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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 81
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 82

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IMPLEMENTATION 81 management, to focus "upstream" on reducing waste generation (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1990). In seeking ways to improve implementation of Annex V, the federal government might benefit from emulating the shift in EPA's waste management policy. REFERENCES Babin, D.A. and B. Toll. 1992. One company's response to offshore waste management. Pp. 310-317 in Proceedings: Twelfth Annual Gulf of Mexico Information Transfer Meeting, Nov. 5-7, 1991, New Orleans, La., compiled by Geo-Marine, Inc. New Orleans: U.S. Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region. December. Barkley, B. and J.H. Saylor. 1993. Customer-Driven Project Management: A New Paradigm in Total Quality Implementation. New York: McGraw Hill. Bassow, W. 1992. Environmental policy, corporate culture. Environmental Protection 3:10-13. Burby, R. and R.G. Patterson. 1993. Improving compliance with state environmental regulations. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 12(4):753-772. Estes, J.T. 1993. Testimony of John T. Estes, president, International Council of Cruise Lines, before the Subcommittee on Superfund, Ocean, and Water Protection of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate, 102nd Congress, Second Session, Washington, D.C., Sept. 17, 1992. Pp. 18 in Implementation of the Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act. S. Hrg. 102-984. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Gallop, M. Undated. USS Theodore Roosevelt Environmental Compliance Program Cookbook. Available from the commanding officer, USS Theodore Roosevelt, homeport in Norfolk, Va. Hohenemser, C., R.E. Kasperson, and R.W. Kates. 1985. Casual Structure. Pp. 25-42 in Perilous Progress: Managing the Hazards of Technology, R.W. Kates, C. Hohenemser, and J.X. Kasperson, eds. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. International Maritime Organization (IMO). 1993. International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and For Pollution Prevention (International Safety Management [ISM] Code). Resolution A.741(18). Adopted November 4, 1993. Available from IMO, 4 Albert Embank merit, London, SEI 7SR. Kasperson, R.E. and K.D. Pijawka. 1985. Societal response to hazards and major hazard events: Comparing natural and technological hazards. Public Administration Review 45:7-18. Special issue. Kasperson, R.E., R.W. Fates, and C. Hohenemser. 1985. Hazard Management. Pp. 43-66 in Perilous Progress: Managing the Hazards of Technology, R.W. Kates, C. Hohenemser, and J.X. Kasperson, eds. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. Laska, S. 1990. Designing effective educational programs: The attitudinal basis of marine littering. Pp. 1179-1190 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. II), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA- TMNMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. Louisiana State University Sea Grant Program. 1989. Saltwater Anglers and Research. Aquanotes 18 (spring):1-3. Mendel, N. 1992. Presentation by Nell Mendel, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service supervisor, Port of Oakland, to the Committee on Shipborne Wastes of the National Research Council, at Coast Guard Island, Alameda, Calif., Oct. 15-17, 1992. O'Hara, K.J, S. Iudicello, and R. Bierce. 1988. A Citizens Guide to Plastics in the Ocean: More Than A Litter Problem. Washington, D.C.: Center for Environmental Education (now the Center for Marine Conservation).

IMPLEMENTATION 82 Smookler, A. and C. Alig. 1992. The Navy's shipboard waste management research and development program. Naval Engineers Journal 104(3):89-97. May. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1990. Reducing Risk: Setting Priorities and Strategies for Environmental Management. SAB-EC-90-021. Washington, D.C.: EPA Science Advisory Board.

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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