. There is considerable precedent for the commission approach. The Congress has established a number of commissions to focus on specific, narrow issues and problems of major domestic and international concern. A commission would have greater
FEDERAL ACTION TO IMPROVE IMPLEMENTATION OF ANNEX V 252 flexibility than would federal agencies in working with the private sector to promote Annex V implementation and would be well positioned to promote U.S. leadership in the global maritime community. Furthermore, no single agency has all the requisite expertise and authority to fill a comprehensive leadership role. To be effective, a national commission addressing Annex V implementation would require a clear legislative mandate establishing its overview authority and outlining its responsibilities, which could include (1) reviewing information on the sources, amounts, effects, and control of vessel garbage, (2) working with federal agencies to assure they carry out their roles and responsibilities and exchange relevant information, (3) making recommendations to agencies on actions or policies related to identification and control of sources of vessel garbage, (4) providing support for research, regulatory, and policy analyses, (5) providing the Congress with periodic reports on the state of the problem, progress in research and management measures, and factors limiting the success of implementation, (6) overseeing the Annex V educational foundation, and (7) overseeing international aspects of Annex V implementation. The legislation also would need to authorize funding sufficient for the commission to carry out its duties. Finally, to carry out Annex V implementation efforts requiring the expertise and resources of multiple agencies, the committee concludes that MOUs between relevant agencies need to be negotiated and observed. These agreements would spell out specific roles and responsibilities and help assure that the work is accomplished. The committee therefore recommends The Congress should require that federal and federally supported fleets, to set an example, work systematically toward full Annex V compliance, upgrade crew training and provisioning practices, and encourage transfer of successful experiences to commercial fleets. The Congress should establish a permanent national commission with a clear legislative mandate establishing its authority to oversee the national Annex V and MPPRCA implementation effort. The panel should be modeled on other national commissions, such as the Marine Mammal Commission, established to address major issues of concern. The legislation should outline the commission's responsibilities and authorize funding sufficient for execution of its duties. The commission should (1) review information on the sources, amounts, effects, and control of vessel garbage, (2) work with federal agencies to assure they carry out their roles and responsibilities and share relevant information, (3) assure that MOUs for Annex V implementation are negotiated and observed, (4) make recommendations to federal agencies
FEDERAL ACTION TO IMPROVE IMPLEMENTATION OF ANNEX V 253 on actions or policies related to identification and control of sources of vessel garbage, (5) provide support for research, regulatory, and policy analyses, (6) provide the Congress with periodic reports on the state of the problem, progress in research and management measures, and factors limiting the effectiveness of implementation, (7) oversee the Annex V educational foundation, and (8) oversee international aspects of Annex V implementation. In closing, the committee observes that many of its conclusions and recommendations may be applicable to the problem of marine debris in general as well as the more specific problem of vessel garbage, and that the Annex V educational foundation and national commission may be useful mechanisms for implementing all components of MARPOL. The broad utility of the committee's recommendations may provide additional justification for implementing them.
FEDERAL ACTION TO IMPROVE IMPLEMENTATION OF ANNEX V 254