National Academies Press: OpenBook

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea (1995)

Chapter: 6 Port reception facilities for garbage

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Suggested Citation:"6 Port reception facilities for garbage." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
Page 288

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APPENDIX B 288 Depending on the type of plastic and conditions of combustion, some toxic gases can be generated in the exhaust stream, including vaporized hydrochloric (HCl) and hydrocyanic (HCN) acids. These and other intermediary products of plastic combustion can be extremely dangerous. The ash from the combustion of some plastic products may contain heavy metal or other residues which can be toxic and should therefore not be discharged into the sea. Such ashes should be retained on board, where possible, and discharged at port reception facilities. The temperatures generated during incineration of primarily plastic wastes are high enough to possibly damage some garbage incinerators. Plastic incineration requires three to ten times more combustion air than average municipal refuse. If the proper level of oxygen is not supplied, high levels of soot will be formed in the exhaust stream. 5.4.7 Certain ship classification societies have established requirements for the operation or construction of incinerators. The International Association of Classification Societies can provide information as to such requirements. 5.4:8 Information on the development and utilization of marine garbage incinerator systems for shipboard use should be forwarded to the Organization. 6 Port reception facilities for garbage 6.1 The methodology for determining the adequacy of a reception facility should be based on the needs of each type of ship, as well as the number and types of ships using the port. The size and location of a port should be considered in determining adequacy. Emphasis should also be made on calculating the quantities of garbage from ships which are not discharged to the sea in accordance with the provisions of regulations 3, 4 and 5 of Annex V. 6.2 It should be noted that, due to possibly existing different procedures for reception, port reception may require separation on board of: 6.2.1 food wastes (e.g. raw meat because of risk of animal diseases); 6.2.2 cargo-associated waste; and 6.2.3 domestic waste and maintenance waste. 6.3 Estimates of quantities of garbage to be received 6.3.1 Vessel, port and terminal operators should consider the following when determining quantities of garbage on a per ship basis: type of garbage; ship type and design; ship operating route; number of persons on board;

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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