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NATIONAL STRATEGY 231 Negotiations will be required in various international forums to improve garbage handling in foreign ports, not only because U.S.-flag vessels call at these ports but also because improper at-sea garbage disposal near the U.S. coastline can have adverse effects in the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone and territorial waters. More specifically, steps must be taken to address the need for adequate port reception facilities in special areas. U.S. authorities should work with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) and other forums to develop clear international criteria and guidelines for port/vessel interfaces. To improve Annex V implementation in nations with scarce resources, the United States should explore the use of regional memoranda of understanding (MOUs) to enable the sharing of enforcement assets and other resources. Passenger Day Boats, Ferries, and Their Terminals Objective: Achieve zero-discharge capability (for plastics, glass, cans, and paper), integrating the handling of vessel garbage into local solid waste management systems Due to the short duration of voyages by these vessels (some casino ships don't move at all) and the resulting ease of returning all garbage to shore, zero- discharge capability should be the objective in this sector. This may have been achieved already, but simple steps can be taken to assure success. Vessel operators should strive to reduce use of packaging, particularly items that could be blown overboard by the wind. They also should cover Annex V in public announcements to passengers and provide numerous on- board MARPOL posters or placards and convenient trash cans. Ferry terminal operators should provide these informational services as well. State governments should require ports serving day boats to have adequate waste receptacles as a condition of granting permits. Also, authorities should ensure that Annex V information is included in literature and guidelines directed at this sector (e.g., new IMO guidelines on roll-on/roll-off carriers). Finally, ferries with international routes should be required to comply with Annex V as a condition of bilateral agreements signed by the nations involved. OBJECTIVE FOR DAY BOAT SECTOR â¢ Achieve zero-discharge capability, integrating the handling of vessel garbage into local solid waste management systems