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Suggested Citation:"Cargo Ships and Their Itinerary Ports." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 229
Suggested Citation:"Cargo Ships and Their Itinerary Ports." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 230

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NATIONAL STRATEGY 229 fishing fleets operating nearby. Such implementation should be a condition of any joint fishing ventures or possibly trade agreements with other nations. Other types of international agreements can serve as mechanisms for this purpose as well. For example, the NMFS scientific agreement with Mexico could encourage or require Annex V compliance by the Mexican shrimp industry, which is blamed in part for the debris in the Gulf of Mexico. Cargo Ships and Their Itinerary Ports Objective: Improve access to on-board garbage handling and treatment technologies To reduce the amounts of garbage that must be discarded, vessel operators should install, maintain, and use on-board compactors, thermal processors, pulpers, and incinerators. These technologies should be retrofitted where feasible and appropriate and integrated into all new construction. Objective: Provide comprehensive vessel garbage management system, including adequate port reception facilities Numerous steps can and should be taken to improve the garbage management system for cargo ships. Improvements are needed in three general areas: monitoring of on-board garbage handling by both U.S.-flag and foreign- flag ships; port reception facilities; and handling of Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) waste. All ocean-going, U.S.-flag ships of 12.2 meters (about 40 feet) or more in length are required to maintain a log documenting the volume, date, time, and location of each discharge of garbage. To provide for greater accountability, the Coast Guard should require all cargo ships (except those with comprehensive onboard waste management systems) to off-lead Annex V garbage at every U.S. port call. (Such requirements are in place in the North Sea and other foreign waters; in these areas, record keeping is mandated by port states and applies to all OBJECTIVES FOR CARGO SHIPS • Improve access to on-board garbage handling and treatment technologies • Provide comprehensive vessel garbage management system, Including adequate port reception facilities • Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training • Fully exercise U.S. authority to improve compliance by foreign-flag vessels and by all vessels in foreign waters

NATIONAL STRATEGY 230 vessels entering ports.) Vessel logs and on-board garbage handling and treatment technology should be examined during routine Coast Guard inspections. To help improve the port side of the vessel garbage management system, state agencies should require adequate reception facilities as a condition of issuing permits to ports and should assure that garbage disposal is integrated with regional ISWMS. The Coast Guard should require a port to have the appropriate state permits as a condition of granting a Certificate of Adequacy (COA). Port and terminal operators also should assume expanded roles in overseeing the adequacy of reception facilities and assuring customer satisfaction with services. Cost issues need to be addressed in the permitting process. Ports should be able to recover disposal costs from users, but fees paid by ships should be in line with charges for disposal of land-based garbage. Alternatively, port tariffs or related user fees could be increased to cover garbage disposal. In addition, the U.S. Department of Agriculture should work to integrate the APHIS program more fully with the Annex V regime to minimize compliance difficulties. Cargo ships should be required to off-load APHIS garbage at every U.S. port call (as is required of aircraft), and ship operators should be educated about the types of garbage subject to quarantine. Objective: Assure that seagoing and management personnel are provided with appropriate Annex V information, education, and training As with other fleets, it is important that merchant mariners be given sufficient information and training to enable compliance with Annex V. The need for such training extends throughout each company, from the chief executive officer, who controls the corporate culture, down to the employees who order supplies and personally handle the garbage. Requirements for employee training in proper waste management should be enacted and enforced throughout this sector. In addition, employees responsible for vessel provisioning should receive training in how to reduce amounts of packaging taken on board and how to emphasize use of recyclable materials. Objective: Fully exercise U.S. authority to improve compliance by foreign- flag vessels and by all vessels in foreign waters Because most cargo vessels are foreign flag, it is imperative that special efforts be made to improve Annex V compliance by foreign-flag vessels transiting U.S. waters. The Coast Guard should continue to step up its enforcement activities targeting foreign vessels. The garbage log requirement should be extended to foreign-flag vessels, through either international agreement or unilateral U.S. action in accordance with its port state authorities, and violators should be punished.

Next: Passenger Day Boats, Ferries, and Their Terminals »
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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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