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Suggested Citation:"Analysis of Interventions." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 86

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ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 86 tion is inadequate (Boat Owners Association of the United States, 1990; Wallace, 1990). Most recreational boaters, because they make short trips, simply hold garbage on board until they return to land. But anecdotal reports suggest that compliance within this sector needs to be improved. One member of the Committee on Shipborne Wastes observed that his port has continuing problems with recreational boaters, especially sport fishermen, who dump refuse into the harbor in full view of the shore. Control Little direct control can be exercised over recreational boaters, because vessels are privately owned and management of marinas and other port side facilities is highly decentralized. Coast Guard and customs officials and state marine police occasionally interact with recreational boaters, but the only routine government contact occurs through state boat registration for tax collection purposes, and programs such as the courtesy motorboat examinations offered by the Coast Guard Auxiliary, a volunteer organization that supports the agency's efforts. Moreover, because recreational boaters are so diverse, there is no single way of reaching them, even indirectly. Approximately 38 percent of these boats are used for fishing (American Red Cross, 1991), but many recreational fishermen do not consider themselves boaters and therefore may not, for example, read boating magazines. Persuasion and peer pressure are viewed as the most effective management tools in this community. An example of an ongoing initiative of this type is the Boater's Pledge Program, an effort to persuade boaters to promise to stop discharging garbage in the Gulf of Mexico. Established educational programs, such as boating safety courses taught by the Coast Guard Auxiliary and the nonprofit U.S. Power Squadron, also can be avenues for dissemination of Annex V information. Analysis of Interventions Table 4-1 suggests interventions that might improve Annex V implementation in the recreational boating sector. Technological options include development of food and fishing equipment to permit safe and efficient storage of supplies in bulk. While on-board space is especially constrained in this sector, installation of garbage treatment equipment may be appropriate, especially for boats taking extended voyages. Among organizational and operational interventions, the distribution of Annex V information through licensing and registration processes could be a straightforward way to reach many boaters. Use of disposable items clearly could be reduced through careful purchasing. Beach cleanups could be held more often

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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