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Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 169
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 170
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 171
Suggested Citation:"REFERENCES." National Research Council. 1995. Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans: Controlling Garbage and Plastic Wastes at Sea. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/4769.
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Page 172

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INTEGRATING VESSEL AND SHORESIDE GARBAGE MANAGEMENT 169 garbage services, and how, could help ensure that port reception facilities are adequate and that vessels use them, instead of the oceans, for disposal of garbage. As part of this process, ports may need to cooperate in setting fees. The federal government may need to initiate discussions of these issues. REFERENCES Art Anderson Associates. 1993. NOAA Fleetwide Shipboard Waste Management. Report prepared for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration by Art Anderson Associates, Bremerton, Wash. Jan. 29. Atkins, W.H. Undated. Modern Marine Terminal Operations and Management. Oakland, Calif.: Port of Oakland. Bayliss, R. and C.D. Cowles. 1989. Final Report on the Impact of MARPOL Annex V Upon Solid Waste Disposal Facilities of Coastal Alaskan Communities. NWAFC Processed Report 89-20, prepared for the Southwest Alaska Municipal Conference. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. October. Bermuda Ministry of the Environment. Undated. Standard Operating Conditions for Cruise Ship Incinerators. Available from the Ministry of the Environment, Government Administration Building, 30 Parliament Street, Hamilton HM 12, Bermuda. Burby, R. and R.G. Patterson. 1993. Improving Compliance with state environmental regulations. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 12(4):753-772. Caffey, R.B. 1991. Presentation by Ronald B. Caffey, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, to the Advisory Panel for the Shipping Industry Marine Debris Education Project of the Marine Entanglement Research Program (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), at the Kearney/Centaur office, Alexandria, Va., Feb. 11, 1991. Caffey, R.B. 1993. Testimony of Dr. Ronald B. Caffey, assistant to the deputy administrator, Veterinary Medical Office, Plant Protection and Quarantine, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, before the Subcommittee on Superfund, Ocean, and Water Protection of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate, 102nd Congress, Second Session, Washington, D.C., Sept. 17, 1992. Pp. 28-30 in Implementation of the Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act. S. Hrg. 102-984. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Carangelo, P. and T. Buch. 1993. Presentation by Paul Carangelo and Tex Buch, Port of Corpus Christi Authority, to the Committee on Shipborne Wastes of the National Research Council, at the Port of Corpus Christi Authority, Corpus Christi, Tex., February 17, 1993. Centers for Disease Control. 1989. Vessel Sanitation Program Operations Manual. Available from the U.S. Public Health Service, Vessel Sanitation Program, 1015 N. America Way, Miami, Fla. 33132. Chang, T. 1990. Low technology (burn barrel) disposal of shipboard-generated (MARPOL V) wastes. Pp. 915-920 in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. II), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. Coe, J. 1992. Presentation by James Coe, National Marine Fisheries Service, to the Committee on Shipborne Wastes of the National Research Council, at the Governor Calvert House of the Historic Inns of Maryland, Annapolis, Md., May 7-8, 1992. Council of State Governments. 1992. Model Guidelines for State Medical Waste Management. Lexington, Ky.: Center for Environment of the Council of State Governments.

INTEGRATING VESSEL AND SHORESIDE GARBAGE MANAGEMENT 170 Dahl, J. 1994. Tracking travel: A failed inspection won't dry-dock a cruise. Wall Street Journal. Aug. 2. B1. Deerberg, G.J. 1990. Waste handling on board of ships. Pp. 183-188 in Proceedings of IMAS 90: Marine Technology and the Environment, May 23-25, 1990, London. London: Institute of Marine Engineers. Deerberg, G.J. 1993. Multipurpose Waste Management on Board Passenger Ships for the Year 2000. Paper presented at the Cruise and Ferry Conference, May 11-13, London, organized by BML Business Meetings Limited, 2 Station Road, Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire WD3 1QP, England. Cited in Fulford, C. 1993. Environmental pleas for better waste handling. The Naval Architect. E404-E407. September. Eastern Research Group, Inc. 1992. Report to Congress on Compliance with the Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act of 1987. Report prepared for the U.S. Coast Guard by ERG, Arlington, Mass. (now Lexington, Mass.) June 24. Fairplay International Shipping Weekly. 1993. Raw prawn. (5721):319. July 8. Federal Republic of Germany. 1990. Collection of Garbage in the ports of Bremen. Information paper 11 for the 30th negotiating session (MEPC 30/INF. 11), International Maritime Organization (IMO), Marine Environment Protection Committee. Available from IMO, 4 Albert Embankment, London SE1 7SR. Florida-Caribbean Cruise Association. 1993. The Cruise Industry's Role in Waste Management. Position paper available from the association, Miami, Fla. April. Gallop, M. Undated. USS Theodore Roosevelt Environmental Compliance Program Cookbook. Available from commanding officer, U.S. Theodore Roosevelt, homeport in Norfolk, Va. Grove, N. 1994. Recycling. National Geographic 186(1):92-115. Hjelmar, O. 1993. Assessment of Environmental Impact of Incinerator Ash Disposal in Bermuda, Executive Summary. Report prepared for the Bermuda Ministry of Works and Engineering by the Water Quality Institute (VKI) and the Bermuda Biological Station for Research, Inc. Available from Ministry of the Environment, Government Administration Building, 30 Parliament Street, Hamilton HM 12, Bermuda. February. Hollin, D. and M. Liffman. 1991. Use of MARPOL Annex V Reception Facilities and Disposal Systems at Selected Gulf of Mexico Ports, Private Terminals and Recreational Boating Facilities. Report to the Texas General Land Office by Dewayne Hollin, Texas A&M University Sea Grant College Program, and Michael Liffman, Louisiana State University Sea Grant College Program. September. Hollin, D. and M. Liffman. 1993. Survey of Gulf of Mexico Marine Operations and Recreational Interests: Monitoring of MARPOL Annex V Compliance Trends. Report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, Gulf of Mexico Program by Dewayne Hollin, Texas A&M University Sea Grant College Program, and Michael Liffman, Louisiana State University Sea Grant College Program. ICF, Inc. 1989. Decision-Makers Guide to Solid Waste Management, 2nd ed. Report prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste. EPA/530-SW-89-072. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. November. International Maritime Organization (IMO), 1994a. Draft Annex VI MARPOL 73/78. Attachment to Working Paper #10, Draft Report of the Bulk Chemical (BCH) Subcommittee. Forwarded to the Marine Environment Protection Committee at the 24th session of the BCH, London, Sept. 19-23. Available from IMO, 4 Albert Embankment, London, SE1 7SR. International Maritime Organization (IMO). 1994b. Reception facilities manual approved. IMO News (U.K.) 2:5. Irvin-Jones, L. 1992. Presentation by Louise Irvin-Jones, harbormaster, Port of Oakland, to the Committee on Shipborne Wastes of the National Research Council, at a public marina, Oakland, Calif., Oct. 15, 1992. Journal of Commerce. 1994. Passenger dies, 400 stricken on cruise ship. Sept. 6. 1B.

INTEGRATING VESSEL AND SHORESIDE GARBAGE MANAGEMENT 171 Kauffman, M. 1992. Launching a Recycling Program at Your Marina. San Francisco: Coastal Resources Center. February. Kearney/Centaur, Division of A.T. Kearney, Inc., and L. Martinez. 1991. Revision of the Port Reception Facility Section of the IMO Guidelines for the Implementation of MARPOL Annex V. Report prepared for the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, Wash. March. Kiser, J.V.L., M.A. Charles, J.P. Bridges, G.L. Cart, and C.O. Velzey. 1994. Waste-to-energy: Citizens respond to plants in their neighborhood. Solid Waste Technologies 8(3):18-22. May/June. Knap, A.H., C.B. Cook, S.B. Cook, J.A.K. Simmons, R.J. Jones, and A.E. Murray. 1992. Marine Environmental Studies to Determine the Impact of the Mass Burn Incinerator Proposed for Tynes Bay Bermuda. Prepared for the Bermuda Ministry of Works and Engineering. Available from the Ministry of the Environment, Government Administration Building, 30 Parliament Street, Hamilton HM 12, Bermuda. March. Koss, L.J. 1994. Dealing With Ship-generated Plastics Waste on Navy Surface Ships. Paper presented at the Third International Conference on Marine Debris, Miami, Fla., May 8-13, 1994. Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, Department of the Navy, Washington, D.C. Laitera, J. 1993. The non-discharge ship—what is involved? Paper presented at the Cruise and Ferry Conference, May 11-13, London, organized by BML Business Meetings Limited, 2 Station Road, Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire WD3 1QP, England. Cited in Fulford, C. 1993. Environmental pleas for better waste handling. The Naval Architect. E404-E407. September. Larsen, I. and K. Borrild. 1991. A Coherent Regulatory System for Commercial and Industrial Wastes in the City of Copenhagen. Paper prepared for the Conference on An Integrated Approach to Solid Waste Management, Toronto, Canada, Oct. 29-31, 1991. Reprints available from the Agency of Environmental Protection, Copenhagen, Denmark. Laska, S. 1994. Exploring a Wide Range of Interventions for Recreational Users by Applying the Hazards Evolution Model. Paper prepared for the Third International Conference on Marine Debris, Miami, Fla., May 8-13, 1994. University of New Orleans. Middleton, L., J. Huntley and J.J. Burgiel. 1991. U.S. Navy Shipboard-Generated Plastic Waste Pilot Recycling Program. Report available from the Council for Solid Waste Solutions, a program of the Society of the Plastics Industry, Inc., Washington, D.C. March. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Corps. 1993. Shipboard Waste Management Plan for the NOAA Research Ship Miller Freeman. Available from the commanding officer, Miller Freeman, homeport in Seattle, Wash. Jan. 25. North, R.C. 1993. Prepared statement of Capt. Robert C. North, chief, Office of the Marine Safety, Security, and Environmental Protection, U.S. Coast Guard, before the Subcommittee on Superfund, Ocean, and Water Protection of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate, 102nd Congress, Second Session, Washington, D.C., Sept. 17, 1992 . Pp. 146-149 in Implementation of the Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act. S. Hrg. 102-984. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Pacific Associates. 1988. A Report to the Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation on The Effects of MARPOL, Annex V, on the Ports of Kodiak and Unalaska. NWAFC Processed Report 88-26. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. Pearce, J.B. 1992. Viewpoint: Marine vessel debris, a North American perspective. Marine Pollution Bulletin 24(12):586-592. December. Pisani, J. 1989. Port Development in the United States (Status, Issues, and Outlook). Presentation by John Pisani, U.S. Maritime Administration, to the 16th World Ports Conference of the International Association of Ports and Harbors, Miami Beach, Fla., April 22-28, 1989. Port of Rotterdam. 1992. Safety and Environment Protection: Essential Quality Factors in Port Management. White paper prepared by the Shipping Directorate of the Port of Rotterdam, Netherlands.

INTEGRATING VESSEL AND SHORESIDE GARBAGE MANAGEMENT 172 Princess Cruises. 1993. Waste Management. Instructions to shipboard employees. Internal guidelines prepared by Princess Cruises, Los Angeles. Recht, F. 1988. Report on A Port-Based Project to Reduce Marine Debris. NWAFC Processed Report 88-13. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. July. Recht, F. and S. Lasseigne. 1990. Providing Refuse reception facilities and more: The port's role in the marine debris solution. Pp. 921-934 in Proc. of the Second International Conference on Marine Debris, 2-7 April, 1989, Honolulu, Hawaii (Vol. II), R.S. Shomura and M.L. Godfrey, eds. NOAA-TM-NMFS-SWFSC-154. Available from the Marine Entanglement Research Program of the National Marine Fisheries Service (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), Seattle, Wash. December. Swanson, R.L., R.R. Young, and S.S. Ross. 1994. An Analysis of Proposed Shipborne Waste Handling Practices Aboard United States Navy Vessels. Paper prepared for the Committee on Shipborne Wastes, Marine Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. U.S. Coast Guard. 1993. Written answers to questions posed by the Subcommittee on Superfund, Ocean, and Water Protection of the Committee on Environment and Public Works, U.S. Senate, Dec. 3, 1992. Pp. 151-153 in Implementation of the Marine Plastic Pollution Research and Control Act. S. Hrg. 102-984. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1990a. Medical Waste Management in the United States: First Interim Report to Congress, Executive Summary. EPA/530-SW-90-051B. Washington, D.C.: EPA Office of Solid Waste, Waste Minimization Branch. May. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1990b. Medical Waste Management in the United States: Second Interim Report to Congress, Executive Summary. EPA/530-SW-90-087B. Washington, D.C.: EPA Office of Solid Waste. December. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1994. Review of Industrial Waste Exchanges. EPA-530-K-94-003. Washington, D.C.: EPA Office of Solid Waste. September. U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO). 1994a. Pollution Prevention: Chronology of Navy Ship Waste Processing Equipment Development. GAO/NSAID-94-221FS. Washington, D.C.: GAO National Security and International Affairs Division. August. U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO). 1994b. Pollution Prevention: The Navy Needs Better Plans for Reducing Ship Waste Discharges. GAO/NSIAD-95-38. Washington, D.C.: GAO National Security and International Affairs Division. November. Vie, RAH. 1990. Shipboard generated waste—treatment and disposal—operational experience on passenger cruise vessels. Pp. 175-182 in IMAS 90: Marine Technology and the Environment, London, May 23-25, 1990. London: Institute of Marine Engineers. Whelpton, P.G. 1993. Preventive waste management—A state of mind. Paper presented at the Cruise and Ferry Conference, May 11-13, London, organized by BML Business Meetings Limited, 2 Station Road, Rickmansworth, Hertfordshire WD3 1QP, England. Cited in Fulford, C. 1993. Environmental pleas for better waste handling. The Naval Architect. E404-E407. September. Whitten, D.H. and R.L. Wade. 1994. Environmental Challenges Faced by the International Cruise Industry. Paper prepared for the Annual Meeting of The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, New Orleans, La., Nov. 17-18, 1994.

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Marine debris is a serious environmental problem. To do its part, the United States has agreed to abide by the international treaty for garbage control at sea, known as MARPOL 73/78 Annex V.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans explores the challenge of translating Annex V into workable laws and regulations for all kinds of ships and boats, from cruise ships to fishing crafts and recreational boats. The volume examines how existing resources can be leveraged into a comprehensive strategy for compliance, including integrated waste management systems and effective enforcement.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans describes both progress toward and obstacles to Annex V compliance. The book covers:

  • How shipborne garbage orignates and what happens to garbage discharged into the seas.
  • Effects of discharge on human health, wildlife safety, and aesthetics.
  • Differences in perspective among military, industrial, and recreational seafarers and shoreside facilities.

Clean Ships, Clean Ports, Clean Oceans will be important to marine policymakers, port administrators, ship operations officers, maritime engineers, and marine ecologists.

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