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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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OVERARCHING ISSUES AFFECTING ANNEX V IMPLEMENTATION 209 REFERENCES Eastern Research Group (ERG), Inc. 1992. Report to Congress on Compliance with the Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act of 1987. Report prepared for the U.S. Coast Guard by ERG, Arlington, Mass. (now Lexington, Mass.). June 24. International Maritime Organization (IMO). 1991. Guidelines for the Designation of Special Areas and the Identification of Particularly Sensitive Sea Areas. IMO Resolution A.720(17). Adopted Nov. 6, 1991. Available from IMO, 4 Albert Embankment, London, SE1 7SR. North, R.C. 1993. Prepared statement of Capt. Robert C. North, chief, Office of the Marine Safety, Security, and Environmental Protection, U.S. Coast Guard, before the Subcommittee on Superfund, Ocean, and Water Protection of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate, 102nd Congress, Second Session, Washington, D.C., Sept. 17, 1992. Pp. 146-149 in Implementation of the Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act. S. Hrg. 102-984. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Podlich, M. 1993. Prepared Statement of Margaret Podlich, project director, Pollution Prevention Program, Center for Marine Conservation, for the Subcommittee on Superfund, Ocean, and Water Protection of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate, 102nd Congress, Second Session, Washington, D.C., Sept. 17, 1992. Pp. 49-56 in Implementation of the Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act. S. Hrg. 102-984. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Schrinner, J.E. 1992. Pollution of Seas—Disposal of Waste. Paper presented to the Caribbean Shipping Association Semi-Annual General and Group Meetings, Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands, May 25-26, 1992. United States. 1992. Enforcement of Pollution Conventions: MARPOL Annex V Violations. MEPC/ INF.44. Document submitted to the 33rd session of the Marine Environment Protection Committee of the International Maritime Organization (IMO). Available from IMO, 4 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7SR. Sept. 9 . U.S. Department of Justice. 1993. News Release. United States Attorney, Southern District of Florida, Miami, Fla. April 15. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1988. Citizen Volunteers in Environmental Monitoring: Summary Proceedings of a National Workshop. EPA 503/9-89-001. EPA Office of Water, Washington, D.C. September. Weikart, H. 1993. Presentation by Heather Weikart, National Marine Fisheries Service Observers Program, to the Committee on Shipborne Wastes of the National Research Council, Red Lion Inn, Seattle, Wash., July 15, 1993. World Bank/Global Environmental Facility. 1994. Developing Countries of the Wider Caribbean Region: Wider Caribbean Initiative for Ship-Generated Waste. Report No. 12868LAC. Washington, D.C.: World Bank. June 30.

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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