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ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 107 Control Control of passenger day boats and ferries is fairly stringent, in that all vessels are U.S. flag, and most terminals are owned by the vessel operators or are under long-term contracts to vessels. The Coast Guard regulates the construction and operation of these vessels (46 C.F.R. Subchapter T). The operators of these vessels must have Coast Guard documentation. In general, garbage management is not a problem in this sector because vessels operate regularly out of the same terminals and have standard waterfront garbage- hauling contracts. However, vessel operators report that disposing of garbage in shoreside facilities is becoming more expensive. Analysis of Interventions Table 4-4 lists possible interventions to improve Annex V implementation in the day boat sector. Although it appears that minimal assistance is needed with Annex V compliance, this is a significant maritime sector contributing to coastal traffic, the fastest growing segment of maritime transportation today. There are probably ways of improving Annex V implementation, notably through waste minimization, passenger education, crew training, and improvements in shoreside disposal systems. Operational interventions might include offering passengers drinks in paper cups from large dispensers8 rather than individual cans. Because passengers come and go quickly and may remain in a limited area, ample Annex V information must be provided through posters, placards, and public address announcements, throughout both vessels and terminals. Regulatory interventions include auditing of shipboard practices and requiring Annex V compliance on ferries with international routes as a condition of joint agreements with the other nation involved (e.g., Canada). Because an individual vessel typically uses the same piers repeatedly, it should not be difficult to integrate the garbage disposal needs of vessels into waste management planning for ports. Simple improvements could yield a high level of compliance. Small Public Vessels Intelligence At one time, operators of Coast Guard and small naval auxiliary vessels expected to base their Annex V compliance strategies on the Navy's compliance 8 It is important that such dispensers not leak or attract insects (Emshwiller and McCarthy, 1993).
ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 108 TABLE 4-4 Applying the Hazard Evolution and Intervention Model to Passenger Day Boats, Ferries, and Waterfront Facilities Hazard Evolution Model Human Behavior that On-board Generation Encourages Garbage of Garbage Interventions Modify Behavior that Reduce Garbage Encourages Generating Generation during Garbage Voyage Technological Use alternate packaging materials. Organizational and Employ Total Quality Use only vendors Operational Management principles. committed to Provide high standard of packaging and storage service with new techniques that materials. minimize waste. Educational (Target Encourage passengers to Population Content) respect clean oceans and support tenets of Annex V. Train crews to provide same service with new materials. Government and Private Control activities of Prohibit use of certain Regulation and vessel operators. materials. Enforcement Economic (Market Forces) Make vessel operators aware that clean water may encourage increased business.
ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 109 Hazard Evolution Breakdown in Discharge of Exposure to Model Compliance Garbage Discharged (already Garbage (not prohibited by applicable) national laws) Interventions Prevent Block Discharge Block Breakdown in of Garbage Exposure to Compliance Discharged Garbage Technological Provide ample on- Make room to board storage store garbage in capacity. places other than weather deck. Organizational Provide Annex V Establish and Operational posters, placards, garbage sorting and public address system. announcements Establish and many trash integrated cans on board garbage vessels and in management terminals. Audit (coordinated shipboard practices. with shoreside recycling programs). Educational Train crews in (Target Annex V Population compliance Content) procedures. Foster peer enforcement among passengers. Educate vessel operators through literature directed at this sector. Government and Audit vessel Ensure Grind garbage Private Regulation operations to adequacy of port before and Enforcement assure compliance. reception discharge. Require facilities. compliance on international routes as condition of joint agreements. Economic (Market Encourage peer Assure that port Increase fees Forces) enforcement reception for receiving through bounty facilities are unsorted provisions of U.S. cost effective. wastes. Pay law. premium for recyclables returned to port.