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ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 136 Hazard Evolution Model Human Behavior On-board Generation of Generating Garbage Garbage Intervention Model Modify Behavior that Reduce Garbage Encourages Generating Generation Garbage Economic (Market Require proposals for Demonstrate any cost Forces) federal funding for ship benefits from switch to time to describe garbage reusable packaging. minimization and handling plans. Give priority to proposals with appropriate plans. such as waste reduction. Researchers could help educate their peers by promoting recognition of the marine debris problem and Annex V compliance strategies at scientific conferences. Regulatory interventions include limiting equipment packaging brought on board and requiring the holding of certain materials for recycling. In addition, logs of garbage transactions could be maintained, not only on research vessels covered by the present record-keeping regulations but also on voyages supported by the federal government. The utility of keeping logs on public vessels would have to be weighed, however. Economic interventions are particularly important in this sector, to make it easier for researchers and vessel crews to comply. As suggested by the analysis of intelligence and control, funds need to be provided for on-board garbage handling equipment (where needed) and efforts need to be made to assure availability of port reception facilities. Absent such measures, the willingness of oceanographers to comply will be wasted. In addition, returning monies from recycling programs to vessel crews could foster voluntary compliance. REFERENCES Alverson, D. and J.A. June, eds. 1988. Proceedings of the North Pacific Rim Fishermen's Conference on Marine Debris, October 13-16, 1987, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii. Seattle, Wash.: Natural Resources Consultants.
ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 137 Hazard Evolution Breakdown in Discharge of Exposure to Model Compliance Garbage into Sea Garbage into Sea Discharged Garbage Intervention Prevent Block Discharge Block Exposure Model Breakdown in of Garbage into to Discharged Compliance Sea Garbage Economic Return monies Make port (Market Forces) from recycling to reception vessel crew for facilities their discretionary affordable and use. Budget funds available. for on board Provide garbage handling affordable and equipment as reliable on- means to meet board treatment legal mandate. equipment. Encourage on- board procedures to limit legal overboard discharge. American Red Cross. 1991. American Red Cross National Boating Survey. Washington, D.C.: American Red Cross. Anderson, C. 1992. Presentation by Carl Anderson, Minerals Management Service, to the Committee on Shipborne Wastes of the National Research Council, at the Governor Calvert House of the Historic Inns of Maryland, Annapolis, Md., May 7-8, 1992. Art Anderson Associates. 1993. NOAA Fleetwide Shipboard Waste Management. Report prepared for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration by Art Anderson Associates, Bremerton, Wash. Jan. 29. Associated Press. 1994. Navy faulted for its garbage: Sailors may dump $26 million project overboard. The Washington Post. Aug. 24. A17. Boat Owners Association of the United States (BOAT/U.S.). 1990. Water quality low, clean-up interest high. BOAT/U.S. Reports. 25:1. July. Boudreaux, D. 1993. Presentation by Deyaun Boudreaux, environmental director of the Texas Shrimp Association, to the Committee on Shipborne Wastes of the National Research Council, at the University of Texas at Austin Marine Science Institute, Port Aransas, Tex., Feb. 16, 1993. Bunch, P.A.. 1994. Vessel Environmental Compliance Program Plan. Internal planning document sent from Admiral Peter A. Bunch, chief, Office of Engineering, Logistics, and Development, to the commandant of the U.S. Coast Guard. Feb. 1. Photocopy. Buxton, R. 1989. Plastic Debris and Lost and Abandoned Fishing Gear in the Aquatic Environment. Background paper prepared for the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), CANADA Working Group on Plastic Debris. Project DFO 085214. Available from DFO, 200 Kent Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E6. April. Center for Marine Conservation (CIVIC). 1989. Marine Debris Information Offices, Atlantic Coast/ Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Coast: Annual Report, October 1, 1988-September 30, 1989. Washington, D.C.: CMC.
ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 138 Chang, T.J. 1990. Low technology (burn barrel) disposal of shipboard generated (MARPOL V) wastes. Pp. 915-920 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. II), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. DPA Group. 1989. Plastic Debris in the Aquatic EnvironmentâHalifax Workshop Report, May 16-18, 1989, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Project DFO 085214. Available from the Canadian Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 200 Kent Street, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0E6. July. Emshwiller, J.R. and M.J. McCarthy. 1993. Coke's soda fountain for offices fizzles, dashing high hopes. The New York Times. June 14. 1,9. F.I.S.H. Habitat Education Program. 1994. Net Recycling Program Summary. Fact sheet prepared by the Fishermen Involved in Saving Habitat Education Program, Gladstone, Ore. September. Green, E. 1993. Presentation by Ed Green, U.S. Coast Guard Marine Safety Office/Corpus Christi, to the Committee on Shipborne Wastes of the National Research Council, University of Texas at Austin Marine Science Institute, Port Aransas, Tex., Feb. 14-17, 1993. Gulf of Mexico Program. 1991. Marine Debris Action Plan for the Gulf of Mexico. Dallas, Tex.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. International Maritime Organization (IMO). 1993. International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and For Pollution Prevention (International Safety Management [ISM] Code). Resolution A.741(18). Adopted November 4, 1993. Available from IMO, 4 Albert Embankment, London, SE1 7SR . Kasperson, R.E. and K.D. Pijawka. 1985. Societal response to hazards and major hazard events: Comparing natural and technological hazards. Pub. Admin. Rev. 45:7-18. Special issue. Kearney/Centaur, Inc., division of A.T. Kearney, Inc. 1994. Managing Oily Wastes and Garbage from ShipsâA Guide to Waste Management Practices for Shipping Agents, Waste Haulers, Shipping Companies, and Port and Terminal Operators. Available from the U.S. Coast Guard, Marine Environmental Protection Division, Washington, D.C. Koss, L., F. Chitty, and W.A. Bailey. 1990. U.S. Navy's Plastics Waste Educational Efforts. Pp. 1132-1139 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. II), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM- NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. Koss, L.J. 1994. Dealing With Ship-generated Plastics Waste on Navy Surface Ships. Paper prepared for the Third International Conference on Marine Debris, Miami, Fla., May 8-13, 1994. Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C. Minerals Management Service (MMS). 1986. Guidelines for Reducing or Eliminating Trash and Debris in the Gulf of Mexico. NTL No. 86-11. Notice to Lessees and Operators of Federal Oil and Gas Leases in the Outer Continental Shelf, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region. Available from MMS Gulf of Mexico OCS Region Office of Leasing and Environment, New Orleans, La. Nov. 17. National Research Council (NRC). 1991. Fishing Vessel Safety: Blueprint for a National Program. Marine Board, NRC. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Ocean Science News. 1991. The U.S. Navy is responding to criticism of its vessels for dumping trash at sea . Ocean Science News 33(22):7. Aug. 10. Pearce, J.B. 1992. Viewpoint: Marine vessel debris, a North American perspective. Marine Pollution Bulletin 24(12):586-592. December. Recht, F. 1988. Report on a Port-Based Project to Reduce Marine Debris. NWAFC Processed Report 88-13. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Wash. July.
ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 139 Sutinen, J.G., A. Rieser, and J.R. Gauvin. 1990. Measuring and explaining noncompliance in federally managed fisheries. Ocean Development and International Law 21:335-372. Swanson, R.L., R.R. Young, and S.S. Ross. 1994. An Analysis of Proposed Shipborne Waste Handling Practices Aboard United States Navy Vessels. Paper prepared for the Committee on Shipborne Wastes, Marine Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO). 1994a. Pollution Prevention: Chronology of Navy Ship Waste Processing Equipment Development. GAO/NSAID-94-22 IFS. Washington, D.C.: GAO National Security and International Affairs Division. August. U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO). 1994b. Pollution Prevention: The Navy Needs Better Plans for Reducing Ship Waste Discharges. GAO/NSIAD-95-38. Washington, D.C.: GAO National Security and International Affairs Division. November. U.S. Navy. 1993. Shipboard and Plastics Waste Management Program Plan (draft). Prepared by Naval Sea Systems Command 05V, Environmental Engineering Group, Washington, D.C. April. U.S. Navy. 1994. Naval Message, Dept. of Navy: Shipboard Solid Waste Disposal. Message from CNO Washington DC/N4. R 031112Z May 94. UNCLAS/N05090. May 3. Photocopy. Wallace, B. 1990. How much do commercial and recreational fishermen know about marine debris and entanglement? Phase 1. Pp. 1140-1148 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. 11), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. Weikart, H. 1993. Presentation by Heather Weikart, National Marine Fisheries Service Observers Program, to the Committee on Shipborne Wastes of the National Research Council, Red Lion Inn, Seattle, Wash., July 15, 1993. Whitten, D.H. and R.L. Wade. 1994. Environmental Challenges Faced by the International Cruise Industry. Paper prepared for the Annual Meeting of The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, New Orleans, La., Nov. 17-18, 1994.