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ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 133 CONTROL OF THE NOAA FLEET The NOAA fleet is subject to complete government control, particularly when these vessels use their home ports. The complement aboard a NOAA vessel includes uniformed service officers, civilian merchant mariners, and visiting scientists; the officers, who answer directly to higher commands, have authority over the entire crew. As a matter of policy, each NOAA command develops its own solid waste management procedures, although they have begun to receive direct technical support from the central engineering staff, particularly with regard to selection of pollution prevention equipment. All NOAA vessels are aging, and it will be difficult to retrofit them with either waste treatment equipment or on-board storage spaces to hold garbage for extended periods of time. Because it now appears that Navy R&D will not produce equipment appropriate for NOAA's missions, the research fleet will be compelled to use commercial equipment. However, NOAA has found available commercial incinerators to be unreliable, ineffective, and time consuming to operate. NOAA plans to foster Informal controls by introducing fleetwide Annex V awareness training for new officers and crews and well as visiting scientists. At present, no central MARPOL training is offered. Instead, each vessel's command is expected to provide a boarding briefing for all newly arriving personnel and visiting scientists. This briefing emphasizes emergency procedures but it also provides an opportunity to explain waste management practices and garbage disposal restrictions. compliance and have helped present evidence of marine debris to other seafarers. Internal sanctions and peer pressure not only encourage compliance but also foster innovations and improvements in garbage handling practices. Analysis of Interventions Table 4-9 outlines possible interventions to improve Annex V implementation on research vessels. Among the technological options, it is obvious that improved on-board garbage treatment equipment and appropriate storage space are needed. These features could be designed into any new vessels and retro fitted where possible. Promising organizational interventions include continued reduction in use of disposable supplies. In addition, where feasible or required, discharge of all garbage except food could be halted. For example, when adequate storage space and garbage treatment equipment is available (e.g., on short voyages or well- designed new vessels), the crew and guest scientists might be able to refrain from even legal overboard discharge of garbage, including used equipment. Federally supported research vessels could set an example in this regard. Education is also important, particularly because of the turnover in guest scientists. Vessel operators also need to be educated about compliance strategies,
ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 134 TABLE 4-9 Applying the Hazard Evolution and Intervention Model to Research Vessels and Their Ports of Call Hazard Evolution Model Human Behavior that On-board Generation of Encourages Generating Garbage Garbage Intervention Model Modify Behavior that Reduce Garbage Encourages Generating Generation Garbage Technological Reduce or eliminate Provide alternate convenience packaging packaging where of supplies and foods. possible (given packaging standards for electronic equipment). Organizational and Modify comfort and Use only vendors Operational convenience levels. committed to packaging Reduce number of daily and storage techniques meals (now set by union that minimize waste. contract). Reduce crew Remove disposables sizes. from ship stores. Sort garbage at site of generation. Educational (Target Inform crews of the need Inform managers of Population/Content) for and benefits of options for alternate changes (in terms of packaging, health, nutrition, cost provisioning, and savings, environmental deployment procedures. protection). Inform crews and guest scientists of ways to minimize waste materials brought on board. Government or Private Renegotiate union Prohibit use of Regulation and agreement provisions disposable items. Enforcement that trigger waste generation. Amend voyage operating agreements to minimize equipment packaging scientists bring on board.
ELEMENTS OF AN IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY 135 Hazard Evolution Breakdown in Discharge of Exposure to Model Compliance Garbage into Sea Discharged Garbage Intervention Model Prevent Block Discharge Block Breakdown in of Garbage into Exposure to Compliance Sea Discharged Garbage Technological Keep shipboard Provide systems well sufficient maintained. garbage storage Incorporate space and garbage handling efficient on- equipment and board garbage storage spaces treatment into new vessels. equipment. Organizational Provide reminders Introduce Implement a and Operational with posters and efficient on- zero discharge placards. board garbage standard where handling feasible or procedures. necessary. Assure that port reception facilities are adequate. Educational Educate Develop (Target Population/ management recycling Content) about legal programs for mandates, items (cans) compliance otherwise strategies, and discharged methods for overboard educating and legally. Promote training personnel. recognition of Educate crews and marine debris scientists about problem at mandates, scientific compliance conferences. methods, environmental consequences of discharge, and penalties for violations. Government or Require garbage Keep records of Private Regulation sorting and garbage and Enforcement holding of certain transactions. materials for Establish and shoreside enforce internal recycling. guidelines and penalties (fleet policies).