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EDUCATION AND TRAINING 176 EXPERIENCE BASE RELATED TO ANNEX V During the past decade, numerous educational and some training programs have been carded out to combat the problem of marine debris, and a variety of Annex V materials have been developed for these purposes. These efforts, while limited in scale, have been critical in the success to date of Annex V implementation. Because marine debris comes from a variety of land-based sources as well as mariners at sea, the educational campaign, by necessity, has been waged on many fronts. The early educational programs were developed as a result of the 1984 International Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris (Shomura and Yoshida, 1985), the first comprehensive effort to examine the impacts of marine debris on living marine resources. Among other things, workshop participants identified an urgent need to educate vessel operators and others about the marine debris problem. Shortly thereafter, the U.S. Congress directed the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), part of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), to help define and resolve the problem, and, in consultation with the Marine Mammal Commission (MMC), to develop a plan of activities defining priority research and management needs (Herkelrath, 1991). Over the ensuing years, the NMFS provided funds through the Marine Entanglement Research Program (MERP) to carry out the action plan, which includes mariner education and public awareness efforts (Herkelrath, 1991). A number of non-profit organizations have been awarded funds to conduct public education projects, and the state Marine Advisory Services, funded in part by NOAA's National Sea Grant College Program, have maintained public awareness efforts. State and local governments also have participated, through sponsorship of beach cleanups and public education. After MERP was established, the MPPRCA recognized the importance of education in remedying the marine debris problem. The MPPRCA directs the Coast Guard, along with NOAA and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), to develop public awareness programs and citizen monitoring groups. However, no funds have been appropriated under the Act for public education, so federal agencies have been constrained in carrying out their mandate. Therefore, MERP officials have continued to spearhead efforts to educate and persuade mariners and the general public to safeguard the marine environment (Coe, 1992). Without question, MERP has led the way in federal Annex V education efforts (while also laying a strong foundation in other areas). A number of other agencies also have contributed. The Coast Guard, for example, distributes Annex V information through several existing channels, such as contacts with vessel crews during routine boardings and inspections as well as interactions with boaters during boating safety campaigns. The committee reviewed past and ongoing marine debris education and training programs. In general, successful programs have targeted defined populations