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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 343
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 344
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 345
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 346
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 347
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 348
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 349
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 350
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 351
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 352
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 353
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
×
Page 354
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 355

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INDEX 343 Index A American Association of Port Authorities, Accidental discharge of debris, 43, 46 n.10 156 Accountability Animal and Plant Health Inspection Ser- in port management, 163-165 vice (APHIS), 20, 148, 168 recommendations, 6, 243, 244 Annex V and, 6, 20, 168 Administration and management cargo fleet regulation, 101, 230 of Annex V implementation effort, 9, enforcement procedures, 200, 201 192-196, 251 information gathering activities, 99-100, of education and training activities, 7, 211, 220, 249 175, 185-187 quarantine requirements, 160-163 of MARPOL, 15 recommendations for, 6, 12, 243, 245 of model education program, 184 statistical data, 22 organizational and operational change to Annex V of MARPOL reduce debris, 69, 74-76 control strategy, 16, 63 port governance, 155-156, 159-160, on data collection, 2 163-165, 168 discharge restrictions, 16, 264-267 for U.S. Navy Annex V compliance, 24 disposal equipment performance stan- of vessel garbage system, 3-6 dards, 148 See also Leadership enforcement of. See Enforcement of Agriculture, U.S. Department of, 6, 12, 21 Annex V See also Animal and Plant Health exceptions, 267 Inspection Service fleets covered by, 19 AIDS, 53 n.14 goals of, 1 Air pollution, 15, 152

INDEX 344 hazard evolution model, 3 crew complement, 43-44 implementation of. See Implementation disposal records, 229-230 of Annex V educational efforts, 105-106, 180, 230 offshore industry regulations, 45 information gathering in, 99-100 on port reception facilities, 20, 140 interventions to improve Annex V com- scope, 16 pliance, 10, 12, 101-106 signatories, 15-16 mandated off-loading at U.S. port calls, text of regulations, 263-268 168 U.S. ratification, 1, 18 regulatory structure, 100-101 U.S. regulatory regime and, 19-20 size of, 43 APHIS. See Animal and Plant Health strategic objectives for Annex V compli- Inspection Service ance, 229-231 Army Corps of Engineers, 165 Center for Marine Conservation, 177, 181-182, 203, 215, 216 B Clean Water Act, 115 Beach cleanups and surveys, 2, 23, 26, 34, Coast Guard 80, 181 cargo fleet regulation, 10, 99, 100, 230 amount of plastic items, 49 commercial fisheries oversight, 94 appearance of heavy items, 49 compliance measures in, 110, 111, 147 for monitoring Annex V effects, 214-216 data gathering by, 211, 220, 248, 249 plastic debris in, 218 education and training activities, 176 sampling technique, 219 enforcement in civil cases, 8, 10-11, Benthos 199-200 debris accumulation in, 2 in enforcement of Annex V, 7, 8, 21, marine debris in, 34 196-197, 230, 248-249 plastic debris in, 218-219 in enforcement of MARPOL, 1, 146 recommendations for monitoring debris fleet characteristics, 45 in, 241, 242 leadership role in Annex V implementa- Biodegradable plastics, 33 n.1 tion, 192 Birds monitoring shipboard garbage disposal entanglement with marine debris, 54-55 records, 10, 201 ingestion of plastic debris, 55 National Safe Boating Week activities, 178-179 C opportunities for increasing compliance California, 26 of recreational boaters,86 Cargo-associated waste, 16, 271 port facility oversight, 6, 20, 164 Cargo fleet, 2 recommendations for, 10-11, 244, 245, access to garbage management technol- 248, 249 ogy, 229

INDEX 345 in regulation of passenger day boats and Corporate culture, 69, 74-76 ferries, 107 Crabs, 56 regulation of port reception facilities, 20 Cruise ships, 2, 10, 12 Commercial fishing fleet, 2 Annex V control mechanisms, 126 access to garbage management technol- debris produced by, 46-47 ogy, 11, 227 education projects, 180 diversity of practice in, 90 information on garbage generation and enforcement of Annex V in, 7, 228-229 management, 125-126 garbage disposal practices, 40, 92 interventions for Annex V compliance, ghost fishing, 56 126-127 information-gathering activities in, 87, mandated off-loading at U.S. port calls, 90-93 168 interventions to promote Annex V com- objectives for Annex V compliance, pliance, 11-12, 94-95, 98-99 236-238 net recycling program, 26-27 on-board treatment/destruction technol- port facilities, 157, 226-227 ogy, 147 private efforts for debris reduction, 43 as source of maritime debris, 40 regulatory environment, 84, 92-94 vessel design, 127 size of, 41-42 waste management system, 151 strategic objectives for Annex V compli- ance, 226-229 D types of debris produced by, 42-43 Data collection and management for Compactors, incinerators, pulpers, and Annex V compliance and enforce- shredders ment , 8, 11, 32, 84-85, 210-214, Annex V guidelines, 283-288, 295-312 220, 248, 249 Annex V restrictions, 16 beach surveys, 23, 214-216, 219 comminuters, 148-149 characteristics of maritime garbage, compactor technology, 147-148 36-40 current research activity, 147 on effects of debris in marine environ- incinerator technology, 150-154 ment, 2, 11 on-board utilization, 3-4, 6, 18 environmental monitoring, 214-220, pulper and shredder technology, 148-150 241-242 in recommendations, 246, 247 garbage off-loading statistics, 22 technical standards, 111 identifying vessel garbage, 33-35 U.S. Navy policy and practice, 24, 120 information exchange opportunities, nn.12-14, 120-121, 234-235 182-183 use in commercial fleet, 95 international efforts, 11, 212-214 use in cruise ship industry, 127 legal discharge, 32-33 Congress, United States, recommenda- lost fishing gear, 95 tions for, 9, 250, 252 marine accidents involving debris, 53 Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, 213, 214

INDEX 346 on-board garbage records, 8, 10, 11, 94 in technology acquisition, 246 n.3, 115-116, 136, 201 technology development activities, 79, plastics in marine environment, 217-220 154-155, 168 port-issued garbage receipts, 7, 9, 10, 11 vessel garbage management system, 6 recommendations, 9, 10, 11, 241-242, Education and training 248, 249 for cargo ship sector, 105-106, 230 repeat violators, 200-201 commercial fishing fleet, 95, 227, 228 research needs, 2-3 for cruise ship industry, 126, 237 shortcomings of, 2, 57 definition, 173 standardization, 215-216 for employees in maritime industry, 175 surveillance of disposal practices, federal role, 185-189 201-203 funding issues, 187-188 trawl surveys, 219 good examples of, 179 wildlife impacts, 54, 55-56, 57, 216-217 guidelines for Annex V implementation, Dispersal of marine garbage, 48-52, 57 272-274 Disposable commodities, 35-36 for implementation of Annex V, 6-7, Dolphins, 55 76-77, 176-177 Dunnage, 16, 44 industry projects, 180-181 information exchange opportunities, E 182-183 Economic issues international efforts, 182 access to on-board garbage management for management, 175 systems, 11-12 as marine debris control strategy, 76-78, agency funding for Annex V compli- 173 ance efforts, 22 Marine Debris Information Offices, beach cleanup costs, 15 n.1 177-178 cost of marine debris effects, 15 model program, 183-185 economic incentives for Annex V com- Navy projects, 181 pliance, 25, 78-79, 98-99, 106 objectives for small public vessel sector, funding for education and training 232 efforts, 187-188 for offshore industry, 116, 234 garbage maintenance on research ships, opportunities for improvement, 188-189 132, 136 port projects, 179-180 interventions in offshore industry, private organization for, 187 116-117 public awareness, 8, 11, 22, 86, 174, payment for vessel garbage disposal, 181-182 166-167, 168-169, 230, 243 publicly chartered independent founda- shoreside garbage disposal, 158 tion for, 7, 250 tariff for garbage disposal cost, 167 recommendations for, 10, 249-250

INDEX 347 for recreational boating community, 87, in research fleet, 132-133 178-179, 226 responsibility for, 1, 8 for research fleet, 133-136, 238-239 role of, 78 Sea Grant program, 178 in special areas, 8, 16, 27-28 sectoral focus, 76-77 surveillance activities, 201-203 strategic role of, 6, 173, 174, 183-184 U.S. policy, 18 targeting of groups for, 184-185 Environmental concerns types of, 174-175 Annex V enforcement in sensitive areas, Enforcement of Annex V 8 by Animal and Plant Health Inspection effects of marine debris, 52, 53-54 Service, 200 human health risks from marine debris, Annex V guidelines, 289-292 52-53 in cargo fleet, 100-101, 230-231 monitoring Annex V effects, 210, in commercial fishing fleet, 93-94, 95, 214-220 228 private efforts for Annex V compliance, in cruise fleet, 237-238 26 definition, 7 n.3 scientific monitoring of debris impacts, handling of civil cases, 8, 10-11, 199-200 241-242 international monitoring of, 18, 201-202 Environmental Protection Agency, 48 liability issues, 165-166 in data collection effort, 212, 216 in Navy, 117-121, 124 education and training activities, 176 obstacles to, 22, 84, 196-198 funding for Annex V compliance in offshore industry, 114-116 efforts, 22 opportunities for improvement, 7-8, Gulf of Mexico Program, 27-28 198-203, 208 hazardous waste management strategy, participants in information gathering, 80-81 84-85 on integrated solid waste management in passenger cruise ship industry, 126 systems, 141 in passenger day boat and ferry sector, leadership role in Annex V implementa- 107 tion, 192-194 penalties, 7 port facility oversight, 164, 168 port state authority, 7, 198-199 in port management of vessel garbage, 6 private sector efforts, 78 recommendations for, 9, 11, 242, 244, public awareness, 8, 11, 22 245 recent trends, 197 in regulation of offshore industry, recommendations, 10-11, 247-249 114-115 record-keeping for, 8, 201 regulatory authority, 21 in recreational boating community, 87 research vessel, 127-130 repeat offenders, 200-201 surveillance program, 203

INDEX 348 F I Ferries. See Passenger day boats and ferries Implementation of Annex V Fish, 55. APHIS and, 20, 168 See also Commercial fishing fleet assessment of effectiveness of, 210, Food waste, 8, 16, 148-149, 271 220, 223-224 Foreign fleet compliance, 228-229 certificate of compliance, 100-101 Fur seals, 54, 216-217 economic incentives, 78-79 education and training for, 6-7, 76-77, G 173, 174, 176-177 Gas exchange in marine environment, 1, evaluation criteria, 224 54, 217 federal government role, 167-168 Ghost fishing, 56 by foreign fishing fleets, 228-229 Gulf of Mexico, 27-28, 50, 116 guidelines for, 269-292, 294-312 special areas designation, 204 n.12, hazard evolution model for analysis of, 206-207 3, 63, 66-67, 79-81 international monitoring of, 18 H knowledge base for, 32 Hazard evolution model liability issues as obstacle to, 165-166 application to marine debris analysis, obstacles to, 1, 19-21, 63 66-67 opportunities for, 28-29, 240 application to seafarer community, 79 organizational implications, 69, 74-76 for assessment of Annex V, 3, 63, overarching issues, 7-8, 191, 208 66-67, 79-81 private efforts, 26-27 characteristics, 64-66 recommendations, 8-12, 223, 241-253 conceptual development, 64 role of strategic planning in, 222 economic incentives in, 78-79 scientific monitoring, 241-242 educational interventions, 76-78 sectoral objectives, 3, 83 government and private regulation in, 78 in special areas, 204-208 organizational and operational change state initiatives, 25-26 in, 69, 74-76 strategy design, 83-85, 143, 223 sectoral analysis, 79 successful efforts, 22 significance of, 80-81 technology assistance for, 167-168 technological innovations in, 68-69 trends, 22-23 Hazardous waste, 53, 166 U.S. agencies involved in, 21 produced by offshore industry, 45 U.S. experience, 21-23 Health risks, 52-53 Incinerators. See Compactors, incinera- Historical practice, 13 tors, pulpers, and shredders Hypoxic marine environment Individual behavior, 76, 77 debris as cause of, 1, 2, 54, 217 research personnel, 132-133 definition, 2 n.1

INDEX 349 Inspections monitoring shipboard garbage disposal, MARPOL, 146 201-202 port facilities, 163, 164 port management, 156-157, 231 sanitation, 144-145 International Safety Management Code, Integration of shoreside and marine 104-105 garbage management, 5, 6 International Whaling Convention, 213 Annex V provisions, 140 Interventions to reduce marine debris haz- commercial fishing fleet and, 227 ard development of plan for, 143, 222 after debris discharge, 80 international comparison, 156-157 in cargo fleet, 101-106 opportunities for improvement, 159-169 in commercial fishing fleet, 43, 94-95, in passenger day boat and ferry sector, 98-99 231 conceptual basis of strategy selection, port components, 155, 157-159 84-85, 223-225 port governance and, 155-156, 159-160 in cruise ship industry, 126-127 principles of, 141-142 economic incentives, 78-79 recommendations, 9, 242-245 educational, 76-78 system functioning, 140-141 government and private regulation, 78 See also Port management of vessel hazard evolution model, 3, 66-68 garbage in Navy, 117-124 Intergovernmental Oceanographic Com- in offshore industry, 116-117 mission, 11 organizational and operational, 69, 74-76 International Coastal Cleanup Campaign, in passenger day boat and ferry sector, 215 107 International Convention for the Preven- in recreational boating community, 86-87 tion of Pollution from Ships. See in research fleet, 133-136 Annex V of MARPOL; MARPOL in small public vessel sector, 111 73/78 source reduction, 143-144 International Maritime Organization, 1, 7, technological innovations, 68-69 11, 85 types of, 68 monitoring of port facilities, 202 upstream focus, 64, 80-81, 188, 224 on port facilities, 156 n.7, 245 in promotion of Annex V compliance, 28 J role of, 15 Justice, U.S. Department of, 10 special areas protections, 206 International practice L data collection, recommendations for, Leadership, 7, 9 242 of education and training efforts, 185-187 education and training, 182 monitoring Annex V compliance, 212-214

INDEX 350 importance of, in Annex V implementa- leadership role in Annex V implementa- tion, 191, 208 tion, 194 Navy role, 194, 236 mission, 21 new national commission for, 194-196, recommendations for, 12, 247 251-253 research and development activities, organizational structure for, 191-196 154, 168, 247 recommendations for, 250-253 MARPOL 73/78, 1, 15 Legal issues administration of, 15 evolution of MARPOL agreements, Annex 1 compliance, 213-214 15-19 signatories, 15 handling of civil cases, 8, 10-11, 199-200 structure and scope, 15 liability, 165-166 See also Annex V of MARPOL obstacles to enforcement of Annex V, Medical waste, 52-53, 53 n.14 22, 196-198 Merchant marine, 36 port state authority, 7, 18, 198-199, 248 MERP. See Marine Entanglement punishment of repeat violators, 200-201 Research Program recent trends in enforcement, 197 Minerals Management Service, 11, 21, 45, Liability issues, 165-166 116, 202 Lobster, 56 leadership role in Annex V implementa- London Dumping Convention, 213, 214 tion, 194 mission, 85 M Movement and persistence of marine Manatees, 55-56 debris, 51-52 Marine Debris Information Offices, MPPRCA. See Marine Plastics Pollution 177-178 Research and Control Act Marine Entanglement Research Program (MERP), 2, 6, 22, 176, 180,187, 216 N n.2, 242 National Marine Fisheries Service, 11-12 Marine Mammal Commission, 21 commercial fisheries regulation, 84-85, Marine Plastics Pollution Research and 92-94, 229 Control Act (MPPRCA), 1, 19-20 education and training activities, 176, education and training activities, 176 177, 227 foreign-flag ship compliance, 100 in promoting Annex V compliance, 93 monitoring activity, 34 research and development activities, obstacles to, 22 154-155, 168, 246 Maritime Administration research on debris effects on wildlife, 54 in enhancement of vessel garbage man- surveillance of garbage disposal prac- agement, 6 tices, 202

INDEX 351 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Offshore industry, 2 Administration characteristics, 45 data collecting capability and practice, control structure, 114-116 2-3, 48, 216, 217-218 debris produced by, 45-46 education and training activities, 176, 187 intelligence gathering mechanism, leadership role in Annex V implementa- 111-114 tion, 194 interventions to improve Annex V recommendations for, 11, 242 compliance, 116-117 research fleet, 127, 132, 133 strategic objectives for Annex V Sea Grant Marine Survey, 12, 95 compliance, 233-234 National Park Service, 21, 216 Oil pollution, 15, 51 National Safe Boating Council, 179 Operational wastes, 16, 271 National Science Foundation, 132 Organizational structure and functioning, National Sea Grant College Program. See 69, 74-76 Sea Grant program cargo ship sector, 104-105 Navy, United States, 2 for effective garbage management, 142 Annex V compliance, 23-25, 120 Navy garbage management, 117 Annex V enforcement, 124 offshore industry, 116 auxiliary fleet, 45, 107-111 port governance, 155-156 command and control structure, 117 U.S. enforcement of Annex V, 196-198 debris produced by, 46 fleet characteristics, 46 P garbage management education and Packaging, 136 training projects, 181 cargo-related garbage, 16 garbage management technologies, disposable items, 35-36 117-121, 147 industry education, 7 information about garbage generation in MARPOL conventions, 15 and management, 117 reducing plastic waste in military sup- leadership role in Annex V implementa- plies, 25, 111 tion, 194, 236 source reduction strategies, 143-144 MPPRCA compliance, 19-20 Paper, 49, 149 objectives for Annex V compliance, Passenger day boats and ferries, 2 234-236 control structure for, 107 operations in special areas, 120 debris generated by, 44 plan for Annex V compliance, 117 intelligence gathering mechanisms, 106 research and development activities, interventions to improve Annex V 154, 234-235 compliance, 107 North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 251 objectives for Annex V compliance, 231 O types of ships in, 44 Odor-barrier bags, 145

INDEX 352 Persistence of debris in marine environ- inadequacy of, 144, 155 ment, 48-50 liability issues, 165-166 Plastic debris MARPOL provisions, 268 Annex V restrictions, 16 for Navy, 117 beach surveys, 23, 218 offshore industry, 114, 233-234 behavior in marine environment, 49-50 opportunities for improvement, 6, 7-8, benthic surveys, 218-219 9, 168-169 biodegradable, 33 n.1 payment for, 166-167, 168-169 compaction, 147-148 quarantine requirements, 162 definition, 271 record keeping, 211, 212 disposal by U.S. Navy, 23, 24-25 recreational boating sector, 225-226 distribution on beaches, 49 recycling, 145, 159, 168 ecological effects, 53-54, 217 regulatory responsibility, 6 efforts to reduce in cruise ship industry, reporting of inadequate facilities, 10, 85, 127 202, 245, 293 entanglement of marine wildlife, 54-55 research fleet, 131, 132, 238-239 fishnet recycling program, 26-27 sectoral diversity, 140 industry efforts at debris management, small public vessel sector, 232 181 in special areas, 206 ingestion by wildlife, 55-56 strategies, 157-159 monitoring in marine environment, 33, technical standards, 10 217-220, 241 technological innovations, 69 on-board storage, 24, 144-145 U.S. regulation, 20 packaging, 144 See also Integration of shoreside and recommendations for monitoring, 11, 241 marine garbage management research needs, 2-3 Private regulation, 78 Plastics Reduction in the Marine Environ- in offshore industry, 116 ment, 25 reporting of non-compliance, 84-85 Port management of vessel garbage, 3 Public vessels, 2, 10 accountability, 163-165 debris generated by, 44-45 Annex V guidelines, 288-289 information gathering mechanisms, Annex V requirements, 20, 140 107-110 cargo fleet operations and, 101, 106, military compliance with MPPRCA, 229-230 19-20 Coast Guard oversight, 10 objectives for Annex V commercial environment, 140-141 compliance, 232-233 commercial fishing fleet, 94, 157, regulatory structure, 110-111 226-227 types of, 44 cost of, 78-79 Pulpers. See Compactors, incinerators, cruise ship industry, 47, 126-127, 237 pulpers, and shredders education and training for, 175, 179-180 Pycnocline, 48-49 EPA oversight, 11, 168

INDEX 353 Q monitoring of vessels, 144-145 Quarantine of foreign garbage, 6, 20, on-board garbage handling and, 3-5, 144 160-163 Sea Grant program, 178, 187, 228, 247 Sewage, 15, 50 R Shipping Industry Marine Debris Educa- Recreational boating tion Plan, 180 control structure, 86 Shore Protection Act, 115 education and training programs, Shredders. See Compactors, incinerators, 178-179, 226 pulpers, and shredders enforcement of Annex V, 7 Sorting, 143 intelligence-gathering apparatus, 85-86 Source control, 3, 143-144 objectives for Annex V Sources of vessel garbage, 2 compliance, 225-226 Annex V application, 35 opportunities for Annex V cargo ships, 43-44 compliance, 86-87 commercial fishing fleet, 42-43 as source of maritime debris, 36-37, cruise ships, 46-47 40-41 current understanding, 35-37, 57 Recycling offshore industrial activities, 45-46 opportunities in marine environment, 6, passenger day boats and ferries, 44 222-223 recreational boats, 40-41 private efforts, 26 research needs, 57 promoting in recreational boating com- research vessels, 47-48 small public vessels, 44-45 munity, 87 U.S. Navy, 46 recommendations for promoting, 9, 243, Special areas, 8, 16, 204 n.11 244 characteristics, 50 shoreside facilities, 145, 159, 168 disposal practices in, 204 U.S. Navy policy and practice, 25, 235 growth of, 204 n.13 Repeat violators, 200-201 Gulf of Mexico, 27-28 Research fleet, 2, 47-48 MARPOL definition, 263 control mechanisms for garbage man- agement, 132-133 MARPOL provisions, 203-204, 265-267 movement and persistence of debris in, disposal challenges for, 130-131 50-51 information about garbage generation and management by, 127-131 MPPRCA requirements, 20 Navy in, 120 objectives for Annex V port facilities, 206 compliance, 238-239 research vessels in, 130-131 S Wider Caribbean, 204, 206, 208 State, U.S. Department of, 10, 11, 194 Sanitation Office of Ocean Affairs, 21 definition, 3 n.2, 144 n.1

INDEX 354 State governments U initiatives for Annex V United Nations, 15, 251 compliance, 25-26 Convention on the Law of the Sea III, marine police, 11 18, 199 port facility oversight, 164-165, 168 See also International Maritime Organi- Submerged debris, 50 zation Superfund, 165 University National Oceanographic Labo- ratory Systems, 48 T Technology for debris management V access to, 11, 226, 229 Vessel design, 127 comminuters, 148-149 Vessel garbage compactors, 147-148 amounts, 36-40, 57 costs of, 246 composition, 13, 16, 33-34 demonstration projects, 246 disposal trends, 22-23 enhancing research and development, emergence of social concern, 13-14 154-155 evolution of legal environment, 15-19 garbage storage, 145 fate of, 48-52, 57 government role in research and devel- historical practice, 13 opment, 167-168 identification of, 33-35 in hazard evolution model, 64, 68-69 management system, 3-6 incinerator, 150-154 negative effects of, 14-15, 52-57 marine debris monitoring, 34-35 opportunities for improving manage- Navy research and development in ment system, 5-6, 9, 159-169 garbage maintenance, 117-121, 232, submerged, 50 234-235 See also Sources of vessel garbage on-board garbage handling, 3, 4, 5-6, 68-69, 147-155 W pulpers and shredders, 148-150 Washington state, 26 recommendations, 12, 245-247 Whales, 55 research and development costs, 79 Wildlife See also Compactors, incinerators, entanglement in marine debris, 54-55, pulpers, and shredders 216 Texas, 25-26 ingestion of plastic, 55-56 Total Quality Management, 76, 104, 175 monitoring Annex V impacts on, 216-217 Turtles recommendations for research on inter- entanglement with marine debris, 54 action with debris, 11 ingestion of plastic debris, 55 World Bank, 207, 237-238

INDEX 355 Z Zero-discharge, 8, 224-225, 251 in commercial fishing sector, 226 objectives for offshore industry, 233 objectives for U.S. Navy, 234-236 in passenger day boat and ferry sector, 231 in recreational boating sector, 225 research vessel operations, 238

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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