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Suggested Citation:"3 Materials and manufacture." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 297
Suggested Citation:"3 Materials and manufacture." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 298
Suggested Citation:"3 Materials and manufacture." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 299
Suggested Citation:"3 Materials and manufacture." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 300

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APPENDIX B 297 2.9 Maintenance waste means materials collected by the engine department and the deck department while maintaining and operating the vessel, such as soot, machinery deposits, scraped paint, deck sweeping, wiping wastes, oily rags, etc. 2.10 Operational wastes means all cargo-associated wastes and maintenance waste (including ash and clinkers), and cargo residues defined as garbage in 2.13. 2.11 Sludge oil means sludge from fuel and lubricating oil separators, waste lubricating oil from main and auxiliary machinery, waste oil from bilge water separators, drip trays, etc. 2.12 Oily rags are rags which have been saturated with oil as controlled in Annex I to the Convention. Contaminated rags are rags which have been saturated with a substance defined as a harmful substance in the other Annexes to MARPOL 73/78. 2.13 Cargo residues for the purposes of this standard are defined as the remnants of any cargo material on board that cannot be placed in proper cargo holds (loading excess and spillage) or which remains in cargo holds and elsewhere after unloading procedures are completed (unloading residual and spillage). However, cargo residues are expected to be in small quantities. 2.14 Fishing gear is defined as any physical device or part thereof or combination of items that may be placed on or in the water with the intended purpose of capturing, or controlling for subsequent capture, living marine or freshwater organisms. 3 Materials and manufacture 3.1 The materials used in the individual parts of the incinerator are to be suitable for the intended application with respect to heat resistant, mechanical properties, oxidation, corrosion, etc., as in other auxiliary marine equipment. 3.2 Piping for fuel and sludge oil should be seamless steel of adequate strength and to the satisfaction of the Administration. Short lengths of steel, or annealed copper nickel, nickel copper, or copper pipe and tubing may be used at the burners. The use of nonmetallic materials for fuel lines is prohibited. Valves and fittings may be threaded in sizes up to and including 60 mm OD (outside diameter), but threaded unions are not to be used on pressure lines in sizes 33 mm OD and over. 3.3 All rotating or moving mechanical and exposed electrical parts should be protected against accidental contact. 3.4 Incinerator walls are to be protected with insulated fire bricks/ refractory and a cooling system. The outside surface temperature of the incinerator casing being touched during normal operations should not exceed 20°C above ambient temperature.

APPENDIX B 298 3.5 Refractory should be resistant to thermal shocks and resistant to normal ship's vibration. The refractory design temperature should be equal to the combustion chamber design temperature plus 20%. (See 4.1). 3.6 Incinerating systems should be designed such that corrosion will be minimized on the inside of the systems. 3.7 In systems equipped for incinerating liquid wastes, safe ignition and maintenance of combustion must be ensured, e.g. by a supplementary burner. 3.8 The combustion chamber(s) should be designed for easy maintenance of all internal parts including the refractory and insulation. 3.9 The combustion process should take place under negative pressure, which means that the pressure in the furnace under all circumstances should be lower than the ambient pressure in the room where the incinerator is installed. A flue gas fan may be fitted to secure negative pressure. 3.10 The incinerating furnace may be charged with solid waste either by hand or automatically. In every case, fire dangers should be avoided and charging should be possible without danger to the operating personnel. For instance, where charging is carried out by hand, a charging lock may be provided which ensures that the charging space is isolated from the fire box as long as the filling hatch is open. Where charging is not effected through a charging lock, an interlock should be installed to prevent the charging door from opening while the incinerator is in operation with burning of garbage in progress or while the furnace temperature is above 220°C. 3.11 Incinerators equipped with a feeding sluice or system should ensure that the material charged will move to the combustion chamber. Such system should be designed such that both operator and environment are protected from hazardous exposure. 3.12 Interlocks should be installed to prevent ash removal doors from opening while burning is in progress or while the furnace temperature is above 220°C. 3.13 The incinerator should be provided with a safe observation port of the combustion chamber in order to provide visual control of the burning process and waste accumulation in the combustion chamber. Neither heat, flame nor particles should be able to pass through the observation port. An example of a safe observation port is high-temperature glass with a metal closure.

APPENDIX B 299 3.14 Electrical requirements 3.14.1 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards, particularly IEC Publication 92, Electrical Installations in Ships and Mobile and Fixed Offshore Units, are applicable for this equipment. 3.14.2 Electrical installation requirements should apply to all electrical equipment, including controls, safety devices, cables, and burners and incinerators. 3.14.2.1 A disconnecting means capable of being locked in the open position should be installed at an accessible location at the incinerator so that the incinerator can be disconnected from all sources of potential energy. This disconnecting means should be an integral part of the incinerator or adjacent to it. (See 5.1). 3.14.2.2 All uninsulated live metal parts should be guarded to avoid accidental contact. 3.14.2.3 The electrical equipment should be so arranged that failure of this equipment will cause the fuel supply to be shut off. 3.14.2.4 All electrical contacts of every safety device installed in the control circuit should be electrically connected in series. However, special consideration should be given to arrangements when certain devices are wired in parallel. 3.14.2.5 All electrical components and devices should have a voltage rating commensurate with the supply voltage of the control system. 3.14.2.6 All electrical devices and electric equipment exposed to the weather should be according to IEC Publication 92-201, table V. 3.14.2.7 All electrical and mechanical control devices should be of a type tested and accepted by a nationally recognized testing agency, according to international standards. 3.14.2.8 The design of the control circuits should be such that limit and primary safety controls should directly open a circuit that functions to interrupt the supply of fuel to combustion units. 3.14.3 Overcurrent protection 3.14.3.1 Conductors for interconnecting wiring that is smaller than the supply conductors should be provided with overcurrent protection based on the size of the smallest interconnecting conductors external to any control box, according to IEC rules. 3.14.3.2 Overcurrent protection for interconnecting wiring should be located at the point where the smaller conductors connect to the larger conductors. However, overall overcurrent protection is acceptable if it is sized on the basis of the smallest conductors of the interconnecting wiring, or according to IEC requirements.

APPENDIX B 300 3.14.3.3 Overcurrent protection devices should be accessible and their function should be identified. 3.14.4 Motors 3.14.4.1 All electric motors should have enclosures corresponding to the environment where they are located, at least IP 44 according to IEC Publication 529. 3.14.4.2 Motors should be provided with a corrosion-resistant nameplate specifying information in accordance with IEC Publication 92-301. 3.14.4.3 Motors should be provided with running protection by means of integral thermal protection, by overcurrent devices, or a combination of both, in accordance with manufacturer's instructions, which should be in accordance with IEC Publication 92-202. 3.14.4.4 Motors should be rated for continuous duty and should be designed for an ambient temperature of 45°C or higher. 3.14.4.5 All motors should be provided with terminal leads or terminal screws in terminal boxes integral with, or secured to, the motor frames. 3.14.5 Ignition system 3.14.5.1 When automatic electric ignition is provided, it should be accomplished by means of either a high-voltage electric spark, a high-energy electric spark or a glow coil. 3.14.5.2 Ignition transformers should have an enclosure corresponding to the environment where they are located, at least IP 44 according to IEC Publication 529. 3.14.5.3 Ignition cable should conform to the requirements of IEC Publication 92-503. 3.14.6 Wiring 3.14.6.1 All wiring for incinerators should be rated and selected in accordance with IEC Publication 92-352. 3.14.7 Bonding and grounding 3.14.7.1 Means should be provided for grounding the major metallic frame or assembly of the incinerators. 3.14.7.2 Non-current-carrying enclosures, frames and similar parts of all electrical components and devices should be bonded to the main frame or assembly of the incinerator. Electrical components that are bonded by their installation do not require a separate bonding conductor.

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Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Get This Book
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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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