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ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 121 Another option would be to revisit the decision to abandon use of on-board incinerators. The Navy's rejection of incineration has been attributed to concerns about crew safety with respect to use of older incinerators, shipboard space and weight constraints that may preclude installation of newer models, and possible air pollution. However, to the committee' s knowledge the decision was not based on rigorous scientific and engineering evaluations. Such studies might be useful in view of the Navy's need for additional compliance strategies, the successful use of incinerators on large passenger cruise ships (described later in this chapter and in Chapter 5), and the availability of international standards for on-board incinerators (provided at the end of Appendix B). Although the mission of protecting national security may appear to constrain the Navy's capability to attain full compliance with the MPPRCA, the same concerns are also an argument for accelerating compliance efforts. The Navy continues to discharge untreated garbage, including plastics, overboard, due to shortfalls in on-board storage space and treatment equipment. Such discharges create waste "signatures" of vessel activity, with undesirable consequences15 To the extent that ships can reduce generation of garbage and treat waste on board, overboard disposal and reliance on shore facilities can be minimized16, with corresponding benefits to security. Analysis of Interventions Table 4-7 suggests possible interventions to improve Annex V implementation in the Navy fleet. Different interventions may be called for depending on the size and characteristics of a particular ship. The Navy already is pursuing a number of technological and organizational strategies, such as modification of its supply system. One option not being pursued is on-board incineration, which could be reconsidered and evaluated through rigorous scientific and engineering tests. The Navy also could consider installing its pulpers and shredders for use where permitted, to make garbage discharges more benign. Compactors may be another option. Organizational interventions include reporting inadequate reception facilities encountered at commercial or foreign ports. Education may provide means of leveraging the success achieved to date. For instance, Navy personnel could be encouraged to exchange information on 15 As occurred during the 1991 Persian Gulf War, floating garbageâespecially in the sea lanesâcan be mistaken for floating mines, debris from damaged ships, or other, more sinister objects. The discharged materials also pose a security risk by leaving clues to the recent whereabouts of naval vessels. 16 For example, use of shredders and pulpers outside special areas would reduce trash signatures, and use of compactors would reduce the need to return to port to off-load garbage.
ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 122 TABLE 4-7 Applying the Hazard Evolution and Intervention Model to U.S. Navy Combatant Surface Vessels and Their Home Ports Hazard Evolution Model Human Behavior that On-board Generation of Encourages Generating Garbage Garbage Intervention Model Modify Behavior that Reduce Garbage Encourages Generating Generation During Voyage Garbage Technological Use substitutes (where Continue converting available) for plastic supply system to limit materials plastics brought on board. Organizational and Demonstrate Review shipboard Operational management activities to identify commitment to Annex opportunities to reduce V compliance waste. Sort garbage at Establish shipboard point regime for sorting regime for sorting of generation. Use garbage at point of garbage at point of only generation. vendors generation. committed to packaging and storage techniques that minimize waste. Educational (Target Continue to educate Compliance by officers Population/ Content) shore personnel in how and crews is mandated; to modify the supply training is now needed in chain. The Navy has compliance strategies educated the Congress (both interim and through fleet analyses; permanent). Help shore Congress has support personnel develop responded by showing implementation serious commitment capabilities; monitor costs. and establishing benchmarks.
ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 123 Hazard Evolution Breakdown in Discharge of Exposure to Model Compliance Garbage into Sea Discharged Garbage Intervention Model Prevent Block Discharge Block Exposure Breakdown in of Garbage into to Discharged Compliance Sea Garbage Technological Keep shipboard Develop and Install pulpers systems well install and shredders to maintained. appropriate on- block exposure board garbage to intact garbage. treatment equipment. Organizational and Remind crew of Follow interim Use pulpers and Operational Annex V plastic discharge shredders regulations with restrictions, outside special posters and based on limits areas, even placards in ships. of prominent shipboard Report places on hygiene and inadequate habitability where not reception (three days for required. facilities. food). Educational Establish system (Target Population/ for exchange of Content) information on problems that encourage continued improper discharges. Establish recycling programs for items (cans) otherwise discharged overboard.
ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 124 Hazard Evolution Model Human Behavior that On-board Generation of Encourages Generating Garbage Garbage Intervention Model Modify Behavior that Reduce Garbage Encourages Generating Generation During Garbage Voyage Regulatory Restrict materials allowed on board (this may affect ship habitability). Economic (Market Solicit proposals for Off-load materials before Forces) development of departing home port (it alternative packaging may cost more to discard materials, such as edible items later into a packagings (now under reception facility at study). another port). Require waste minimization in contracts and purchase orders and give preference to those with least waste. implementation problems and solutions. In addition, vessel crews could be educated about the benefits of recycling even those items, such as cans, now legally discharged overboard. Enforcement alternatives include the assessment of significant internal penalties against personnel who violate Annex V. Economic options, in addition to the present practice of giving crews any proceeds from recycling, include marketing the metal and glass wastes now collected and separated on board.