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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
Page 331

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APPENDIX E 331 REFERENCES Clark, R.B. 1986. Marine Pollution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Davis, R.A., Jr. 1977. Principles of Oceanography. Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc. Dietrich, G. 1963. General Oceanography (translated from German). New York: John Wiley & Sons. Elder, D. and J. Pernetta (eds.). 1991. Random House Atlas of the Oceans. New York: Random House with World Conservation Union. Fairbridge, R.W. (ed.). 1966. The Encyclopedia of Oceanography. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp. Geyer, R.A. (ed.). 1981. Marine Environmental Pollution, 2. Dumping and Mining. College Station: Texas A&M University. Gross, M.G. 1967. Oceanography: A View of the Earth. Columbus, Ohio: Charles E. Merrill Books. Gross, M.G. 1982. Oceanography: A View of the Earth. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc. International Maritime Organization (IMO). 1994. Three years on: The Persian Gulf oil spill. IMO News 1:21-24. Neumann, G. and W.J. Pierson, Jr. 1966. Principles of Physical Oceanography. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Otto, L. 1983. Currents and water balance in the North Sea. Pp. 26-43 in North Sea Dynamics, J. Sundermann and W. Lenz, eds. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Pickard, G.L. and W.J. Emery. 1990. Descriptive Physical Oceanography: An Introduction. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Pinet, P.R. 1992. Oceanography: An Introduction to the Planet Oceanus. St. Paul, Minn.: West Publ. Sverdrup, H.U., M.W. Johnson, and R.H. Fleming. 1942. The Oceans: Their Physics, Chemistry, and General Biology. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. van der Leeden, F., F.L. Troise, and D.K. Todd. 1990. The Water Encyclopedia, 2nd Ed. Chelsea, Mich.: Lewis Publishers.

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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