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Suggested Citation:"SUMMARY." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
Page 188

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EDUCATION AND TRAINING 188 conducive to behavioral change. In addition, education is one of the most economical ways of encouraging compliance (Wypyszinski, 1993) and thus become even more attractive given the need to leverage federal spending and obtain maximum impact from every effort. In the current budget climate, dedicated long-term funding for comprehensive Annex V education and training is unlikely to be obtained through one or even several federal agencies. The foundation concept may offer the best hope of establishing secure funding in that the existence of such an entity would serve to emphasize the importance of Annex V education and training and, of equal or greater significance, support could be obtained from the private sector. The Congress could provide a one-time endowment and/or modest annual appropriations, perhaps using a portion of existing maritime fees (e.g., fuel taxes or tariffs on imported fishing equipment). A nominal federal investment in this area could yield significant dividends. Innovation While many Annex V education and training programs have been developed, there are needs for new concepts that might succeed with marine users who are difficult to reach or persuade, and needs to target audiences who can help develop innovative technological, organizational, operational, regulatory, and economic strategies. Innovation requires not only knowledge of past education and training efforts and gaps in Annex V implementation in each maritime sector, but also the time, money, and mandate to go beyond the ordinary and foster development and testing of promising new concepts. Again, this is unlikely to be accomplished by an existing federal agency or group of agencies, simply because they must contend with many routine demands and distractions. A foundation that supports education and training may be the most effective means of fostering innovation and, through dissemination of the results, bringing overall Annex V implementation to a higher level. Ideally, education and training programs would extend beyond groups that cause the marine debris problem to those whose can help solve it. This approach would encourage the development of innovative strategies, with particular emphasis on "upstream" interventions in the hazard evolution model (described in Chapter 3). The possibility of achieving integrated innovation by providing national leadership for all Annex V activities is addressed in Chapter 7. SUMMARY Two basic findings can be drawn from the preceding discussion. First, education and training have important strategic roles to play in Annex V implementation, and a permanent capability is needed to develop and implement such programs at all levels in all maritime sectors. As environmental protection has

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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