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MEASURING PROGRESS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF ANNEX V 220 land-based source. What is more, this information can establish recent use, suggesting the approximate time of discard (e.g., after ratification of Annex v). Because the plastics survey project would be narrow in scope, the data gathered might be of only limited value. Still, this type of data, given appropriate quality control parameters, could be useful to national and international agencies implementing Annex V. Therefore, the data might be stored in a readily accessible computer for use in other marine debris research programs. SUMMARY Progress in implementation of Annex V could be measured through record keeping reflecting vessel compliance and, as a supplementary measure, environmental monitoring. The most easily implemented record-keeping program might be a combined Coast Guard/APHIS system on vessel garbage handling, making use of existing APHIS records of vessel boardings and garbage off-loading, and information from Coast Guard enforcement reports and vessels' garbage logs. Apart from providing benchmarks for measuring Annex V implementation, the database could be used to determine where the two agencies' monitoring and enforcement resources should be directed. Both the data-gathering and enforcement efforts also could benefit if cargo and cruise ships were required to off-load garbage at all of their U.S. port calls. An environmental monitoring program could be designed to determine the fluxes of plastics through the marine environment as a function of time. Such an effort might be incorporated into NOAA's Status and Trends Program. A collection team could collect plastic debris from selected beach sites on all U.S. coasts, in conjunction with trawl or electronic surveys of the coastal sea floor. The EPA could have some involvement, in order to capitalize on the experience and expertise gained in developing its beach monitoring program. REFERENCES Amos, A.F. 1993. Technical Assistance for the Development of Beach Debris Data Collection Methods. Final Report submitted to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf of Mexico Program, New Orleans, La. TR/93-002. May 31. Center for Marine Conservation (CMC). 1993. Pocket Guide to Marine Debris. Washington, D.C.: CMC. Fowler, C.W. and N. Baba. 1991. Entanglement studies, St. Paul Island, 1990 Juvenile Male Northern Fur Seals. AFSC Processed Report 91-01. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Goldberg, E.D., M. Koyde, V. Hodge, A.R. Flegal, and J. Martin. 1983. U.S. Mussel Watch: 1977-1978 results on trace metals and radio nuclides. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (U.K.) 16:69-83.
MEASURING PROGRESS IN IMPLEMENTATION OF ANNEX V 221 Hodge, K., J. Glen, and D. Lewis. 1993. 1992 International Coastal Cleanup Results. Washington, D.C.: Center for Marine Conservation. Hollin, D. and M. Liffman. 1993. Survey of Gulf of Mexico Marine Operations and Recreational Interests: Monitoring of MARPOL Annex V Compliance Trends. Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, Gulf of Mexico Program by Dewayne Hollin, Texas A&M University Sea Grant College Program, and Michael Liffman, Louisiana State University Sea Grant College Program. Lucas, Z. 1992. Monitoring persistent litter in the marine environment on Sable Island, Nova Scotia. Marine Pollution Bulletin 24(4): 192-199). April. Marine Mammal Commission (MMC). 1992. Annual Report of the Marine Mammal Commission, Calendar Year 1991, a report to Congress. Washington, D.C.:MMC. Jan. 31. Miller, J. 1993. Marine Debris Investigation: Padre Island National Seashore, Texas. Corpus Christi, Tex.: National Park Service. December. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). 1988. National Marine Pollution Program: Federal Plan for Ocean Pollution Research, Development, and Monitoring Fiscal Years 1988-1992. Rockville, Md.: NOAA. Cited in National Research Council (NRC). 1990. Managing Troubled Waters: The Role of Marine Environmental Monitoring. Marine Board, NRC. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council (NRC). 1990. Managing Troubled Waters: The Role of Marine Environmental Monitoring. Marine Board, NRC. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Ribic, C.A., T.R. Dixon, and I. Vining. 1992. Marine Debris Survey Manual. NOAA Technical Report NMFS 108. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Ryan, P.G. and C.L. Moloney. 1993. Marine litter keeps increasing. Nature 361:23. Jan. 7. Sileo, L. (chair). 1990. Report of the working group on ingestion. Pp. 1226-1231 in Proc. of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. II), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1988. Citizen Volunteers in Environmental Monitoring: Summary Proceedings of a Workshop. EPA 503/9-89-001. Washington, D.C.: EPA Office of Water. September. U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO). 1992. International Environment: International Agreements are Not Well Monitored. GAO/RCED-92-43. Washington, D.C.: GAG Resources, Community, and Economic Development Division. Jan. 27.