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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 339
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 340
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 341
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 342

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APPENDIX F 339 traps had the potential to catch more than 499 metric tons (MT) (1.1. million lbs.) of lobster valued at approximately $2.7 million dollars (1987 landings for this fishery were 10.160 MT [22.4 million lbs.] valued at $54.5 million [Natural Resources Consultants, 1990]). Gillnets have also been found to have a significant potential to ghost fish. According to one estimate, lost gillnets can fish at a 15 percent effectiveness rate for up to eight years (Natural Resources Consultants, 1990). These lost nets not only pose a threat to marine wildlife in general but also can deplete species, including striped bass populations in the north Atlantic and south Atlantic, red drum in the Gulf of Mexico, and salmon and lake trout in the Great Lakes. At present, the effects of ghost fishing related to U.S. commercial fisheries cannot be addressed due to the inadequacy of available information. There are no data on the number of gear units deployed in various fisheries, the number lost, or the capability of various types of gear to ghost fish (Natural Resources Consultants, 1990). The cumulative effects of lost gear also need to be considered. In addition, the effects of the increasing use of plastic or plastic- coated wire traps need to be examined, as these trends could prolong the capability of traps to ghost fish. DATA ON ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS Limited data are available on the ecological impacts of marine debris, and the information that has been collected is uneven and incomplete. The broad impact of plastics on ecosystems is unknown. Pinniped and sea turtle entanglement in plastic debris have been documented, but accounts of the impact of plastics on birds, fish, marine mammals, and terrestrial species are largely anecdotal. Furthermore, most available data on wildlife entanglements with debris is drawn from a few studies, and there has been no attempt to compile the data at one source, nor has there been any extensive effort to monitor trends. Some data has been compiled by the NMFS, which collects information on entanglements involving certain species. In fact, the only way in which information on wildlife interactions with debris is formally exchanged among researchers and agencies, and in some manner compiled, is through the workshops and resultant proceedings coordinated by the NMFS. It is clear that research on the ecological effects of marine debris would be facilitated by a centralized system for keeping track of relevant data on all species. The value of systematically compiling and maintaining a database on debris interactions with wildlife is demonstrated by the West Indian manatee program. REFERENCES Amos, A.F. 1993. Solid waste pollution of Texas beaches: a Post-MARPOL Annex V study, Vol 1: Narrative. OCS Study MMS 93-43013. Available from the public information unit of the U.S.

APPENDIX F 340 Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Gulf of Mexico OCS Region, New Orleans, La. July. Anonymous. 1981. Galapagos tainted by plastic pollution. Geo 3:137. Araya, H. 1983. Fishery biology and stock assessment of Ommastrephes bartrami in the North Pacific Ocean. Mem. of the National Museum in Victoria (Australia) 44:269-283. Balazs, G.H. 1985. Impacts of ocean debris on marine turtles: entanglement and ingestion. Pp. 387-429 in Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Maine Debris, 27-29 November 1984, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. I), R.S. Shomura and H.O. Yoshida, eds. NOAA- TM-NMFS-SWFC-54. Available from the Maine Entanglement Research Program of the National Maine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Barr, C. 1990. Preliminary evaluation of feeding of blue fin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) and yellowfin tuna (Thunnus alabacares) off the coast of Virginia . Gloucester Point, Va.: Virginia Institute of Maine Science. Barros, N.B., D.K. Odell, and G.W. Patton. 1990. Ingestion of plastic debris by stranded marine mammals in Florida. P. 746 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. I), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NMFS NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Maine Entanglement Research Program of the National Maine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Beach, R.J., T.C. Newby, R.O. Larsen, M. Penderson and J. Juris. 1976. Entanglement of an Aleutian reindeer in a Japanese fish net. Murrelet 57(3):66. Beck, C.A. and N. B. Barros. 1991. The impact of debris on the Florida manatee. Maine Pollution Bulletin 22(10):508-510. October. Bourne, W.R.P. (chair). 1990. Report of the working group on entanglement of marine life. Pp. 1207-1215 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Maine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. II), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM- NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Bourne, W.R.P. and M.J. Imber. 1982. Plastic pellets collected by a prion on Cough Island, central South Atlantic Ocean . Maine Pollution Bulletin 13(1):20-21. Calkins,.D.G. 1985. Steller sea lion entanglement in marine debris. Pp. 308-314 in Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Maine Debris, 27-29 November 1984, Honolulu, Hawaii, R.S. Shomura and H.O. Yoshida, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFC-54. Available from the Maine Entanglement Research Program of the National Maine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Carr, A. 1987. Impact of nondegradable marine debris on the ecology and survival outlook of sea turtles. Maine Pollution Bulletin 18(6B):352-356. Day, R.H., D.S. Wehle, and F.C. Coleman. 1985. Ingestion of plastic pollutants by marine birds. Pp. 344-386 in Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris, 27-29 November 1984, Honolulu, Hawaii, R.S. Shomura and H.O. Yoshida, eds. NMFS NOAA- TM-NMFS-SWFC-54. Available from the Maine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Fowler, C.W. 1985. An evaluation of the role of entanglement in the population dynamics of Northern fur seals. Pp. 291-307 in Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Maine Debris, 27-29 November 1984, Honolulu, Hawaii, R.S. Shomura and H.O. Yoshida, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFC-54. Available from the Maine Entanglement Research Program of the National Maine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. Fowler, C.W. 1988. A review of seal and sea lion entanglement in marine fishing debris. Pp. 16-63 in Proceedings of the North Pacific Rim Fishermen's Conference on Maine Debris, October 13-

APPENDIX F 341 16, 1987, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, D. Alverson and J.A. June, eds. Seattle, Wash.: Natural Resources Consultants. October. Fowler, C.W. and T.R. Merrell. 1986. Victims of plastic technology. Alaska Fish and Game 18 (2):34-37. Harrison, P. 1983. Seabirds: An Identification Guide. Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin Co. Henderson, J.R. 1984. Encounters of Hawaiian monk seals with fishing gear at Lisianski Island, 1982. Marine Fisheries Review 46(3):59-61. Henderson, J.R. 1985. A review of Hawaiian monk seal entanglements in marine debris. Pp. 326-335 in Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris, 27-29 November 1984, Honolulu, Hawaii, R.S. Shomura and H.O. Yoshida, eds. NOAA-TM- NMFS-SWFC-54. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Hodge, K., J. Glen and D. Lewis. 1993. 1992 International Coastal Cleanup Results. Washington, D.C.: Center for Marine Conservation. Hoss, D.E. and L.R. Settle. 1990. Ingestion of plastics by fishes. Pp. 693-709 in Proc. of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. I), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December . Jones, L.L. and R.C. Ferrero. 1985. Observations of net debris and associated entanglements in the North Pacific Ocean and Bering Sea, 1978-84. Pp. 183-196 in Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris, 27-29 November 1984, Honolulu, Hawaii, R.S. Shomura and H.O. Yoshida, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFC-54. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Kenyon, K.W. and E. Kridler. 1969, Laysan albatross swallow ingestible matter. Auk 86:339-343. King, W.B. 1984. Incidental Mortality of Seabirds in Gillnets in the North Pacific. Pp. 709-715 in Status and Conservation of the World's Seabirds, J.P. Croxall, P.G.H. Evans, and R.W. Schreiber, eds. ICBP Tech. Pub. No. 2. London: International Council for Bird Preservation. Machida, S. 1983. A brief review of the squid fishery by Hoyo Maru No. 67 in southeast Australian waters in 1979/80. Mem. of the National Museum in Victoria (Australia). 44:291-295. Cited in Walker, W.A. and J.M. Coe. 1990. Survey of marine debris ingestion by odontocete cetaceans. Pp. 747-774 in Proc. of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. I), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. Martin, A.R. and M.R. Clarke. 1986. The diet of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) captured between Iceland and Greenland. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 66:779-790. Mate, B.R. 1985. Incidents of marine mammals encounters with debris and active fishing gear. Pp. 453-457 in Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris, 27-29 November 1984, Honolulu, Hawaii, R.S. Shomura and H.O. Yoshida, eds. NOAA-TM- NMFS-SWFC-54. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Natural Resources Consultants. 1990. Survey and Evaluation of Fishing Gear Loss in Marine and Great Lakes Fisheries of the United States. Final report prepared for the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle, Wash. O'Hara, K.J. and S. Iudicello. 1987. Plastics in the Ocean: More than a Litter Problem. Report prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency by the Center for Marine Conservation, Washington, D.C.

APPENDIX F 342 O'Hara, K.J., L. Maraniss, J. Deichman, J. Perry, and R. Bierce. 1987. 1986 Texas Coastal Cleanup Report. Washington, D.C.: Center for Environmental Education (now the Center for Marine Conservation). O'Hara, K.J. and L. Younger. 1990. Cleaning North America's Beaches: 1989 Beach Cleanup Re- suits. Washington, D.C.: Center for Marine Conservation. Plotkin, P.E. and A.F. Amos. 1990. Entanglement in and ingestion of marine debris by sea turtles stranded along the south Texas Coast. Pp. 79-82 in Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Workshop on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SEFC-214. Available from the Southeast Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, Miami, Fla. Podolsky, R.H. and S.W. Kress. 1990. Plastic debris incorporated into double-crested cormorant nests in the Gulf of Maine. P. 692 in Proc. of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. I), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Scordino, J. 1985. Studies of fur seal entanglement, 1981-1984, St. Paul Island, Alaska. Pp. 278-290 in Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris, 27-29 November 1984, Honolulu, Hawaii, R.S. Shomura and H.O. Yoshida, eds. NOAA-TM- NMFS-SWFC-54. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Sileo, L. (chair). 1990. Report of the working group on ingestion. Pp. 1226-1231 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. II), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Sileo, L., P.R. Sievert, M.D. Samuel, and S.I. Fefer. 1990. Prevalence and characteristics of plastic ingested by Hawaiian seabirds. Pp. 665-681 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. I), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Smolowitz, R.J. 1978. Trap design and ghost fishing: Discussion. Marine Fisheries Review 40 (5-6):59-67. Stewart, B.S. and P.K. Yochem. 1985. Entanglement of pinnipeds in net and line fragments and other debris in the Southern California Bight. Pp. 315-325 in Proceedings of the Workshop on the Fate and Impact of Marine Debris, 27-29 November 1984, Honolulu, Hawaii, R.S. Shomura and H.O. Yoshida, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFC-54. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Stewart, B.S. and P.K. Yochem. 1987. Entanglement of pinnipeds in synthetic debris and fishing net fragments at San Nicolas and San Miguel islands, California, 1978-1986. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18:336-339. Walker, W.A. and J.M. Coe. 1990. Survey of marine debris ingestion by odontocete cetaceans. Pp. 747-774 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. I), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM- NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Winston, J.E. 1982. Drift plastic—an expanding niche for a marine invertebrate? Marine Pollution Bulletin 13(10):348-351. Younger, L. and K. Hedge. 1992. 1991 International Coastal Cleanup Results. Washington, D.C.: Center for Marine Conservation

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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