National Academies Press: OpenBook
Suggested Citation:"Leadership." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
Page 185
Suggested Citation:"Leadership." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
Page 186

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EDUCATION AND TRAINING 185 his or her respective group. This approach would avoid duplication of effort and expand the benefits derived from available resources. Still, to be effective, this work will require more money than currently is appropriated. • Appropriate Messages, Media, and Settings. Education and training are most effective when the message clearly defines the problem in terms relevant to the target group, identifies with and responds to the specific needs of the target group, and offers viable solutions to the problem. In addition, the educational vehicle (e.g., electronic media, person-to-person communication, special event) must suit the audience; experience with a target audience is critical in determining which educational tool is most appropriate. Timing and delivery also are critical. The educator must use the appropriate setting (e.g., formal academic classes, informal youth or adult groups), and timing is important because many maritime activities are seasonal. • Train the Trainers. The lead office could explore ways to enable the newly educated members of target groups, particularly unorganized groups such as recreational boaters, to become agents of change. These individuals could be taught how to conduct training for others and be given access to educational and other materials provided by the lead agency. Outreach agents, perhaps Sea Grant marine extension agents, could provide support and training as necessary. • Evaluation. The program must include an evaluation process that emphasizes the strategic impact of different activities. To date, the best effort to monitor marine debris education activity comes from the MDIOs, but they only monitor what has been disseminated. A tracking obligation could spur more people to collect the data and provide national accountability on the effectiveness of the educational materials. However, routine tracking by the federal government would require specific approvals that would be difficult to obtain. In addition to these elements, the model program would include a formal information exchange network reaching all maritime sectors, to assure that decisionmakers have access to knowledge about the latest Annex V education and training strategies, garbage treatment equipment, and data. THE FEDERAL ROLE IN ANNEX V EDUCATION AND TRAINING Leadership To build on past success and exploit the potential of Annex V education and training programs, improved leadership appears to be essential. Leadership is packaging industry; government officials and enforcement agencies; coastal tourism industries; tackle manufacturers; operators of small ports, docks, marinas, and yacht clubs; suppliers of stores for vessels; boat manufacturers; employees of retail stores (including fast-food and convenience stores, and fishing and boating stores); environmental and conservation organizations; employees of shipyards; longshoremen; and coastal hunters.

EDUCATION AND TRAINING 186 A NATIONAL GOVERNMENT LEADERSHIP MODEL: SMOKEY BEAR In the early 1940s, with over 30 million acres of forest land burned every year due to carelessness and Japanese wartime shelling of the Pacific Coast, the U.S. Forest Service recognized the need for a program to help prevent person-caused forest fires. The agency obtained support from the Advertising Council, a coalition of advertising executives working on public interest projects, and the National Association of State Foresters. Since then, the three partners have worked together on the Cooperative Forest Fire Prevention Program, the symbol of which is Smokey Bear. The program is managed by the Forest Service and funded by federal appropriations (roughly $1.5 million a year), but decisions are made cooperatively, and the Advertising Council donates expertise in the development of a media campaign. The success of the program is reflected in Smokey's high profile: 94 percent of adults and 77 percent of children recognized the bear in a 1988 survey. (Data also indicate that the acreage burned has declined, to less than 5.4 million acres in 1990.) Officials attribute this accomplishment to the clear, concise message; the effectiveness of the Smokey Bear symbol; and the longevity and non-controversial nature of the program (Elsie Cunningham, program manager, Cooperative Forest Fire Prevention Program, personal communication to Marine Board staff, February 4, 1994). needed to ensure that the relevant government agencies, companies, and individuals are informed fully about Annex V requirements, given technical and operational information routinely, and provided with educational and other materials designed to improve compliance and reduce enforcement costs. Leadership also is needed to coordinate regional, national, and international information exchange. What is lacking is a central office providing long-term leadership, focus, coordination, and stimulus for collaboration. An example of the type of program needed is the Smokey Bear campaign (see sidebar). The MPPRCA gives the Coast Guard the major responsibility for enforcing Annex V requirements yet provides little guidance on how to handle other aspects of implementation. The result is that no single agency "owns" the issue. This problem is especially visible with respect to education, training, and information exchange, where so much needs to be accomplished but only assorted small efforts have been carried out. It is difficult to envision the present collection of education programs, which are largely informal and short-term, evolving into the broad, long-term education and training program needed to support an Annex V implementation strategy. Marine debris is more than a litter problem, so education needs to accomplish more than teach mariners how to be tidy. There are three ways to execute an Annex V education and training program.

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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