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ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 127 GARBAGE DISPOSAL ON CRUISE SHIPS Implementation of Annex V In this sector is facilitated by the partnership the cruise Industry has cultivated with naval architects, shipyards, and equipment manufacturers to develop and improve shipboard garbage handling and treatment technology. On vessels built before 1970, refrigerated storerooms are used to hold food-contaminated materials until their disposal in an APHIS-approved port reception facility. On vessels built between 1970 and the ratification of Annex V in 1987, Incinerators are installed to destroy garbage that cannot be discharged overboard. On ships built recently, the garbage handling system is elaborate and often integrates different types of machinery, such as Incinerators, pulpers, and grinders. (The Coast Guard intervened on behalf of cruise ships in Alaska, where use of Incinerators is prohibited; the Coast Guard insisted that the state either waive the rule or provide suitable APHIS- approved disposal facilities.) Cruise ship operators also are trying to reduce their reliance on plastic products, often substituting paper products. Plastic bags have been eliminated on older vessels. Almost all ships have discontinued use of foamed plastic materials and excess packaging such as individual bottles of. shampoo. Some garbage, particularly food waste, is run through a pulper and then discharged overboard where permitted by Annex V. In addition, some recreational activities have been modified. For Instance, the once-common practice Of driving golf balls off the deck into the open ocean is now rare. adopted, by mandate. Another possibility would be to pursue an international requirement that flag states issue waste management certificates to cruise ships, as suggested earlier with respect to cargo ships. Economic interventions include imposing internal (company) fines for violations of garbage handling rules, and improving garbage treatment equipment to reduce its costs. Research Vessels and Their Ports of Call Intelligence Many research vessels are supported or owned and operated by the federal government, so information on vessel activities and personnel behavior can be obtained, even though vessels may be away from shore or in foreign waters for extended periods of time. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has conducted a fleetwide assessment of pollution prevention needs and a survey of available equipment; Annex V compliance strategies rely on food grinders and garbage compactors or incinerators (Art Anderson Associates, 1993). The EPA's research vessel stores garbage for entire two-week voyages, not a particularly sanitary solution. The EPA also has reviewed and revised its pur-
ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 128 TABLE 4-8 Applying the Hazard Evolution and Intervention Model to Passenger Cruise Ships and Their Itinerary Ports Hazard Evolution Model Human Behavior that On-board Generation Encourages Generating of Garbage Garbage Intervention Model Modify Behavior that Reduce Garbage Encourages Generating Generation during Garbage Voyage Technological Eliminate single-portion Eliminate disposable cosmetic amenities containers. Modify packaged in plastic. galley equipment or Discourage suppliers food and beverage from delivering ship's equipment to reduce stores packaged or amounts of single- use bundled in plastic. items. Invest in Encourage suppliers to reusable containers adopt alternate delivery packaging. Organizational and Senior management Sort garbage at the site Operational commitment to Annex V of generation. Use compliance must be only vendors visible and convened committed to into management packaging and storage directives. techniques that minimize waste. Educational (Target Instill respect for clean Train crew to sort Population/Contents) ocean among passengers garbage for recycling and crew. Impose and proper disposal. expectation that each can comply with Annex V.
ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 129 Hazard Evolution Breakdown in Discharge of Exposure to Model Compliance Garbage into Sea Discharged Garbage Intervention Model Prevent Block Discharge Block Breakdown in of Garbage into Exposure to Compliance Sea Discharged Garbage Technological Keep shipboard Develop and Pretreat legal systems well- install discharges by maintained appropriate grinding and garbage shredding handling garbage, to equipment or minimize integrated waste drifting in the management water. Provide systems. incinerator with ash storage space (to retain ash for off- loading into port reception facility or legal discharge in deep water). Organizational Audit shipboard Prohibit and Operational practices regularly. discharges Provide many trash unless cans. supervised by appropriate officer. Establish shipboard collection of recyclable materials for return to port side recycling networks. Educational Train crew in on- Develop (Target board garbage recycling Population/ management. programs for Contents) Provide Annex V items (cans) that placards, posters, may be and public address discharged announcements overboard legally.
ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 130 Hazard Evolution Model Human Behavior that On-board Generation of Encourages Generating Garbage Garbage Intervention Model Modify Behavior that Reduce Garbage Encourages Generating Generation during Garbage Voyage Government and Private Regulation and Enforcement Economic (Market Forces) chasing practices (e.g., no foamed plastic cups are used) and has reduced the amounts of packaging and plastics brought on board. Less is known about non-federal research vessels. Garbage handling can be a problem due to vessel mode of operation. While at sea, sampling or monitoring tasks may require that a research vessel remain on station or restrict its motion and curtail overboard discharges; the vessel may be unable to return to port before garbage storage space is full. Oceanographic vessels are notoriously cramped, with every on-board space obligated to science missions or operational needs. Moreover, the duration of some expeditionsâmany over 10 days and some over 50 daysâmakes garbage storage difficult and untenable, and the mission profile of some oceanographic vessels leaves little space for garbage treatment equipment. Anecdotal reports and the NOAA survey (Art Anderson Associates, 1993) suggest that on-board equipment, such as incinerators, tends to be primitive. The demands of Annex V are particularly taxing for research vessels operating in extreme situations. The NOAA ship Surveyor, homeported in Seattle, is obligated to conduct scientific missions in the Antarctic, designated as a special
ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 131 Hazard Evolution Breakdown in Discharge of Exposure to Model Compliance Garbage into Sea Discharged Garbage Intervention Prevent Block Discharge Block Exposure Model Breakdown in of Garbage into to Discharged Compliance Sea Garbage Government and Make illegal Foster Private overboard development of Regulation and discharge of reliable and Enforcement garbage a firing affordable port offense. Require reception crew and facilities. Keep passenger records of education for garbage entry into U.S. transactions. waters or ports. Require flag states to issue waste management certificates. Economic Impose internal Improve on-board (Market Forces) fines for garbage treatment violations of equipment, to garbage handling reduce costs. rules Establish port side recycling networks. area (with zero-discharge restrictions). On the positive side, because research vessels are operated by small, cohesive communities, informal networks exist for the sharing of information on strategies for reducing waste and overboard discharges. Some research vessels operate in the vicinity of home ports. Other vessels rarely visit their home ports and only infrequently call at any port. In instances where operations center around a home port, shoreside managers can address the unique challenges of complying with Annex V. For example, in Seattle, NOAA's waste reception requirements are met by a commercial contractor at NOAA's Pacific Marine Center, so it may be possible for managers to audit informally the materials discharged by their vessels. In general, while sensitivity to environmental concerns has increased within the research fleet in recent years, there are anecdotal reports of continuing overboard disposal of items such as used, expendable scientific instruments. Annex V does not address disposal of research equipment but IMO implementation guidelines encourage the return of garbage to port reception facilities ''whenever practicable.''