National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: Implementation of Annex V in the Wider Caribbean
Suggested Citation:"SUMMARY." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
Page 208

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

OVERARCHING ISSUES AFFECTING ANNEX V IMPLEMENTATION 208 or enacting domestic legislation. New approaches for assisting these states could be considered. For example, to encourage participation in MARPOL, provisions allowing qualifying states to defer certain obligations under annexes I and II may be useful. Another possibility is development of independent, regional agreements incorporating the obligations of Annex V without the burdens of annexes I and II. SUMMARY Implementation of Annex V will require attention to three overarching issues. One is the need for national leadership; many opportunities for improving Annex V implementation require the cooperation of multiple agencies and organizations and diverse maritime sectors. There are four ways to provide leadership: maintain the status quo, assign the task to one agency, establish an interagency task force, or create a national commission. The commission concept may offer the most potential benefits and entail the fewest drawbacks. A commission not only could coordinate the efforts of federal agencies, but also could serve as a high-level focal point for U.S. leadership in guiding the global maritime community toward increased standards of performance. The second issue is enforcement of Annex V. Efforts are under way to improve prosecution of foreign violators. A number of other steps also might be taken to enhance the effectiveness of enforcement. Government authorities could seek to clarify the extent of and fully exercise port state control; issue tickets in civil cases involving Annex V violations, particularly in the fisheries and recreational boating sectors; require that ports provide receipts for garbage off-loaded into their reception facilities, and then compare the receipts to vessel logs; enlist the assistance of the NMFS, MMS, and state marine police in reporting Annex V violations; encourage ship operators to report inadequate garbage reception facilities at ports; and conduct public awareness campaigns urging citizens to report illegal garbage disposal. The third issue is devising an Annex V implementation strategy that takes special areas into account. This issue has both domestic and international aspects. On the domestic side, vessels operating in special areas ultimately need to achieve zero-garbage-discharge capability, and port reception facilities bordering special areas need to be adequate. On the international side, the United States needs to find new and improved ways to assist with the development and improvement of vessel garbage control mechanisms in neighboring nations. One option would be to explore the formulation of memoranda of understanding for the sharing of information, enforcement assets, and other resources. There is a particular need for mechanisms to reduce the administrative burdens on developing countries. The United States also could seek means of increasing the numbers of adequate port reception facilities in special areas.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea Get This Book
Buy Hardback | $52.95 Buy Ebook | $42.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook,'s online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!