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APPENDIX B 306 9.1.3 Capacity - to be indicated by net designed heat release of the incinerator in heat units per timed period; for example, British Thermal Units per hour, megajoules per hour, kilocalories per hour. 10 10.1 Incinerators should be designed, manufactured and tested in a manner that ensures they meet the requirements of this standard. 10.2 The incinerator manufacturer should have a quality system that meets ISO 9001, ''Quality Systems - Model for Quality Assurance in Design/ Development, Production, Installation and Servicing''. The quality system should consist of elements necessary to ensure that the incinerators are designed, tested and marked in accordance with this standard. At no time should an incinerator be sold with this standard designation that does not meet the requirements herein (see "Certification"). Annex A1 - Emission standard for shipboard incinerators with capacities of up to 1,160 kW Minimum information to be provided A1.1 An IMO Type Approval Certificate should be required for each shipboard incinerator. In order to obtain such certificate, the incinerator should be designed and built to an IMO approved standard. Each model should go through a specified type approval test operation at the factory or an approved test facility, and under the responsibility of the Administration. A1.2 Type approval test should include measuring of the following parameters: Max. capacity kW or kcal/h kg/h of specified waste kg/h per burner Pilot fuel consumption kg/h per burner O2 average in combustion chamber/zone % CO average in flue gas mg/MJ Soot number average Bacharach or Ringelman scale Combustion chamber flue gas outlet temperature Â§C average Amount of unburned components in ashes % by weight
APPENDIX B 307 A1.3 Duration of test operation For sludge oil burning 6-8 hours For solid waste burning 6-8 hours A1.4 Fuel/Waste specification for type approval test (% by weight) Sludge oil consisting of 75% sludge oil from heavy fuel oil 5% waste lubricating oil 20% emulsified water Solid waste (class 2) consisting of 50% food waste 50% rubbish containing approx. 30% paper, approx. 40% cardboard, approx. 10% rags, approx. 20% plastic The mixture will have up to 50% moisture and 7% incombustible solids Classes of waste* Class 0 Trash, a mixture of highly combustible waste such as paper, cardboard, wood boxes, and combustible floor sweepings, with up to 10% by weight of plastic bags, coated paper, laminated paper, treated corrugated cardboard, oily rags and plastic or rubber scraps. This type of waste contains up to 10% moisture, 5% incombustible solids and has a heating value of about 19,700 kJ/kg as fired. Class 1 Rubbish, a mixture of combustible waste such as paper, cardboard cartons, wood scrap, foliage and combustible floor sweepings. The mixture contains up to 20% by weight of galley or cafeteria waste, but contains little or no treated papers, plastic or rubber wastes. This type of waste contains 25% moisture, 10% incombustible solids and has a heating value of about 15,100 kJ/kg as fired. Class 2 Refuse, consisting of an approximately even mixture of rubbish and garbage by weight. This type of waste, common to passenger ship occupancy, consists of up to 50% moisture, 7% incombustible solids and has a heating value of about 10,000 kJ/kg as fired. Class 3 Garbage, consisting of animal and vegetable wastes from restaurants, cafeterias, galleys, sick bays and like installations. This type of waste contains up to 70% moisture, up to 5% incombustible solids and has a heating value range of about 2,300 kJ/kg as fired. * Reference: Waste Classification, Incinerator Institute of America.
APPENDIX B 308 Class 4 Aquatic life forms and animal remains, consisting of carcasses, organs and solid organic wastes from vessels carrying animal-type cargoes, consisting of up to 85% moisture, 5% incombustible solids and having a heating value range of about 2,300 kJ/kg as fired. Class 5 By-product waste, liquid or semi-liquid, such as tar, paints, solvents, sludge, oil, waste oil, etc., from shipboard operations. BTU values must be determined by the individual materials to be destroyed. Class 6 Solid by-product waste, such as rubber, plastics, wood waste, etc., from industrial operations. BTU values must be determined by the individual materials to be destroyed. Calorific values kcal/kg kJ/kg Vegetable and putrescibles 1,360 5,700 Paper 3,415 14,300 Rag 3,700 15,500 Plastics 8,600 36,000 Oil sludge 8,600 36,000 Sewage sludge 716 3,000 Densities kg/m3 Paper (loose) 50 Refuse (75% wet) 720 Dry rubbish 110 Scrap wood 190 Wood sawdust 220 Density of loose general waste generated on board ship will be about 130 kg/m3. A1.5 Required emission standards to be verified by type approval test O2 in combustion chamber 6-12% CO in flue gas maximum average 200 mg/MJ Soot number maximum average Bacharach 3 or Ringelman I (a higher soot number is acceptable only during very short periods such as starting up) Unburned components in ash residues max. 10% by weight Combustion chamber flue gas outlet 900 -1,200Â°C temperature range
APPENDIX B 309 A high temperature in the actual combustion chamber/zone is an absolute requirement in order to obtain a complete and smoke-free incineration, including that of plastic and other synthetic materials while minimizing dioxin and VOC (volatile organic compounds) emissions. A1.6 Fuel-related emission Al.6.1 Even with good incineration technology the emission from an incinerator will depend on the type of material being incinerated. If for instance a vessel has bunkered a fuel with high sulphur content, then sludge oil from separators which is burned in the incinerator will lead to emission of SOx. But again, the SOx emission from the incinerator would only amount to less than one per cent of the SO x discharged with the exhaust from main and auxiliary engines. A1.6.2 Principal organic constituents (POC) cannot be measured on a continuous basis. Specifically, there are no instruments with provision for continuous time telemetry that measures POC, hydrogen chloride (HCI) or waste destruction efficiency to date. These measurements can only be made using grab sample approaches, where the sample is returned to a laboratory for analysis. In the case of organic constituents (undestroyed wastes), the laboratory work requires considerable time to complete. Thus, continuous emission control can only be assured by secondary measurements. A1.6.3 On-board operation/emission control For a shipboard incinerator with IMO type approval, emission control/ monitoring should be limited to the following: .1 control/monitor O2 content in combustion. chamber (spot checks only); .2 control/monitor temperature in combustion chamber flue gas outlet. By continuous (auto) control of the incineration process, ensure that the above-mentioned two parameters are kept within the prescribed limits. This mode of operation will ensure that particulates and ash residue contain only traces of organic constituents. A1.7 Passenger/Cruise ships with incinerator installations having a total capacity of more than 1,160 kW A1.7.1 On board this type of vessel, the following conditions will probably exist: .1 generation of huge amounts of burnable waste with a high content of plastic and synthetic materials; .2 incinerating plant with a high capacity operating continuously over long periods; .3 this type of vessel will often be operating in very sensitive coastal areas.